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1.
Mod Pathol ; 2022 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35249100

RESUMO

Ki-67 assessment is a key step in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) from all anatomic locations. Several challenges exist related to quantifying the Ki-67 proliferation index due to lack of method standardization and inter-reader variability. The application of digital pathology coupled with machine learning has been shown to be highly accurate and reproducible for the evaluation of Ki-67 in NENs. We systematically reviewed all published studies on the subject of Ki-67 assessment in pancreatic NENs (PanNENs) employing digital image analysis (DIA). The most common advantages of DIA were improvement in the standardization and reliability of Ki-67 evaluation, as well as its speed and practicality, compared to the current gold standard approach of manual counts from captured images, which is cumbersome and time consuming. The main limitations were attributed to higher costs, lack of widespread availability (as of yet), operator qualification and training issues (if it is not done by pathologists), and most importantly, the drawback of image algorithms counting contaminating non-neoplastic cells and other signals like hemosiderin. However, solutions are rapidly developing for all of these challenging issues. A comparative meta-analysis for DIA versus manual counting shows very high concordance (global coefficient of concordance: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.83-0.98) between these two modalities. These findings support the widespread adoption of validated DIA methods for Ki-67 assessment in PanNENs, provided that measures are in place to ensure counting of only tumor cells either by software modifications or education of non-pathologist operators, as well as selection of standard regions of interest for analysis. NENs, being cellular and monotonous neoplasms, are naturally more amenable to Ki-67 assessment. However, lessons of this review may be applicable to other neoplasms where proliferation activity has become an integral part of theranostic evaluation including breast, brain, and hematolymphoid neoplasms.

2.
Updates Surg ; 2022 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298787

RESUMO

The spread of COVID-19 has overwhelmed medical facilities across the globe, with patients filling beds in both regular wards and in intensive care units. The repurposing of hospital facilities has resulted in a dramatic decrease in the capacity of hospitals-in terms of available beds, surgical facilities, and medical and nursing staff- to care for oncology patients. The Italian National Board of Bioethics provided precise and homogeneous guidelines for the allocation of the scarce resources available. In our experience, strictly following these general guidelines and not considering the clinical vocation of each single health care center did not allow us to resume usual activities but generated further confusion in resource allocation. To face the scarcity of available resources and guarantee our patients fair access to the health care system we created a surgical triage with four fundamental steps. We took into consideration " well defined and widely accepted clinical prognostic factors " as stated by the Italian Society of Anesthesia and Resuscitation. We were able to draw up a list of patients giving priority to those who theoretically should have a greater chance of overcoming their critical situation. The age criterion has also been used in the overall evaluation of different cure options in each case, but it has never been considered on its own or outside the other clinical parameters. Although not considered acceptable by many we had to forcefully adopt the criterion of comparison between patients to give priority to those most in need of immediate care.

3.
Surg Endosc ; 2022 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35102430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to discuss and report the trend, outcomes, and learning curve effect after minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP) at two high-volume centres. METHODS: Patients undergoing MIDP between January 1999 and December 2018 were retrospectively identified from prospectively maintained electronic databases. The entire cohort was divided into two groups constituting the "early" and "recent" phases. The learning curve effect was analyzed for laparoscopic (LDP) and robotic distal pancreatectomy (RDP). The follow-up was at least 2 years. RESULTS: The study population included 401 consecutive patients (LDP n = 300, RDP n = 101). Twelve surgeons performed MIDP during the study period. Although patients were more carefully selected in the early phase, in terms of median age (49 vs. 55 years, p = 0.026), ASA class higher than 2 (3% vs. 9%, p = 0.018), previous abdominal surgery (10% vs. 34%, p < 0.001), and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) (7% vs. 15%, p = 0.017), the recent phase had similar perioperative outcomes. The increase of experience in LDP was inversely associated with the operative time (240 vs 210 min, p < 0.001), morbidity rate (56.5% vs. 40.1%, p = 0.005), intra-abdominal collection (28.3% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.023), and length of stay (8 vs. 7 days, p = 0.009). Median survival in the PDAC subgroup was 53 months. CONCLUSION: In the setting of high-volume centres, the surgical training of MIDP is associated with acceptable rates of morbidity. The learning curve can be largely achieved by several team members, improving outcomes over time. Whenever possible resection of PDAC guarantees adequate oncological results and survival.

