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1.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; Publish Ahead of Print2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organ perfusion is a factor of cardiac output and perfusion pressure. Recent evidence shows that dynamic arterial elastance is a reliable index of the interaction between the left ventricle and the arterial system and, in turn, of left ventricular mechanical efficiency. A practical approach to the assessment of dynamic arterial elastance at the bedside is the ratio between pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation, which might predict the effect of a fluid challenge on the arterial pressure in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of dynamic arterial elastance, measured by the pressure recording analytical method (PRAM), to predict the response of mean arterial pressure (MAP) to a fluid challenge. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Cardiac surgery patients in a university hospital. PATIENTS: Preload-dependent (pulse pressure variation ≥13%), hypotensive (MAP ≤65 mmHg) patients, without right ventricular dysfunction, at the end of cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS: A 250 ml fluid challenge infused over 3 min. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A receiver-operating characteristic curve was generated to test the ability of the baseline (before fluid challenge) dynamic arterial elastance (primary endpoint) and all other haemodynamic variables (secondary endpoint) to predict MAP responsiveness (≥10% increase in MAP) after a fluid challenge. RESULTS: Of 270 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, 97 (35.9%) were preload-dependent, hypotensive and received a fluid challenge. Of these 97 patients, 50 (51%) were MAP responders (≥10% increase in MAP) and 47 (48%) were MAP nonresponders (<10% increase in MAP). Baseline dynamic arterial elastance (mean ±â€ŠSD) had an area under the curve of 0.64 ±â€Š0.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.53 to 0.73; P = 0.017]. A dynamic arterial elastance at least 1.07 with a grey zone ranging between 0.9 and 1.5 had 86% sensitivity (95% CI, 73 to 94) and 45% specificity (95% CI, 30 to 60) in predicting MAP increase. CONCLUSION: In a hypotensive preload-dependent cardiac surgery cohort without right ventricular dysfunction, dynamic arterial elastance measured by PRAM can predict pressure response for values greater than 1.5 or less than 0.9.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451954

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the administration of the ultra-short-acting ß-blocker esmolol in cardiac surgery could have a cardioprotective effect that translates into improved postoperative outcomes. DESIGN: Single-center, double-blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial. SETTING: A tertiary care referral center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with preoperative evidence of left ventricular end-diastolic diameter >60 mm and/or left ventricular ejection fraction <50%. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned randomly to receive either esmolol (1 mg/kg as a bolus before aortic cross-clamping and 2 mg/kg mixed in the cardioplegia solution) or placebo in a 1:1 allocation ratio. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary composite endpoint of prolonged intensive care unit stay and/or in-hospital mortality occurred in 36/98 patients (36%) in the placebo group versus 27/102 patients (27%) in the esmolol group (p = 0.13). In the esmolol group, a reduction in the maximum inotropic score during the first 24 postoperative hours was observed (10 [interquartile range 5-15] v 7 [interquartile range 5-10.5]; p = 0.04), as well as a trend toward a reduction in postoperative low-cardiac-output syndrome (13/98 v 6/102; p = 0.08) and the rate of hospital admission at one year (26/95 v 16/96; p = 0.08). A trend toward an increase in the number of patients with ejection fraction ≥60% at hospital discharge also was observed (4/95 v 11/92; p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: In the present trial, esmolol as a cardioplegia adjuvant enhanced postoperative cardiac performance but did not reduce a composite endpoint of prolonged intensive care unit stay and/or mortality.

