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1.
Mov Disord ; 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recurrent hemizygous 22q11.2 deletion associated with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome has been identified as a genetic risk factor for early-onset PD. However, little is known about early motor signs in this condition. OBJECTIVES: We examined the presence, severity and possible factors associated with parkinsonism in adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and without PD. METHODS: We compared motor signs between 82 adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and 25 healthy controls, using the MDS-UPDRS part III, and three-dimensional motion-tracker technology to quantify components of bradykinesia. RESULTS: Median MDS-UPDRS part III total and bradykinesia subscores were significantly higher in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (median age: 26 years; range, 17-65) than in controls (P = 0.000; P = 0.000, respectively). Age was a significant contributor to bradykinesia subscore (B = 0.06; P = 0.01) and to the electronic bradykinesia component, velocity (B = -0.02; P = 0.000); psychotic illness did not significantly impact these analyses. In 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, MDS-UPDRS-defined bradykinesia was present in 18.3%, rigidity in 14.6%, and rest tremor in 12.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Parkinsonian motor signs appear to be common and age related in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate possible symptom progression to PD. © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

5.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 74: 25-27, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289521

RESUMO

Two ethnic Chinese men with clinico-radiologic features of Fragile X-associated tremor-ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) were found on genetic testing to have neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID), highlighting that NIID should be considered in the differential diagnosis of FXTAS. NIID may also be much more common than FXTAS in certain Asian populations.

6.
J Neurol ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333167

RESUMO

A drug challenge test in Parkinson's disease, such as the levodopa challenge test (LCT), is an easy and generally safe procedure, which has been used by clinicians for various indications. The results of the test have significant implications in the management of patients, from preoperative evaluation for deep brain stimulation to providing the basis for medication adjustments to address motor or non-motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. This paper reviews the different indications and protocols commonly used in an acute LCT. Potential complications of the procedure and an overview of levodopa responsiveness and unresponsiveness are also discussed.

7.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Projections about when research milestones will be attained are often of interest to patients and can help inform decisions about research funding and health system planning. OBJECTIVE: To collect aggregated expert forecasts on the attainment of 11 major research milestones in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Experts were asked to provide predictions about the attainment of 11 milestones in PD research in an online survey. PD experts were identified from: 1) The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research data base, 2) doctors specializing in PD at the ranked neurology centers in the US and Canada, and 3) corresponding authors of articles on PD in top medical journals. Judgments were aggregated using coherence weighting. We tested the relationship between demographic variables and individual judgments using a linear regression. RESULTS: 249 PD experts completed the survey. In the aggregate, experts believed that new treatments like gene therapy for monogenic PD, immunotherapy and cell therapy had 56.1%, 59.7%, and 66.6% probability, respectively of progressing in the clinical approval process within the next 10 years. Milestones involving existing management approaches, like the approval of a deep brain stimulation device or a body worn sensor had 78.4% and 82.2% probability of occurring within the next 10 years. Demographic factors were unable to explain deviations from the aggregate forecast (R2 = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Aggregated expert opinion suggests that milestones for the advancement of new treatment options for PD are still many years away. However, other improvements in PD diagnosis and management are believed to be near at hand.

8.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(6): 638-649, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify existing outcome measures for functional neurological disorder (FND), to inform the development of recommendations and to guide future research on FND outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify existing FND-specific outcome measures and the most common measurement domains and measures in previous treatment studies. Searches of Embase, MEDLINE and PsycINFO were conducted between January 1965 and June 2019. The findings were discussed during two international meetings of the FND-Core Outcome Measures group. RESULTS: Five FND-specific measures were identified-three clinician-rated and two patient-rated-but their measurement properties have not been rigorously evaluated. No single measure was identified for use across the range of FND symptoms in adults. Across randomised controlled trials (k=40) and observational treatment studies (k=40), outcome measures most often assessed core FND symptom change. Other domains measured commonly were additional physical and psychological symptoms, life impact (ie, quality of life, disability and general functioning) and health economics/cost-utility (eg, healthcare resource use and quality-adjusted life years). CONCLUSIONS: There are few well-validated FND-specific outcome measures. Thus, at present, we recommend that existing outcome measures, known to be reliable, valid and responsive in FND or closely related populations, are used to capture key outcome domains. Increased consistency in outcome measurement will facilitate comparison of treatment effects across FND symptom types and treatment modalities. Future work needs to more rigorously validate outcome measures used in this population.