4.
World J Surg ; 46(4): 891-900, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35024923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the postoperative course of elderly patients (≥70 years) submitted to minimally invasive (MIDP) versus open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) and to evaluate if the modified Frailty Index (mFI) predicts the surgical course of elderly patients submitted to DP. METHODS: Data of patients aged ≥70 who underwent DP at a single institution between March 2011 and December 2019 were retrospectively retrieved. A 2:1 propensity score matching (PSM) was used to correct for differences in baseline characteristics. Then, postoperative complications were compared between the two groups (MIDP vs. ODP). Additionally, the entire cohort of DP elderly patients was stratified according to the mFI into three groups: non-frail (mFI = 0), mildly frail (mFI = 1/2), or severely frail (mFI = 3) and then compared. RESULTS: A total of 204 patients were analyzed. After PSM, 40 MIDP and 80 ODP patients were identified. The complications considered stratified homogenously between the two groups, with no statistically significant differences. The severity of the postoperative course increased as mFI did among the three groups regarding any complication (p = 0.022), abdominal collection (p = 0.014), pulmonary complication (p = 0.001), postoperative confusion (p = 0.047), Clavien-Dindo severity ≥3 events (p = 0.036), and length of stay (p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients can be safely submitted to MIDP. The mFI identifies frail elderly patients more prone to develop surgical and non-surgical complications after DP.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Idoso , Fragilidade/complicações , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Pancreatectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Gut ; 71(5): 961-973, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have found aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX)/pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked (ATRX)/death domain-associated protein (DAXX) and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to be promising prognostic biomarkers for non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NF-PanNETs). However, they have not been comprehensively evaluated, especially among small NF-PanNETs (≤2.0 cm). Moreover, their status in neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) from other sites remains unknown. DESIGN: An international cohort of 1322 NETs was evaluated by immunolabelling for ARX/PDX1 and ATRX/DAXX, and telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridisation for ALT. This cohort included 561 primary NF-PanNETs, 107 NF-PanNET metastases and 654 primary, non-pancreatic non-functional NETs and NET metastases. The results were correlated with numerous clinicopathological features including relapse-free survival (RFS). RESULTS: ATRX/DAXX loss and ALT were associated with several adverse prognostic findings and distant metastasis/recurrence (p<0.001). The 5-year RFS rates for patients with ATRX/DAXX-negative and ALT-positive NF-PanNETs were 40% and 42% as compared with 85% and 86% for wild-type NF-PanNETs (p<0.001 and p<0.001). Shorter 5-year RFS rates for ≤2.0 cm NF-PanNETs patients were also seen with ATRX/DAXX loss (65% vs 92%, p=0.003) and ALT (60% vs 93%, p<0.001). By multivariate analysis, ATRX/DAXX and ALT status were independent prognostic factors for RFS. Conversely, classifying NF-PanNETs by ARX/PDX1 expression did not independently correlate with RFS. Except for 4% of pulmonary carcinoids, ATRX/DAXX loss and ALT were only identified in primary (25% and 29%) and NF-PanNET metastases (62% and 71%). CONCLUSIONS: ATRX/DAXX and ALT should be considered in the prognostic evaluation of NF-PanNETs including ≤2.0 cm tumours, and are highly specific for pancreatic origin among NET metastases of unknown primary.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Talassemia alfa , Proteínas Correpressoras/genética , Genes Homeobox , Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Telômero/genética , Telômero/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteína Nuclear Ligada ao X/genética , Talassemia alfa/genética
6.
Neuroendocrinology ; 112(2): 143-152, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508821