4.
JAMA ; 323(24): 2485-2492, June., 2020. tab., graf.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1123020

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE Corticosteroids are widely used in pediatric cardiac surgery to blunt systemic inflammatory response and to reduce complications; nevertheless, their clinical efficacy is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To determine whether intraoperative administration of dexamethasone is more effective than placebo for reducing major complications and mortality during pediatric cardiac surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Intraoperative Dexamethasone in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery was an investigator-initiated, double-blind, multicenter randomized trial that involved 4 centers in China, Brazil, and Russia. A total of 394 infants younger than 12 months, undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled from December 2015 to October 2018, with follow-up completed in November 2018. INTERVENTIONS The dexamethasone group (n = 194) received 1mg/kg of dexamethasone; the control group (n = 200) received an equivolume of 0.9%sodium chloride intravenously after anesthesia induction. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end pointwas a composite of death, nonfatalmyocardial infarction, need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, acute kidney injury, prolonged mechanical ventilation, or neurological complications within 30 days after surgery. There were 17 secondary end points, including the individual components of the primary end point, and duration of mechanical ventilation, inotropic index, intensive care unit stay, readmission to intensive care unit, and length of hospitalization. RESULTS All of the 394 patients randomized (median age, 6 months; 47.2%boys) completed the trial. The primary end point occurred in 74 patients (38.1%) in the dexamethasone group vs 91 patients (45.5%) in the control group (absolute risk reduction, 7.4%; 95%CI, −0.8%to 15.3%; hazard ratio, 0.82; 95%CI, 0.60 to 1.10; P = .20). Of the 17 prespecified secondary end points, none showed a statistically significant difference between groups. Infections occurred in 4 patients (2.0%) in the dexamethasone group vs 3 patients (1.5%) in the control group. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among infants younger than 12 months undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, intraoperative administration of dexamethasone, compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce major complications and mortality at 30 days. However, the study may have been underpowered to detect a clinically important difference.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prosthetic valve infolding is a rare but severe complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with self-expanding valves. However, currently available clinical data are limited and fragmented. OBJECTIVES: This report aims to provide a comprehensive overview of this complication focusing on predisposing factors, clinical presentation, diagnostic findings, treatment and clinical outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify cases of infolding occurring during TAVI with self-expanding valves published until August 2020. These data were pooled with all the retrospectively identified infolding cases occurred at San Raffaele Scientific Institute between December 2014 and August 2020. RESULTS: A total of 34 cases were included. Among patients with available data, 38% received a first-generation CoreValve, and 62% a second-generation Evolut R (82%) or Evolut PRO (18%). Infolding occurred mostly with ≥29-mm valves (94%). Predisposing factors included resheathing of a second-generation valve (82%), heavy calcification of the native valve (65%), lack of predilatation (16%), Sievers type-1 bicuspid aortic valve (11%), and improper valve loading (5%). Infolding resulted in severe PVL causing hemodynamic instability (29%) or cardiac arrest (12%). Postdilatation was the treatment strategy in 68%, while prosthesis replacement with a new device in 23% of cases. Device success rate was 82%. Death and stroke occurred in 3% and 12% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Prosthetic valve infolding is typically observed after resheathing of a large-size self-expanding TAVI. When infolding is timely diagnosed, prosthesis removal and replacement should be pursued. Further studies are required to precisely define predisposing factors to prevent this complication.

6.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Enlarged main pulmonary artery diameter (MPAD) resulted to be associated with pulmonary hypertension and mortality in a non-COVID-19 setting. The aim was to investigate and validate the association between MPAD enlargement and overall survival in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a cohort study on 1469 consecutive COVID-19 patients submitted to chest CT within 72 h from admission in seven tertiary level hospitals in Northern Italy, between March 1 and April 20, 2020. Derivation cohort (n = 761) included patients from the first three participating hospitals; validation cohort (n = 633) included patients from the remaining hospitals. CT images were centrally analyzed in a core-lab blinded to clinical data. The prognostic value of MPAD on overall survival was evaluated at adjusted and multivariable Cox's regression analysis on the derivation cohort. The final multivariable model was tested on the validation cohort. RESULTS: In the derivation cohort, the median age was 69 (IQR, 58-77) years and 537 (70.6%) were males. In the validation cohort, the median age was 69 (IQR, 59-77) years with 421 (66.5%) males. Enlarged MPAD (≥ 31 mm) was a predictor of mortality at adjusted (hazard ratio, HR [95%CI]: 1.741 [1.253-2.418], p < 0.001) and multivariable regression analysis (HR [95%CI]: 1.592 [1.154-2.196], p = 0.005), together with male gender, old age, high creatinine, low well-aerated lung volume, and high pneumonia extension (c-index [95%CI] = 0.826 [0.796-0.851]). Model discrimination was confirmed on the validation cohort (c-index [95%CI] = 0.789 [0.758-0.823]), also using CT measurements from a second reader (c-index [95%CI] = 0.790 [0.753;0.825]). CONCLUSION: Enlarged MPAD (≥ 31 mm) at admitting chest CT is an independent predictor of mortality in COVID-19. KEY POINTS: • Enlargement of main pulmonary artery diameter at chest CT performed within 72 h from the admission was associated with a higher rate of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. • Enlargement of main pulmonary artery diameter (≥ 31 mm) was an independent predictor of death in COVID-19 patients at adjusted and multivariable regression analysis. • The combined evaluation of clinical findings, lung CT features, and main pulmonary artery diameter may be useful for risk stratification in COVID-19 patients.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in patients with 2019-nCoV (novel coronavirus 2019) infection still are debated. Because large randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and a well-conducted meta-analysis on the use of corticosteroids, focused on patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in intensive care units, recently were published, a meta-analysis of RCTs on corticosteroids therapy in patients with different disease severity was performed to evaluate the effect on survival. DESIGN: A meta-analyses of RCTs was performed. SETTING: Patients admitted to hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with coronavirus disease. INTERVENTIONS: Administration of corticosteroids. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A search was performed for RCTs of adult patients with acute hypoxemic failure related to 2019-nCoV infection who received corticosteroids versus any comparator. The primary endpoint was mortality rate. Five RCTs involving 7,692 patients were included. Overall mortality of patients treated with corticosteroids was slightly but significantly lower than mortality of controls (26% v 28%, relative risk {RR} = 0.89 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.82-0.96], p = 0.003). The same beneficial effect was found in the subgroup of patients requiring mechanical ventilation (RR = 0.85 [95% CI 0.72-1.00], p = 0.05 number needed to treat {NNT} = 19). Remarkably, corticosteroids increased mortality in the subgroup of patients not requiring oxygen (17% v 13%, RR = 1.23 [95% CI 1.00-1.62], p = 0.05 number needed to harm {NNH} = 29). Tests for comparison between mechanically ventilated subgroups and those not requiring oxygen confirmed that treatment with corticosteroids had a statistically significant different effect on survival. Patients treated with corticosteroids had a significantly lower risk of need for mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids may be considered in severe critically ill patients with COVID-19 but must be discouraged in patients not requiring oxygen therapy. Urgently, further trials are warranted before implementing this treatment worldwide.