9.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(5): 452-461, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171387

RESUMO

Debate is ongoing regarding when, why, and how to initiate pharmacotherapy for Parkinson's disease. Early initiation of dopaminergic therapies does not convey disease-modifying effects but does reduce disability. Concerns about the development of motor complications arising from the early initiation of levodopa, which led to misconceived levodopa-sparing strategies, have been largely mitigated by the outcomes of the PD MED and Levodopa in Early Parkinson's Disease (LEAP) studies. The LEAP study also showed the potential for early improvement in quality of life, even when disability is negligible. Until more effective methods of providing stable dopamine concentrations are developed, current evidence supports the use of levodopa as initial symptomatic treatment in most patients with Parkinson's disease, starting with low doses and titrating to therapeutic threshold. Monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors and dopamine agonists can be reserved as potential adjunct treatments later in the disease course. Future research will need to establish effective disease-modifying treatments, address whether patients' quality of life is substantially improved with early initiation of treatment rather than a wait and watch strategy, and establish whether new levodopa formulations will delay onset of dyskinesia.

10.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 71: 44-45, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018151

RESUMO

We present a case of mild, adult-onset dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) with a heterozygous mutation in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. We propose that this genetic state may have led to partial enzyme deficiency. Future studies should attempt to identify and characterize the phenotype of other patients with single TH variants.

11.
Neurology ; 94(11): 481-494, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102975

RESUMO

A fundamental question in advancing Parkinson disease (PD) research is whether it represents one disorder or many. Does each genetic PD inform a common pathobiology or represent a unique entity? Do the similarities between genetic and idiopathic forms of PD outweigh the differences? If aggregates of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites are present in most (α-synucleinopathies), are they also etiopathogenically significant in each (α-synuclein pathogenesis)? Does it matter that postmortem studies in PD have demonstrated that mixed protein-aggregate pathology is the rule and pure α-synucleinopathy the exception? Should we continue to pursue convergent biomarkers that are representative of the diverse whole of PD or subtype-specific, divergent biomarkers, present in some but absent in most? Have clinical trials that failed to demonstrate efficacy of putative disease-modifying interventions been true failures (shortcomings of the hypotheses, which should be rejected) or false failures (shortcomings of the trials; hypotheses should be preserved)? Each of these questions reflects a nosologic struggle between the lumper's clinicopathologic model that embraces heterogeneity of one disease and the splitter's focus on a pathobiology-specific set of diseases. Most important, even if PD is not a single disorder, can advances in biomarkers and disease modification be revised to concentrate on pathologic commonalities in large, clinically defined populations? Or should our efforts be reconstructed to focus on smaller subgroups of patients, distinguished by well-defined molecular characteristics, regardless of their phenotypic classification? Will our clinical trial constructs be revised to target larger and earlier, possibly even prodromal, cohorts? Or should our trials efforts be reconstructed to target smaller but molecularly defined presymptomatic or postsymptomatic cohorts? At the Krembil Knowledge Gaps in Parkinson's Disease Symposium, the tentative answers to these questions were discussed, informed by the failures and successes of the fields of breast cancer and cystic fibrosis.