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The combined use of 68gallium (68Ga)-DOTA-peptides and 18fluorine-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in the workup of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) is controversial. This study aimed at assessing both tracers' capability to identify tumors and to assess its association with pathological predictors of recurrence. METHODS: Prospectively collected, preoperative, dual-tracer PET/CT scan data of G1-G2, nonmetastatic, PanNETs that underwent surgery between January 2013 and October 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The final cohort consisted of 124 cases. There was an approximately equal distribution of males and females (50.8%/49.2%) and G1 and G2 tumors (49.2%/50.8%). The disease was detected in 122 (98.4%) and 64 (51.6%) cases by 68Ga-DOTATOC and by 18F-FDG PET/CT scans, respectively, with a combined sensitivity of 99.2%. 18F-FDG-positive examinations found G2 tumors more often than G1 (59.4 vs. 40.6%; p = 0.036), and 18F-FDG-positive PanNETs were larger than negative ones (median tumor size 32 mm, interquartile range [IQR] 21 vs. 26 mm, IQR 20; p = 0.019). The median Ki67 for 18F-FDG-positive and -negative examinations was 3 (IQR 4) and 2 (IQR 4), respectively (p = 0.029). At least 1 pathological predictor of recurrence was present in 74.6% of 18F-FDG-positive cases (vs. 56.7%; p = 0.039), whereas this was not found when dichotomizing the PanNETs by their dimensions (≤/>20 mm). None of the 2 tracers predicted nodal metastasis. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that 18F-FDG uptake higher than 4.2 had a sensitivity of 49.2% and specificity of 73.3% for differentiating G1 from G2 (AUC = 0.624, p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: The complementary adoption of 68Ga-DOTATOC and 18F-FDG tracers may be valuable in the diagnostic workup of PanNETs despite not being a game-changer for the management of PanNETs ≤20 mm.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Octreotida/análogos & derivados , Compostos Organometálicos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 407(1): 143-152, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We designed a retrospective computational study to evaluate the effects of hemodynamics on portal confluence remodeling in real models of patients with malignancies of the pancreatic head. METHODS: Patient-specific models were created according to computed tomography data. Fluid dynamics was simulated by using finite-element methods. Computational results were compared to morphological findings. RESULTS: Five patients underwent total pancreatectomy, one had duodenopancreatectomy. Vein resection was performed en-bloc with the specimen. Histopathological findings showed that in patients without a vein stenosis and a normal hemodynamics, the three-layered wall of the vein was preserved. In patients with a stenosis > 70% of vein diameter and modified hemodynamics, the three-layered structure of the resected vein was replaced by a dense inflammatory infiltrate in absence of tumor infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: The portal confluence involved by malignancies of the pancreatic head undergoes a remodeling that is not mainly due to a wall infiltration by the tumor but instead to a persistent pathological hemodynamics that disrupts the balance between eutrophic remodeling and degradative process of the vein wall that can lead to the complete upheaval of the three-layered vein wall. This finding can have useful surgical application in planning resection of the vein involved by tumor growth.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Veia Porta , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia , Projetos Piloto , Veia Porta/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Porta/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Updates Surg ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689316

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has severely limited the access to cancer surgery, but it is not known to what extent referral centers for pancreatic diseases were affected by its outbreak. The aim of this study is to describe the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on a third-level referral center for pancreatic surgery in Italy. METHODS: The 2020 activity of The Pancreas Institute of the University of Verona was reviewed, comparing different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic outbreaks using the pre-COVID era as a control. Endpoints were the overall caseload of pancreatic resections, surgical waiting list, administration of preoperative therapy, major morbidity and mortality, residents' training; number of inpatients beds, outpatient visits/procedures/diagnostics. RESULTS: In 2020, there was an overall significant reduction of pancreatic resections performed (394 vs. 506 in 2019), particularly during the first (March-May) and second (October-December) COVID-19 outbreaks, with an all-time-low of 16 resections/months in April (compared to 43 average resection/month in 2019). The rates of major morbidity (Clavien-Dindo ≥ 3) and mortality were similar to 2019 (16 vs 12%, p = 0.11 and 3 vs 2%, p = 0.29, respectively). During the first and second outbreaks resident's training, inpatient beds, outpatient visits, diagnostics, and procedures were severely impaired, while the waiting list for up-front cancer resections and the use of preoperative chemotherapy concomitantly raised. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has severely disrupted the activity of a third-level referral center for pancreatic surgery, affecting the access to cancer surgical procedures and raising concerns regarding the solidity of the current centralization model.