9.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Lombardy region, in Northern Italy, suffered a major outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the end of February 2020. The health system was rapidly overwhelmed by the pandemic. It became evident that patients suffering from timesensitive medical emergencies like stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, trauma and acute myocardial infarction required timely, effective and safe pathways to be treated. The problem was addressed by a regional decree that created a hub-and-spoke system for time-sensitive medical emergencies. METHODS: We report the re-organizational changes adopted at a hub hospital (despite having already destined to COVID-19 patients most resources), and the number of emergent procedures for medical emergencies on the first 30-day of activity. These data were compared with the hospital activity in the same period of the previous year. RESULTS: Organizational changes were implemented in few hours. Dedicated pathways for non-COVID-19 patients affected by a medical emergency were set up in the emergency department, in the labs and in the operating theater. Ten intensive beds were implemented from a high-dependency unit; two operating rooms were reserved 24h/day to neurosurgical or trauma emergencies. The number of emergent procedures was not different from that of the previous year, no admission refusal, no treatment delay and no viral transmission to the treated patients were recorded. No viral transmission to health care workers was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Re-organization of a hospital in order to adopt a hub-and-spoke model resulted feasible and allowed to face acute coronary syndrome and other time-sensitive medical emergencies timely and safely.

10.
Int J Artif Organs ; : 391398820975408, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) has gained popularity for the treatment of refractory respiratory failure during and after the 2009 influenza pandemic, and still represents a precious therapeutic resource for severe novel coronavirus 2019 infection. However, most of the published studies are small case series, and only two randomized trials exist in literature. AIM: Aim of this systematic review is to describe trends in VV ECMO treatment outcomes according to large studies only. METHODS: We searched and included studies with more than 100 VV ECMO cases dated up to August 1st, 2019. RESULTS: Thirty-three studies published in the period 2011-2019 met inclusion criteria, for a total of 12,860 patients (age 46.3 ± 17.4 years). ARDS was mainly by pneumonia, in 3126 (37%) cases; further 401(7%) patients had H1N1 Influenza A infection. Cannulation-related complications occurred in 502 (7%) cases. Weighted mean (95% confidence interval) of VV ECMO duration was 8.9 (8.7-9.1) days, and ICU stay was 23.6 (22.4-24.8) days. Mortality at the longest follow up available was 40%. Data collection in 70% of the studies had a duration of >5 years. CONCLUSION: This study reveals the characteristics of large case VV ECMO studies.

