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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To find out if there are any differences in biomarkers between severe isolated right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and severe isolated left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 46 patients who had severe isolated RV or LV dysfunction after cardiac surgery. INTERVENTION: The authors collected perioperative clinical and biomarker data. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Severe isolated RV dysfunction patients (n = 20) had higher postoperative direct bilirubin (p = 0.030), total bilirubin (p = 0.044), glucose (p = 0.011), and international normalized ratio (INR) (p = 0.050) by repeated measure analysis of variance when compared with patients with severe isolated LV dysfunction (n = 26). The RV group also showed lower preoperative alanine transferase (19.3 ± 1.5 v 32.7 ± 4.2, p = 0.001), higher 4-hour INR (1.5 ± 0.3 v 1.4 ± 0.2, p = 0.008), and higher 48-hour INR (1.8 ± 0.4 v 1.4 ± 0.1, p < 0.001). None in the LV group died, whereas 4 patients in the RV group died (all of them had preoperative atrial fibrillation and underwent double valve replacement surgery). CONCLUSION: The authors observed biomarkers differences between severe isolated RV dysfunction and severe isolated RV dysfunction.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility and investigate possible cardiovascular effects of a sustained high-dose intravenous thiamine protocol in patients undergoing combined valvular and coronary artery bypass graft surgery. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot feasibility trial. SETTING: Cardiac surgery department of a tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty patients undergoing combined valvular and coronary artery bypass surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Intravenous thiamine (600 mg on the day of surgery, and 400 mg/day on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3) or placebo. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary feasibility endpoints were recruitment rate and protocol compliance. Secondary endpoints included markers of possible biological and physiological effects. The mean recruitment rate was 8 patients per month and protocol compliance was 97.5%. There were no differences in median peak postoperative lactate (2.7 mmol/L [interquartile range [IQR] 1.4-4.6] for thiamine v 2.5 mmol/L [IQR 1.4-3.6] for placebo; p = 0.53), median peak postoperative creatinine (104 µmol/L [IQR 92.5-129] for thiamine v 99 µmol/L [IQR 86.5-109.5] for placebo; p = 0.53), median nadir postoperative cardiac index (1.8 L/min/m2 [IQR 1.5-2.1] for thiamine v 2.2 L/min/m2 [IQR 1.5-2.5] for placebo; p = 0.25), or the number of patients on vasopressor/inotropic agents (thiamine, 12 [63%]; placebo, 12 [60%]; p = 0.80), or in the total inotrope/vasopressor dose 0.14 µg/kg for thiamine v 0.12 µg/kg for placebo; p = 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: A double-blind trial of sustained high-dose intravenous thiamine supplementation in higher-risk cardiac surgery patients was feasible and appeared to be safe. However, such treatment did not demonstrate evidence of biological or physiological effects.

4.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e033150, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551393

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammation, dehydration, hypotension and bleeding may all contribute to the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). Accelerated surgery after a hip fracture can decrease the exposure time to such contributors and may reduce the risk of AKI. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Hip fracture Accelerated surgical TreaTment And Care tracK (HIP ATTACK) is a multicentre, international, parallel-group randomised controlled trial (RCT). Patients who suffer a hip fracture are randomly allocated to either accelerated medical assessment and surgical repair with a goal of surgery within 6 hours of diagnosis or standard care where a repair typically occurs 24 to 48 hours after diagnosis. The primary outcome of this substudy is the development of AKI within 7 days of randomisation. We anticipate at least 1998 patients will participate in this substudy. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We obtained ethics approval for additional serum creatinine recordings in consecutive patients enrolled at 70 participating centres. All patients provide consent before randomisation. We anticipate reporting substudy results by 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02027896; Pre-results.

6.
Med Hypotheses ; 130: 109276, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383320

RESUMO

Cancer is the second cause of death worldwide, but current therapies are often insufficient or linked with toxicity. Initial evidence in scientific literature seems to support the role of non-pharmacological strategies, including hypoglycemia, in cancer treatment. The biological rationale for hypoglycemia-based treatment of cancer resides in the evidence that cancer cells predominantly utilize glucose as an energy source; notably, cancer cells seem to have damaged glycolysis regulation and few, defective mitochondria showing impaired oxidative phosphorylation. Preliminary data arising from both preclinical and human studies support the role of hypoglycemia in inducing apoptosis on cancer cells. In this paper, we describe how to induce and maintain severe hypoglycemia without causing damage to either the brain or the heart. Our hypothesis is that ExtraCorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) and selective glucose perfusion of the carotid vessels are able to maintain severe hypoglycemia without causing cardiac or brain damage. This will allow physicians to study the effect of severe hypoglycemia on cancer cell apoptosis in vivo.