13.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 32(1): 79-84, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A growing interest in functional neurological disorders (FND) has led to the development of specialized clinics. This study aimed to better understand the structure and role of such clinics. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from clinical records at three national referral centers, two specifically for motor FND and one for FND in general. Data were for 492 consecutive patients referred over a 9- to 15-month period: 100 from the United Kingdom clinic, 302 from the Swiss clinic, and 90 from the Canadian clinic. Data included symptom subtype and duration, comorbid pain and fatigue, disability, and treatment recommendations. RESULTS: The mean age of the 492 patients was 44 years, and most (73%) were female. Most had a prolonged motor FND (mean symptom duration of 6 years); 35% were not working because of ill health, 26% received disability benefits, and up to 38% required a care giver for personal care. In the Swiss cohort, 39% were given a diagnosis of another somatic symptom disorder rather than an FND diagnosis. Pain was common in the United Kingdom (79%) and Canada (56%), as was fatigue (48% and 47%, respectively). Most patients (61%) were offered physiotherapy; referral to neuropsychiatry or psychology differed across centers (32%-100%). CONCLUSIONS: FND specialty clinics have an important role in ensuring correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Most patients with motor FND require specialized neurophysiotherapy. Patients readily accepted an integrated neuropsychiatric approach. Close collaboration between FND clinics and acute neurology facilities might improve early detection of FND and could improve outcomes.

14.
Mol Neurobiol ; 57(1): 492-501, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385228

RESUMO

Activated microglia have been reported to play an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD). A more rapid cognitive decline has been associated with deposits of ß-amyloid. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the role of brain ß-amyloid and its relationship with activated microglia in PD patients with normal and impaired cognition. We studied 17 PD patients with normal cognition (PDn), 12 PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), and 12 healthy controls (HCs) with [11C] Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) to assess the impact of ß-amyloid deposition in the brain on microglial activation evaluated using the translocator protein 18-kDa (TSPO) radioligand [18F]-FEPPA. [11C] PIB distribution volume ratio was measured in cortical and subcortical regions. [18F]-FEPPA total distribution volume values were compared for each brain region between groups to evaluate the effect of PIB positivity while adjusting for the TSPO rs6971 polymorphism. Factorial analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect of PIB positivity in the frontal lobe (F(1, 34) = 7.1, p = 0.012). Besides the frontal (p = 0.006) and temporal lobe (p = 0.001), the striatum (p = 0.018), the precuneus (p = 0.019), and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (p = 0.010) showed significant group × PIB positivity interaction effects. In these regions, PD-MCIs had significantly higher FEPPA VT if PIB-positive. Our results indicate an interaction between amyloid-ß deposition and microglial activation in PD. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate if amyloid deposits cause neuroinflammation and further neurodegeneration or if increased microglia activation develops as a protective response.

16.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 36(1): 105-118, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733691

RESUMO

Psychotic and compulsive symptoms in Parkinson disease are highly prevalent and associated with poor outcomes and greater caregiver burden. When acute, delirium should be ruled out or treated accordingly. When chronic, comorbid systemic illnesses, dementia, and psychiatric disorders should be considered. Reduction and discontinuation of anticholinergics, amantadine, dopamine agonists, and levodopa as tolerated, as well as adjunctive clozapine or quetiapine are frequently effective to manage Parkinson disease psychosis. Pimavanserin appears effective but is not widely available, and more experience is needed. Dopamine agonist discontinuation is usually successful for impulse control disorders, but requires frequent monitoring, documentation, and caregiver involvement.

17.
NPJ Parkinsons Dis ; 5: 24, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799376

RESUMO

Recent discoveries support the principle that palliative care may improve the quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease and those who care for them. Advance care planning, a component of palliative care, provides a vehicle through which patients, families, and clinicians can collaborate to identify values, goals, and preferences early, as well as throughout the disease trajectory, to facilitate care concordant with patient wishes. While research on this topic is abundant in other life-limiting disorders, particularly in oncology, there is a paucity of data in Parkinson's disease and related neurological disorders. We review and critically evaluate current practices on advance care planning through the analyses of three bioethical challenges pertinent to Parkinson's disease and propose recommendations for each.