12.
Resuscitation ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130157

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In addition to the directly attributed mortality, COVID-19 is also likely to increase mortality indirectly. In this systematic review, we investigate the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19 on out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. METHODS: We searched PubMed, BioMedCentral, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for studies comparing out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occurring during the pandemic and a non-pandemic period. Risk of bias was assessed with the ROBINS-I tool. The primary endpoint was return of spontaneous circulation. Secondary endpoints were bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation, survival to hospital discharge, and survival with favourable neurological outcome. RESULTS: We identified six studies. In two studies, rates of return of spontaneous circulation and survival to hospital discharge decreased significantly during the pandemic. Especially in Europe, bystander-witnessed cases, bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation and resuscitation attempted by emergency medical services were reduced during the pandemic. Also, ambulance response times were significantly delayed across all studies and patients presenting with non-shockable rhythms increased in two studies. In 2020, 3.9-5.9% of tested patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive and 4.8-26% had suggestive symptoms (fever and cough or dyspnoea). CONCLUSIONS: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests had worse short-term outcomes during the pandemic than a non-pandemic period suggesting direct effects of COVID-19 infection and indirect effects from lockdown and disruption of healthcare systems. Patients at high risk of deterioration should be identified outside the hospital to promptly initiate treatment and reduce fatalities. Study registration PROSPERO CRD42020195794.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to describe the incidence and predictive factors of secondary infections in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This was a cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital between 25th February and 6th April 2020 (NCT04318366). We considered secondary bloodstream infections (BSIs) or possible lower respiratory tract infections (pLRTIs) occurring 48 hours after hospital admission until death or discharge. We calculated multivariable Fine-Gray models to assess factors associated with risk of secondary infections. RESULTS: Among 731 patients, a secondary infection was diagnosed in 68 patients (9.3%); 58/731 patients (7.9%) had at least one BSI and 22/731 patients (3.0%) at least one pLRTI. The overall 28-day cumulative incidence was 16.4% (95%CI 12.4-21.0%). Most of the BSIs were due to Gram-positive pathogens (76/106 isolates, 71.7%), specifically coagulase-negative staphylococci (53/76, 69.7%), while among Gram-negatives (23/106, 21.7%) Acinetobacter baumanii (7/23, 30.4%) and Escherichia coli (5/23, 21.7%) predominated. pLRTIs were caused mainly by Gram-negative pathogens (14/26, 53.8%). Eleven patients were diagnosed with putative invasive aspergillosis. At multivariable analysis, factors associated with secondary infections were low baseline lymphocyte count (≤0.7 versus >0.7 per 109/L, subdistribution hazard ratios (sdHRs) 1.93, 95%CI 1.11-3.35), baseline PaO2/FiO2 (per 100 points lower: sdHRs 1.56, 95%CI 1.21-2.04), and intensive-care unit (ICU) admission in the first 48 hours (sdHR 2.51, 95%CI 1.04-6.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 had a high incidence of secondary infections. At multivariable analysis, early need for ICU, respiratory failure, and severe lymphopenia were identified as risk factors for secondary infections.

15.
Phlebology ; : 268355520975592, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A high rate of thrombotic events has been reported in COVID-19 population. The study aims to assess the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in COVID-19 patients admitted to a single tertiary hospital. METHODS: From April 2nd to April 18th, 2020, hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were screened by lower limb duplex ultrasound (DUS). Patients were on (low molecular weight heparin) LMWH prophylaxis in medical wards, and on therapeutic anticoagulation in intensive care unit (ICU). DVT risk factors, reported by the Padua prediction score and blood tests, were retrieved from institutional electronic charts. The study primary endpoint was the incidence of DVT in the in-hospital COVID-19 population and its association with clinical and laboratory risk factors. The secondary endpoint was the association of DVT with mortality. RESULTS: Two hundred patients (median age 62 years, 72% male, 40 in ICU) received DUS screening. DVT was observed in 29 patients (14.5%), with proximal extension in 16 patients, and in association with symptoms in four patients. The DVT rate was similar in ICU (12.5%) and non-ICU patients (15%). Eighty-seven patients underwent a computed tomography angiography (CTA) that showed pulmonary embolism in 35 patients (40.2%) not associated with DVT in 25/35 cases (71.4%). DVT in the ten patients with pulmonary embolism were symptomatic in four and with a proximal localization in eight cases. A D-dimer level ≥5 mg/l at admission was predictive of DVT (OR 1.02; IC95% 1.03-1.16; p = .003). At the multivariate analysis in-hospital mortality was predicted by age (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.02-1.15; p = .004) and by being an ICU patient (OR 1.23; 95% CI 0.30-2.25; p = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Despite LMWH prophylaxis or full anticoagulant therapy, the incidence of DVT, mainly asymptomatic, in hospitalized COVID-19 patients was 14.5%. Further research should focus on the appropriate antithrombotic therapy for COVID-19 patients.