9.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pancreatic transection method during distal pancreatectomy is thought to influence postoperative fistula rates. Yet, the optimal technique for minimizing fistula occurrence is still unclear. The present randomized controlled trial compared stapled versus ultrasonic transection in elective distal pancreatectomy. METHODS: Patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy from July 2018 to July 2020 at two high-volume institutions were considered for inclusion. Exclusion criteria were contiguous organ resection and a parenchymal thickness > 17 mm on intraoperative ultrasound. Eligible patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to stapled transection (Endo GIA Reinforced Reload with Tri-Staple Technology®) or ultrasonic transection (Harmonic Focus® + or Harmonic Ace® + shears). The primary endpoint was postoperative pancreatic fistula. Secondary endpoints included overall complications, abdominal collections, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Overall, 72 patients were randomized in the stapled transection arm and 73 patients in the ultrasonic transection arm. Postoperative pancreatic fistula occurred in 23 patients (16%), with a comparable incidence between groups (12% in stapled transection versus 19% in ultrasonic dissection arm, p = 0.191). Overall complications did not differ substantially (35% in stapled transection versus 44% in ultrasonic transection arm, p = 0.170). There was an increased incidence of abdominal collections in the ultrasonic dissection group (32% versus 14%, p = 0.009), yet the need for percutaneous drain did not differ between randomization arms (p = 0.169). The median length of stay was 8 days in both groups (p = 0.880). Intraoperative blood transfusion was the only factor independently associated with postoperative pancreatic fistula on logistic regression analysis (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.2-20.0, p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: The present randomized controlled trial of stapled versus ultrasonic transection in elective distal pancreatectomy demonstrated no significant difference in postoperative pancreatic fistula rates and no substantial clinical impact on other secondary endpoints.

10.
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci ; 28(9): 770-777, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Japanese difficulty scoring system (DSS) was developed to assess the difficulty of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP). The study aimed to validate a modified DSS (mDSS) in a European high-volume center. METHODS: Patients' clinical data underwent LDP for benign and malignant pancreatic lesion between September 2013 and February 2020 were reviewed. Expert laparoscopic surgeons performed the procedures. The mDSS consisted of seven variables, such as type of operation, malignancy, neoadjuvant therapy, pancreatic resection line, tumor close to major vessels, tumor extension to peripancreatic tissue, and left-sided portal hypertension and/or splenomegaly. According to the difficulty level and previous score, the mDSS was subdivided into three classes: low, intermediate, and high. Surrogates of case complexity (operative time, intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements, conversion rate) were used to validate the new scoring system. RESULTS: The study population included 140 LDP. Ninety-five (68%), 35 (25%) and 10 (7%) patients belonged to low, intermediate, and high difficulty groups. The mDSS identified the complexity of the surgical case of the series for all the surrogates of complexity considered, namely conversion rate (P = .004), operative time (P = .033) and intraoperative blood loss (P = .009). No differences were recorded in the postoperative outcomes (P > .05). CONCLUSION: The mDSS for LDP better stratified the pancreatic procedures according to their complexity. The new scoring system may allow an appropriate preoperative evaluation of surgical difficulty, facilitating LDP's training program. Future prospective studies are needed to validate the mDSS.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Japão , Tempo de Internação , Duração da Cirurgia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess short- and long-term outcomes including quality of life (QoL) following PE. BACKGROUND: Pancreatic enucleation (PE) is deemed to preserve both the endocrine and the exocrine function while ensuring radicality. However, to assess whether this reflects an actual benefit perceived by patients, QoL has to be considered. METHODS: Data from all consecutive patients undergoing PE from January 2010 to December 2019 were retrospectively analysed. Surgical outcomes were graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification, and EORTC-C30 and the EORTC-Pan26 were administered as a cross-sectional assessment of QoL. A control group consisting of healthy individuals from the general population was obtained and matched using the propensity score matching method. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients underwent PE using the open (59.3%), laparoscopic (27.2%) or robot-assisted (13.5%) approach. Sixty-five (80.2%) patients exhibited functioning/non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PanNET) at final pathology.Surgical morbidity and complications of a Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ 3 were 48.1% and 16.0%, respectively. In-hospital mortality was 0%. Postoperative pancreatic fistula, post-pancreatectomy haemorrhage, and delayed gastric emptying rates were 21.0%, 9.9%, and 4.9%, respectively.Patients returned the questionnaires after a median of 74.2 months from the index surgery. Postoperative new onset of diabetes mellitus (NODM) was observed in five subjects (7.1%), with age being an independent predictor. Seven patients (10.0%) developed postoperative exocrine insufficiency. At the analysis of QoL, all function and symptom scales were comparable between the two groups, except for two of the EORTC-Pan 26 symptom scales, ("worries for the future" and "body image", p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Despite being associated with significant postoperative morbidity, PE provides excellent long-term outcomes. The risk of NODM is low and related to patient age, with QoL being comparable to the general population. Such information should drive surgeons to pursue PE whenever properly indicated.