18.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 1259, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824254

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the relationship between alterations in resting state functional connectivity and social cognition dysfunction among patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and healthy controls (HC). Methods: Fifty-seven participants (FTD = 10, AD = 18, PD = 19, and HC = 10) underwent structural and functional imaging and completed the Awareness of Social Inference Test-Emotion Evaluation Test (TASIT-EET), Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scale, Revised Self-Monitoring Scale (RSMS), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and Social Norms Questionnaire (SNQ). A multi-variate pattern analysis (MVPA) was carried out to determine activation differences between the groups. The clusters from the MVPA were used as seeds for the ROI-to-voxel analysis. Relationship between social cognition deficits and uncinate integrity was also investigated. Results: BOLD signal activation differed among the four groups of AD, PD, FTD, and HC in the left inferior temporal gyrus-anterior division [L-ITG (ant)], right central opercular cortex (R-COp), right supramarginal gyrus, posterior division (R-SMG, post), right angular gyrus (R-AG), and R-ITG. The BOLD co-activation of the L-ITG (ant) with bilateral frontal pole (FP) and paracingulate gyrus was positively associated with IRI-perspective taking (PT) (r = 0.38, p = 0.007), SNQ total (r = 0.37, p = 0.009), and TASIT-EET (r = 0.47, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Patients with neurodegenerative diseases showed alterations in connectivity in brain regions important for social cognition compared with HCs. Functional connectivity correlated with performance on social cognition tasks and alterations could be responsible for some of the social cognition deficits observed in all neurodegenerative diseases.

19.
Int Rev Neurobiol ; 149: 87-136, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779825

RESUMO

Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized by the predominance of pathological 4 repeat tau deposition in various cell types and anatomical regions. Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is one of the clinical phenotypes associated with CBD pathology, manifesting as a progressive asymmetric akinetic-rigid, poorly levodopa-responsive parkinsonism, with cerebral cortical dysfunction. CBD can manifest as several clinical phenotypes, and similarly, CBS can also have a pathologic diagnosis other than CBD. This chapter discusses the clinical manifestations of pathologically confirmed CBD cases, the current diagnostic criteria, as well as the pathologic and neuroimaging findings of CBD/CBS. At present, therapeutic options for CBD remain symptomatic. Further research is needed to improve the clinical diagnosis of CBD, as well as studies on disease-modifying therapies for this relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorder.

20.
Neurology ; 93(19): e1787-e1798, 2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate changes in tremor severity and motor/emotion-processing circuits in response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) delivered as treatment for functional tremor (FT), the most common functional movement disorder in adults. METHODS: Fifteen patients with FT underwent fMRI with motor, basic-emotion, and intense-emotion tasks before and after 12 weeks of CBT. Baseline fMRI was compared to those of 25 healthy controls (HCs). The main clinical endpoint was the tremor score (sum of severity, duration, and incapacitation subscores) adapted from the Rating Scale for Psychogenic Movement Disorders (PMDRS) assessed by a blinded clinician. CBT responders were defined as those with PMDRS score reduction >75%. Anatomic and functional brain images were obtained with a 4T MRI system. Generalized linear model and region-of-interest analyses were used to evaluate before-versus-after treatment-related changes in brain activation. RESULTS: CBT markedly reduced tremor severity (p < 0.01) with remission/near remission achieved in 73.3% of the cohort. Compared to HCs, in those with FT, a functionally defined fMRI region of interest in the anterior cingulate/paracingulate cortex showed increased activation at baseline and decreased activation after CBT during basic-emotion processing (p = 0.012 for CBT responders). Among CBT responders, the change in anterior cingulate/paracingulate was more significant in those with more severe baseline depression (r = 0.75, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Tremor severity improved significantly after CBT. The improvement was associated with changes in the anterior cingulate/paracingulate activity, which may represent a marker of emotional dysregulation in FT and a predictor of treatment response. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that CBT significantly improves tremor severity in patients with functional tremor.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtorno Conversivo/terapia , Tremor/terapia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Conversivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Conversivo/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tremor/diagnóstico por imagem , Tremor/psicologia
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