16.
Pathog Glob Health ; : 1-3, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241776

RESUMO

COVID-19 already caused more than 1,260,000 deaths around the world. However, mortality rates are not equal amongst the different countries. Mortality rates are ranging from less than 1 death per million in Taiwan, Vietnam and Thailand to 1,112 deaths per million in Belgium. In the present article, we report a striking difference in mean per million mortality between Asian and European countries (2.7 vs 197 deaths per million population, p < 0.001). In addition, we confirmed that the later a specific country was hit by the epidemic, the milder the impact on mortality during the first 50 days was. We analyzed several factors that may have contributed to this discrepancy including population age, previous experience of epidemics in the modern era, social acceptance of physical distancing and face masks, percentage of active smokers and lastly genetic prothrombotic mutations.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036886

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess current practice in adult cardiac surgery during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) across European and non-European countries. DESIGN: International, multicenter, web-based survey including 28 multiple choice questions addressing hemodynamic and tissue oxygenation parameters, organ protection measures, and the monitoring and usage of anesthetic drugs as part of the anesthetic and perfusion practice during CPB. SETTING: Online survey endorsed by the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiologists. PARTICIPANTS: Representatives of anesthesiology departments in European and non-European adult cardiac surgical centers. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The survey was distributed via e-mail to European Association of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiologists members (n = 797) and kept open for 1 month. The response rate was 34% (n = 271). After exclusion of responses from the same centers and of incomplete answers, data from 202 cardiac centers in 56 countries, of which 67% of centers were university hospitals, were analyzed. Optimization of pump flows and tissue oxygenation parameters during CPB were applied by the majority of centers, with target flow rates of >2.2 L/min/m2 in 93% (n = 187) of centers and mean arterial blood pressures between 51 and 90 mmHg in 85% (n = 172). Hemoglobin transfusion triggers were either individualized or between 7 and 8 g/dL in 92% (n = 186) of centers. Mixed venous oxyhemoglobin saturations were assessed routinely in 59% (n = 120) and lactate in 88% (n = 178) of cardiac surgery units. Noninvasive cerebral saturation monitoring was used in a subgroup of patients or routinely in 84% (n = 169) of sites, and depth-of-anesthesia monitoring was used routinely in 53% (n = 106). Transesophageal echocardiography and pulmonary artery catheters were used routinely or in subgroups of patients in 97% (n = 195) and 71% (n = 153) of centers, respectively. The preferred site for temperature monitoring was the nasopharynx in 66% (n = 134) of centers. Anesthetic techniques were variable, with 26% of centers (n = 52) using low-tidal-volume ventilation and 28% (n = 57) using continuous positive airway pressure during CPB. Volatile agents were used routinely as the only agent during CPB in 36% sites (n = 73) and propofol in 47% (n = 95). Other drugs routinely administered included magnesium in 45% (n = 91), steroids in 18% (n = 37), tranexamic acid in 88% (n = 177), and aprotinin in 15% (n = 30) of the centers. CONCLUSION: This international CPB survey revealed that techniques for optimization of pump flow and oxygenation during CPB usually were applied. Furthermore, cerebral and hemodynamic monitoring devices were frequently used during CPB. However, most CPB-related anesthetic techniques and medications were more variable. More high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to assess anesthetic techniques and organ protection.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069558

RESUMO

Inotropes and vasopressors frequently are administered in critically ill and perioperative patients. However, clinical practice is highly variable across clinicians and institutions. The inotropic score and its upgrade "vasoactive-inotropic score" (VIS) can be used to objectively quantify the degree of hemodynamic support. Several studies demonstrated a correlation between high VIS and poor outcome. Furthermore, VIS can help compare different clinical and research experiences. Several recently developed scores include VIS in their model, although they still require independent validation. Conversely, VIS has several pitfalls, including the fact that a universally recognized version that includes all commonly used vasoactive drugs does not exist. In this review, the authors summarize all the VIS, VIS-related, and VIS-validating manuscripts, and suggest a new updated version of VIS that also includes terlipressin, methylene blue, and angiotensin II.

20.
Panminerva Med ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biobanks are imperative infrastructures, particularly during outbreaks, when there is an obligation to acquire and share knowledge as quick as possible to allow for implementation of science-based preventive, diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic strategies. METHODS: We established a COVID-19 biobank with the aim of collecting high-quality and well-annotated human biospecimens, in the effort to understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying COVID-19 and identify therapeutic targets (COVID-BioB, NCT04318366). Here we describe our experience and briefly review the characteristics of the biobanks for COVID-19 that have been so far established. RESULTS: A total of 46,677 samples have been collected from 913 participants (63.3% males, median [IQR] age 62.2 [51.2 - 74.0] years) since the beginning of the program. Most patients (66.9%) had been admitted to hospital for COVID-19, with a median length of stay of 15.0 (9.0 - 27.0) days. A minority of patients (13.3% of the total) had been admitted for other reasons and subsequently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The remainder were managed at home after being seen at the Emergency Department. CONCLUSIONS: Having a solid research infrastructure already in place, along with flexibility and adaptability to new requirements, allowed for the quick building of a COVID-19 biobank that will help expand and share the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2.

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