7.
J Emerg Med ; 57(3): 322-328, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a common cause of presentation to the Emergency Department (ED). High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has been introduced as an alternative way to administer oxygen. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HFNC with conventional oxygen therapy (COT) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) exclusively in the ED setting. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on adults with ARF admitted to the ED, investigating HFNC vs. COT or other modes of ventilation. Trials that compared HFNC support outside the ED, were published as an abstract, or nonrandomized were excluded. RESULTS: Four RCTs comparing HFNC with COT and one HFNC to NIV met the criteria. Overall, 775 patients were included. The meta-analysis of the studies comparing HFNC and COT showed no differences in intubation requirement, treatment failure, hospitalization, or mortality. Intolerance was significantly higher with HFNC (risk ratio 6.81 95% confidence interval 1.18-39.19; p = 0.03). In the only available RCT comparing HFNC with NIV, no difference was found for intubation rate, treatment failure, tolerance, and dyspnea. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find any benefit of HFNC compared with COT and NIV in terms of intubation requirement, treatment failure, hospitalization, and mortality; COT was better tolerated.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420313

RESUMO

Delayed sternal closure after pediatric cardiac surgery is a management option for the treatment of patients with severely impaired heart function. The optimal antimicrobial treatment strategy for this condition is unknown. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current antibiotic administration attitudes in pediatric cardiac surgery patients needing an open chest in terms of infection with a focus on surgical site infection rate. The authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all articles, which described the antibiotic administration strategy and surgical site infection rate in pediatric patients with an open chest after cardiac surgery. The authors performed a subgroup analysis on "standard" versus "non-standard" (defined as any antimicrobial drugs different from the adult guidelines recommendations) therapy for one-proportion meta-analysis with a random effect model. The authors identified 12 studies published from January 1, 2000 to July 1, 2019 including a total of 2,203 patients requiring an open chest after cardiac surgery, 350 of whom (15.9%) developed infections and 182 (8.3%) developed a surgical site infection. The surgical site infection rate in patients with "non-standard" strategy was higher than in patients with "standard" strategy: 8.8% (140 reported infections/1,582 patients) versus 6.8% (42 reported infections/621 patients), p = 0.001. The "standard" antibiotic management proposed by guidelines for adult cardiac surgery patients could be used an acceptable strategy to treat pediatric patients with an open chest after cardiac surgery.

9.
Crit Care Med ; 47(10): e798-e805, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of the administration of 4% albumin on lactated Ringer's, when compared with lactated Ringer's alone, in the early phase of sepsis in cancer patients. DESIGN: Single-center, randomized, double-blind, controlled-parallel trial. SETTING: A tertiary care university cancer hospital. PATIENTS: Cancer patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. INTERVENTIONS: Between October 2014 and December 2016, patients were randomly assigned to receive either bolus of albumin in a lactated Ringer's solution or lactated Ringer's solution alone during the first 6 hours of fluid resuscitation after intensive care medicine (ICU) admission. Primary outcome was defined as death from any cause at 7 days. Secondary outcomes were defined as death from any cause within 28 days, change in Sequence Organ Failure Assessment scores from baseline to day 7, days alive and free of mechanical ventilation, days alive and free of vasopressor, renal replacement therapy during ICU stay, and length of ICU and hospital stay. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 360 patients were enrolled in the trial. At 7 days, 46 of 180 patients (26%) died in the albumin group and 40 of 180 (22%) died in the lactated Ringer's group (p = 0.5). At 28 days, 96 of 180 patients (53%) died in the albumin group and 83 of 180 (46%) died in the lactated Ringer's group (p = 0.2). No significant differences in secondary outcomes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Adding albumin to early standard resuscitation with lactated Ringer's in cancer patients with sepsis did not improve 7-day survival.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350149

RESUMO

The search for safe and effective patient management strategies during weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass is ongoing; intravenous calcium is occasionally used as a first-line drug. The physiologic role of calcium suggests that it can support the function of the cardiovascular system during this critical period. Patients may be mildly hypocalcemic after cardiopulmonary bypass; however, this degree of hypocalcemia does not significantly impair the cardiovascular system. The transient beneficial effects of calcium administration (increase in arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index, stroke volume, and coronary perfusion pressure) might be helpful in cases of moderate contractility reduction or vasoplegia. Nonetheless, effects on clinically relevant endpoints are unknown, and possible systemic side effects, such as transient reduction in internal mammary artery graft flow, attenuation of the effects of ß-sympathomimetics, "stone heart" phenomenon, and pancreatic cellular injury, may limit the use of calcium salts. Further studies are needed to expand the understanding of the effects of calcium administration on patient outcomes.