12.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 155, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536587

RESUMO

Here we report the DNA methylation profile of 84 sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) with associated clinical and genomic information. We identified three subgroups of PanNETs, termed T1, T2 and T3, with distinct patterns of methylation. The T1 subgroup was enriched for functional tumors and ATRX, DAXX and MEN1 wild-type genotypes. The T2 subgroup contained tumors with mutations in ATRX, DAXX and MEN1 and recurrent patterns of chromosomal losses in half of the genome with no association between regions with recurrent loss and methylation levels. T2 tumors were larger and had lower methylation in the MGMT gene body, which showed positive correlation with gene expression. The T3 subgroup harboured mutations in MEN1 with recurrent loss of chromosome 11, was enriched for grade G1 tumors and showed histological parameters associated with better prognosis. Our results suggest a role for methylation in both driving tumorigenesis and potentially stratifying prognosis in PanNETs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/metabolismo , Epigenômica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fenótipo , Carga Tumoral
13.
Pancreas ; 50(2): 138-146, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms include well-differentiated tumors (PanNETs) and poorly differentiated carcinomas (PanNECs). Previous reports suggested a role for platinum-based therapy largely in PanNEC. We sought to investigate the role of platinum-based therapy in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms regardless of tumor grade and differentiation. METHODS: Patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms treated with platinum-based therapy at Memorial Sloan Kettering (1994-2016) and Verona University Hospital (2008-2016) were retrospectively identified. Response to treatment by RECIST v1.1, overall survival, and progression-free survival were defined. Among patients with available tissue, DAXX, ATRX, Rb, and p53 expression was evaluated to support the histologic grade of differentiation. RESULTS: Fifty PanNETs, 29 PanNECs, and 22 high-grade tumors with undeterminable differentiation were included. No patients achieved complete response. Overall rate of partial response was 31%, 41% for PanNEC, and 20% for PanNETs. Among PanNETs, partial response was achieved in 33% of G1 (2/6), 10% of G2 (2/19), and 24% of G3 (6/25) tumors. Median overall survival was 29.3 months for PanNETs and 10.9 months for PanNEC (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in median progression-free survival (P = 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Platinum-based therapies demonstrated increased activity in PanNEC; however, promising efficacy was also observed in PanNETs, irrespective of grade.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/tratamento farmacológico , Diferenciação Celular , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Platina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/mortalidade , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Compostos de Platina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 165, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current management guidelines recommend that patients with borderline resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma (BRPC) should initially receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The addition of advanced radiation therapy modalities, including stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT), could result in a more effective neoadjuvant strategy, with higher rates of margin-free resections and improved survival outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: In this single-center, single-arm, intention-to-treat, phase II trial newly diagnosed BRPC will receive a "total neoadjuvant" therapy with FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, irinotecan and oxaliplatin) and hypofractionated SBRT (5 fractions, total dose of 30 Gy with simultaneous integrated boost of 50 Gy on tumor-vessel interface). Following surgical exploration or resection, IORT will be also delivered (10 Gy). The primary endpoint is 3-year survival. Secondary endpoints include completion of neoadjuvant treatment, resection rate, acute and late toxicities, and progression-free survival. In the subset of patients undergoing resection, per-protocol analysis of disease-free and disease-specific survival will be performed. The estimated sample size is 100 patients over a 36-month period. The trial is currently recruiting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04090463 at clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to critically reappraise the experience at our high-volume institution to obtain new insights for future directions. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The indications, surgical techniques, and perioperative management of pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) have profoundly evolved over the last 20 years. METHODS: All consecutive PDs performed during the last 20 years at the Verona Pancreas Institute were divided into four 5-year timeframes and retrospectively analyzed in terms of indications, intraoperative features and surgical outcomes. Significant milestones were provided to understand practice changes using a before-after analysis method. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 3000 patients. The median age, ASA ≥ 3 and number of nonbenchmark cases significantly increased over time (p < 0.005). Pancreatic cancer was the leading indication, representing 60% of patients/year in the last timeframe, 40% of whom received neoadjuvant treatment. Conversely, after the development of International Guidelines, the proportion of resected cystic neoplasms progressively and thoroughly decreased. Given the increased complexity of surgery for pancreatic cancer, the evolution of technologies, surgical techniques and postoperative management allowed the maintenance of favorable surgical outcomes over time, with a stable 20.0% of patients with a Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ 3, an 11.7% failure to rescue and a 2.3% in-hospital mortality rate. The incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistula, hemorrhage and delayed gastric emptying was 22.4%, 13.4% and 12.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatoduodenectomy significantly evolved in Verona over the past two decades. Surgeries of greater complexity are currently performed on increasingly frailer patients, mostly for pancreatic cancer and often after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. However, the progression of all fields of pancreatic surgery, including the expanding use of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) mitigation strategies, has allowed satisfactory outcomes to be maintained.