12.
Oral Dis ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mortality on the dental chair is a rare and underreported event. This study aimed to identify all deaths that occurred during dental procedures in Italy. METHODS: We searched PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Internet archives looking for patients who died before, during, or after a dental procedure in Italy from 1990 to 2019. RESULTS: All the 36 identified fatal events were reported by national or regional newspapers, and none was reported by scientific databases. Interestingly, no cases regarding patients ≤16 years old were found and there was no variation in the number of reported deaths over the years. Most of the cases (n = 29) occurred in out-of-hospital private dental offices. Tooth extraction represented the most frequent culprit operation (39%), while myocardial infarction (28%) was the leading cause of death, followed by cardiac arrest (25%), allergies (11%), and infections (8%). In four cases, death was preprocedural, in 10 intraprocedural and in 21 postprocedural. In 17 cases, a temporal association between injection of anesthesia/sedation and death was observed. CONCLUSION: This is the first report on Italian dental procedure-related deaths. Most of these deaths were only temporally associated with a dental procedure and could not to be attributed to malpractice.

13.
N. Engl. j. med ; 381(1): 97-98, Jul. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1009827
14.
Anesthesiology ; 131(3): 580-593, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis and septic shock are severe inflammatory conditions related to high morbidity and mortality. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized trials to assess whether extracorporeal blood purification reduces mortality in this setting. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for pertinent studies up to January 2019. We included randomized controlled trials on the use of hemoperfusion, hemofiltration without a renal replacement purpose, and plasmapheresis as a blood purification technique in comparison to conventional therapy in adult patients with sepsis and septic shock. The primary outcome was mortality at the longest follow-up available. We calculated relative risks and 95% CIs. The grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation methodology for the certainty of evidence was used. RESULTS: Thirty-seven trials with 2,499 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Hemoperfusion was associated with lower mortality compared to conventional therapy (relative risk = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.78 to 0.98], P = 0.02, very low certainty evidence). Low risk of bias trials on polymyxin B immobilized filter hemoperfusion showed no mortality difference versus control (relative risk = 1.14 [95% CI, 0.96 to 1.36], P = 0.12, moderate certainty evidence), while recent trials found an increased mortality (relative risk = 1.22 [95% CI, 1.03 to 1.45], P = 0.02, low certainty evidence); trials performed in the United States and Europe had no significant difference in mortality (relative risk = 1.13 [95% CI, 0.96 to 1.34], P = 0.15), while trials performed in Asia had a positive treatment effect (relative risk = 0.57 [95% CI, 0.47 to 0.69], P < 0.001). Hemofiltration (relative risk = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.63 to 1.00], P = 0.05, very low certainty evidence) and plasmapheresis (relative risk = 0.63 [95% CI, 0.42 to 0.96], P = 0.03, very low certainty evidence) were associated with a lower mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Very low-quality randomized evidence demonstrates that the use of hemoperfusion, hemofiltration, or plasmapheresis may reduce mortality in sepsis or septic shock. Existing evidence of moderate quality and certainty does not provide any support for a difference in mortality using polymyxin B hemoperfusion. Further high-quality randomized trials are needed before systematic implementation of these therapies in clinical practice.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072709

RESUMO

The first use of extracorporeal circulation in Italy occurred in 1951 in Turin. In the 1960s only 12 heart surgery centers were using extracorporeal circulation to treat patients, and health professionals had to complete their training abroad. During the last 50 years, Italian cardiac anesthesia has become a branch of major importance, and it has experienced a constantly growing number of active centers and professionals. Today, about 50,000 cardiac surgeries are performed every year in approximately 100 centers. Many results have been achieved during this period, thanks to the contribution of several pioneers. In this article, the history of Italian cardiac anesthesia and the role of Italian anesthesiologists in the development of this subspecialty in Italy and Europe are reviewed.