16.
Pancreatology ; 21(2): 443-450, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Studies comparing EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) with EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) for the evaluation of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are lacking. We aimed at comparing EUS-FNA with EUS-FNB in terms of Ki-67 proliferative index (PI) estimation capability, cellularity of the samples, and reliability of Ki-67 PI/tumor grading compared with surgical specimens. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with pNETs on EUS and/or surgical specimens were retrospectively identified. Specimens were re-evaluated to assess Ki-67 PI feasibility, sample cellularity by manual counting, and determination of Ki-67 PI value. Outcomes in the EUS-FNA and EUS-FNB groups were compared. Kendall rank test was used for Ki-67 PI correlation between EUS and surgical specimens. Subgroup analysis including small (≤20 mm), non-functioning pNETs was performed. RESULTS: Three-hundred samples from 292 lesions were evaluated: 69 EUS-FNA cytology and 231 EUS-FNB histology. Ki-67 PI feasibility was similar for EUS-FNA and EUS-FNB (91.3% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.15), while EUS-FNB performed significantly better in the subgroup of 179 small pNETs (88.2% vs. 96.1%, p = 0.04). Rate of poor cellulated (<500 cells) specimens was equal between EUS-FNA and EUS-FNB. A significant correlation for Ki-67 PI values between EUS and 92 correspondent surgical specimens was found in both groups, but it was stronger with EUS-FNB (tau = 0.626, p < 0.0001 vs. tau = 0.452, p = 0.031). Correct grading estimation was comparable between the two groups (p = 0.482). CONCLUSION: Our study showed stronger correlation for Ki-67 values between EUS-FNB and surgical specimens, and that EUS-FNB outperformed EUS-FNA in the evaluation of small pNETs. EUS-FNB should become standard of care for grading assessment of suspected pNETs.


Assuntos
Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Gut ; 70(10): 1904-1913, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A comprehensive analysis of the immune landscape of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PanNETs) was performed according to clinicopathological parameters and previously defined molecular subtypes to identify potential therapeutic vulnerabilities in this disease. DESIGN: Differential expression analysis of 600 immune-related genes was performed on 207 PanNET samples, comprising a training cohort (n=72) and two validation cohorts (n=135) from multiple transcriptome profiling platforms. Different immune-related and subtype-related phenotypes, cell types and pathways were investigated using different in silico methods and were further validated using spatial multiplex immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The study identified an immune signature of 132 genes segregating PanNETs (n=207) according to four previously defined molecular subtypes: metastasis-like primary (MLP)-1 and MLP-2, insulinoma-like and intermediate. The MLP-1 subtype (26%-31% samples across three cohorts) was strongly associated with elevated levels of immune-related genes, poor prognosis and a cascade of tumour evolutionary events: larger hypoxic and necroptotic tumours leading to increased damage-associated molecular patterns (viral mimicry), stimulator of interferon gene pathway, T cell-inflamed genes, immune checkpoint targets, and T cell-mediated and M1 macrophage-mediated immune escape mechanisms. Multiplex spatial profiling validated significantly increased macrophages in the MLP-1 subtype. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel data on the immune microenvironment of PanNETs and identifies MLP-1 subtype as an immune-high phenotype featuring a broad and robust activation of immune-related genes. This study, with further refinement, paves the way for future precision immunotherapy studies in PanNETs to potentially select a subset of MLP-1 patients who may be more likely to respond.