16.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

17.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e028537, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048449

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Annually, millions of adults suffer hip fractures. The mortality rate post a hip fracture is 7%-10% at 30 days and 10%-20% at 90 days. Observational data suggest that early surgery can improve these outcomes in hip fracture patients. We designed a clinical trial-HIP fracture Accelerated surgical TreaTment And Care tracK (HIP ATTACK) to determine the effect of accelerated surgery compared with standard care on the 90-day risk of all-cause mortality and major perioperative complications. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: HIP ATTACK is a multicentre, international, parallel group randomised controlled trial (RCT) that will include patients ≥45 years of age and diagnosed with a hip fracture from a low-energy mechanism requiring surgery. Patients are randomised to accelerated medical assessment and surgical repair (goal within 6 h) or standard care. The co-primary outcomes are (1) all-cause mortality and (2) a composite of major perioperative complications (ie, mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, sepsis, stroke, and life-threatening and major bleeding) at 90 days after randomisation. All patients will be followed up for a period of 1 year. We will enrol 3000 patients. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All centres had ethics approval before randomising patients. Written informed consent is required for all patients before randomisation. HIP ATTACK is the first large international trial designed to examine whether accelerated surgery can improve outcomes in patients with a hip fracture. The dissemination plan includes publishing the results in a policy-influencing journal, conference presentations, engagement of influential medical organisations, and providing public awareness through multimedia resources. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02027896; Pre-results.

19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(7): 1845-1851, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify reliable predictors of periprocedural intensive care unit (ICU) admission after transvenous lead extraction (LE) in a high-volume center. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: University tertiary-care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All patients undergoing LE at San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy, from 2005 to 2015. INTERVENTIONS: LE procedures were performed in the electrophysiology laboratories with a cardiac operating room on standby between the end of the morning surgical case and before the start of the afternoon surgical case. Most procedures were conducted with the patient under procedural sedation and analgesia. After LE, patients were admitted either to the ward or to the ICU. Medical history and intraprocedural data were recorded. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 389 procedures performed during the study period, 50 patients (13%) were admitted to the ICU owing to persistent hemodynamic instability or intraoperative complications requiring endotracheal intubation. Complete procedural success was achieved in 370 patients (95%), and the clinical success rate was 98.4%. No deaths were recorded. Five complications requiring emergency surgery (1.3%) were reported. Preprocedural right ventricular dysfunction (odds ratio (OR) 7.41; confidence interval 1.85-29.7; p < 0.01) and the need for general anesthesia (OR 12; confidence interval 1.49-97.06; p = 0.019) were independent predictors of ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative identification of patients who need ICU admission after LE is crucial to increase patient safety and decrease hospital costs. Severe right ventricular dysfunction and need for general anesthesia identify patients with low cardiac reserve who are at increased risk for ICU admission after the procedure.

20.
Crit Care Med ; 47(6): 774-783, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The effects of vitamin C administration on clinical outcome in critically ill patients remain controversial. DATA SOURCES: Online databases were searched up to October 1, 2018. STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized controlled trials on the use of vitamin C (any regimen) in adult critically ill patients versus placebo or no therapy. DATA EXTRACTION: Risk ratio for dichotomous outcome and standardized mean difference for continuous outcome with 95% CI were calculated using random-effects model meta-analysis. DATA SYNTHESIS: Forty-four randomized studies, 16 performed in ICU setting (2,857 patients) and 28 in cardiac surgery (3,598 patients), published between 1995 and 2018, were included in the analysis. In ICU patients, vitamin C administration was not associated with a difference in mortality (risk ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.74-1.10; p = 0.31), acute kidney injury, ICU or hospital length of stay compared with control. In cardiac surgery, vitamin C was associated to a reduction in postoperative atrial fibrillation (risk ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.52-0.78; p < 0.0001), ICU stay (standardized mean difference, -0.28 d; 95% CI, -0.43 to -0.13 d; p = 0.0003), and hospital stay (standardized mean difference, -0.30 d; 95% CI, -0.49 to -0.10 d; p = 0.002). Furthermore, no differences in postoperative mortality, acute kidney injury, stroke, and ventricular arrhythmia were found. CONCLUSIONS: In a mixed population of ICU patients, vitamin C administration is associated with no significant effect on survival, length of ICU or hospital stay. In cardiac surgery, beneficial effects on postoperative atrial fibrillation, ICU or hospital length of stay remain unclear. However, the quality and quantity of evidence is still insufficient to draw firm conclusions, not supporting neither discouraging the systematic administration of vitamin C in these populations. Vitamin C remains an attractive intervention for future investigations aimed to improve clinical outcome.

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