Assuntos
Genes Neoplásicos/imunologia , Mimetismo Molecular/imunologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Carga Tumoral
18.
Surg Endosc ; 35(3): 1420-1428, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study analyzed the Quality of Life (QoL) and cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic (LDP) versus robotic distal pancreatectomy (RDP). METHOD: All patients who underwent LDP or RDP from 2011 to 2017 and with a minimum postoperative follow-up of 12 months were included in the study. To minimize bias, a propensity score-matched analysis (1:2) was performed. Two different questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D) were completed by the patients. The mean differential cost and mean differential Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) were calculated and plotted on a cost-utility plane. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 152 patients. After having applied the propensity score matching, the final population included 103 patients divided into RDP group (n = 37, 36%) and LDP (n = 66, 64%). No differences were found between groups regarding the baseline, intraoperative, postoperative, and pathological variables (p > 0.05). The QoL analysis showed a significant improvement in the RDP group on the postoperative social function, nausea, vomiting, and financial status (p = 0.010, p = 0.050, and p = 0.030, respectively). As expected, the crude costs analysis confirmed that RDP was more expensive than LDP (12,053 Euros vs. 5519 Euros, p < 0.001). However, the robotic approach had a higher probability of being more cost-effective than the laparoscopic procedure when a willingness to pay of more than 4800 Euros/QALY was accepted. CONCLUSION: RDP was associated with QoL improvement in specific domains. Crude costs were higher relative to LDP. Cost-effectiveness threshold resulted to be 4800 euros/QALY. The increasing worldwide diffusion of the robotic technology, with easier access and possible cost reduction, could increase the sustainability of this procedure.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Laparoscopia/economia , Pancreatectomia/economia , Pontuação de Propensão , Qualidade de Vida , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/economia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Ann Surg ; 273(5): 973-981, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348038

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize an international cohort of resected cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (cPanNENs) and identify preoperative predictors of aggressive behavior. BACKGROUND: The characteristics of cPanNENs are unknown and their clinical management remains unclear. An observational strategy for asymptomatic cPanNENs ≤2 cm has been proposed by recent guidelines, but evidence is scarce and limited to single-institutional series. METHODS: Resected cPanNENs (1995-2017) from 16 institutions worldwide were included. Solid lesions (>50% solid component), functional tumors, and MEN-1 patients were excluded. Aggressiveness was defined as lymph node (LN) involvement, G3 grading, distant metastases, and/or recurrence. RESULTS: Overall, 263 resected cPanNENs were included, among which 177 (63.5%) were >2 cm preoperatively. A preoperative diagnosis of cPanNEN was established in 162 cases (61.6%) and was more frequent when patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound [EUS, odds ratio (OR) 2.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52-4.77] and somatostatin-receptor imaging (OR 3.681, 95% CI 1.809-7.490), and for those managed in specialized institutions (OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.57-6.21). Forty-one cPanNENs (15.6%) were considered aggressive. In the whole cohort, LN involvement on imaging, age >65 years, preoperative size >2 cm, and pancreatic duct dilation were independently associated with aggressive behavior. In asymptomatic patients, older age and a preoperative size >2 cm remained independently associated with aggressiveness. Only 1 of 61 asymptomatic cPanNENs ≤2 cm displayed an aggressive behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic accuracy of cPanNENs is increased by the use of EUS and somatostatin-receptor imaging and is higher in specialized institutions. Preoperative size >2 cm is independently associated with aggressive behavior. Consequently, a watch-and-wait policy for sporadic asymptomatic cPanNENs ≤2 cm seems justified and safe for most patients.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos/cirurgia , Pancreatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Idoso , Endossonografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
HPB (Oxford) ; 23(4): 520-527, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Academic hospitals must train future surgeons, but whether residents could negatively affect the outcomes of major procedures is a matter of concern. The aim of this study is to assess if pancreatic surgery is a safe teaching model. METHODS: Outcomes of 1230 major pancreatic resections performed at a high-volume pancreatic teaching hospital between 2015 and 2018 were compared according to the first surgeon type, attending vs resident. RESULTS: Residents performed a selection of 132 (16%) pancreaticoduodenectomies (PD) and 46 (11%) distal pancreatectomies (DP). For PD, pancreatic fistula (25% vs 0, p < 0.001), biliary fistula (7.1% vs 3.5%, p = 0.04) and operative time (400 vs 390 min, p < 0.001) were lower for residents but post-pancreatectomy hemorrhage was higher (20.5% vs 13% p = 0.024). For DP, pancreatic fistula rate was lower for residents (31.7% vs 17.5% p = 0.046). There was no difference in terms of lymph nodes retrieval both for PDs and DPs, while the R1 resections were more frequent among PDs performed by attending surgeons (31.5% vs 15.7%, p = 0.023). CONCLUSION: The active participation of residents does not negatively affect outcomes of major pancreatic resections in a high-volume center. By means of case selection and continuous tutoring, pancreatic surgery represents a safe and valid teaching model.


Assuntos
Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Pancreatectomia/efeitos adversos , Fístula Pancreática , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos
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