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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 671782, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490179

RESUMO

Background: Physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are independent cardiovascular risk factors among children, but have rarely been investigated concurrently in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) and CRF of primary schoolchildren living in Côte d'Ivoire (CI), South Africa (ZA), and Tanzania (TZ), to test sex- and age-related differences, and to examine whether PA and CRF are associated with each other. Methods: Baseline data from an ongoing cluster-randomized controlled trial were used, including 499 children from CI (Taabo, 49% girls, M = 8.0 ± 1.6 years), 1,074 children from ZA (Gqeberha, 49% girls, M = 8.3 ± 1.4 years), and 593 children from TZ (Ifakara, 51% girls, M = 9.4 ± 1.7 years). PA was assessed by accelerometry and CRF by a 20 m shuttle-run test. The data were analyzed using multi-/univariate analyses of variance and mixed linear models. Results: Most children met recommendations put forward by the World Health Organization for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and achieved high CRF scores. In CI, 89.6% of the children met MVPA recommendations (boys: 91.7%, girls: 87.4%), whereas this rate was 76.9% in ZA (boys: 91.0%, girls: 62.4%), and 93.8% in TZ (boys: 95.5%, girls: 92.0%). Children from TZ had the highest CRF and MVPA levels, followed by children from CI and ZA. Boys had higher MVPA levels than girls, whereas girls engaged in more sedentary behavior. Sex differences were strongest in ZA. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were higher among older schoolchildren compared to their younger peers. Higher MVPA, but not sedentary behavior, was associated with better CRF. Conclusions: In all three settings, higher levels of MVPA were associated with higher CRF scores. Nevertheless, children living in the most urbanized setting (such as observed in ZA) were physically less active and had lower CRF than peers living in more rural areas (such as observed in CI and TZ). Particularly for girls, urbanization might increase the risk for insufficient MVPA, which may have negative effects on their CRF, thus negatively influencing health and well-being at later age.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Criança , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444895

RESUMO

(1) Background: Early childhood malnutrition may result in increased fat mass (FM) among school-aged children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We explored whether South African children with shorter stature have greater overall and abdominal FM compared to normal stature children. (2) Methods: Baseline assessments of body composition and weight were determined among school-aged children enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multiple linear regression models tested associations of children's height and degree of stunting with FM, fat free mass (FFM), truncal fat mass (TrFM), and truncal fat free mass (TrFFM) overall and by sex. (3) Results: A total of 1287 children (619 girls, 668 boys) were assessed at baseline. Reduced child height was associated with higher FM and lower FFM and TrFFM, but these associations were reversed with increases in height. Girls classified as mildly or moderately/severely stunted had higher FM and TrFM but lower FFM and TrFFM, while no association was found for boys. (4) Conclusions: Our study suggests that efforts to reduce the non-communicable disease burden in LMICs should target growth-impaired children who may have greater overall FM and greater abdominal FM.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal , Estatura , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo , Criança , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia
3.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-12, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known whether physical activity (PA)-promoting environments are equally accessible to children with divergent socioeconomic status (SES) in low-/middle-income countries. The authors, therefore, examined whether South African children from poorer versus wealthier families living in marginalized communities differed in moderate to vigorous PA and cardiorespiratory fitness. We also tested associations between family car ownership and PA/cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: Parents/guardians of 908 children (49% girls, mean age = 8.3 [1.4] y) completed a survey on household SES. PA was assessed via 7-day accelerometry, parental and child self-reports, and cardiorespiratory fitness with the 20-m shuttle run test. RESULTS: Based on accelerometry, most children met current moderate to vigorous PA recommendations (≥60 min/d). About 73% of the children did not engage in structured physical education lessons. Whereas children of the lowest SES quintile accumulated higher levels of device-based moderate to vigorous PA, peers from the highest SES quintile engaged in more sedentary behaviors, but self-reported higher engagement in sports, dance, and moving games after school. Families' car ownership was associated with higher parent/self-reported leisure-time PA. CONCLUSIONS: A deeper understanding is needed about why wealthier children are more sedentary, but simultaneously engage in more leisure-time PA. The fact that access to structural physical education is denied to most children is critical and needs to be addressed.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 852, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular fitness has been associated with both executive function and academic achievement in multiple cohort studies including children and adolescents. However, research is scarce among children from low- and middle-income countries. Hence, this paper focuses on South African primary schoolchildren living in marginalized areas and examines if academic achievement and inhibitory control can be explained by children's age, socioeconomic status, soil-transmitted helminth infections, food insecurity, stunting, grip strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 1277 children (48% girls, mean age: 8.3 years). Data were assessed via questionnaires, stool samples, anthropometric measurements, 20 m shuttle run test, grip strength test, Flanker task, and school grades. Data were analysed with mixed linear regression models with random intercepts for school classes, separately for boys and girls. RESULTS: Higher socioeconomic status was most closely associated with academic achievement among boys (p < 0.05), whereas higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and not being stunted explained most variance in academic achievement in girls (p < 0.05). Higher age turned out to be associated with better performance in the Flanker task (p < 0.01). Additionally, in boys, higher grip strength was associated with better information processing and inhibitory control of attention (p < 0.01), whereas in girls, higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels were positively associated with these cognitive abilities (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Academic performance has been shown to be compromised in schoolchildren living in marginalised areas, compared to schoolchildren in less disadvantaged parts of South Africa. The present study suggests that cardiorespiratory fitness and grip strength are two potentially modifiable factors that are associated with children's academic achievement and cognitive performance, and that should be targeted in future school-based interventions.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Helmintos , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Aptidão Física , Solo , África do Sul/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923436

RESUMO

Childhood stunting can have negative long-term consequences on cognitive development, academic achievement, and economic productivity later in life. We determined the prevalence of stunting and examined whether stunting and associated risk factors (low dietary diversity, insufficient hemoglobin, food insecurity, and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections) are associated with academic achievement and cognitive function among South African children living in marginalized communities. A cross-sectional sample of 1277 children (aged 5-12 years) was analyzed. Stunting was defined according to 2007 WHO growth references. Cognitive functioning was measured with the computerized Flanker task and academic performance via school grades. Blood and stool samples were collected to obtain hemoglobin level and STH infection. Dietary diversity was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were examined via mixed linear regression (with school class as a random intercept). Nine percent of the children were stunted (95% CI: 7.6-10.8%). Low dietary diversity (ß = 0.13, p = 0.004), food insecurity (ß = -0.12, p = 0.034), and stunting (ß = -0.13, p = 0.031) were associated with poorer end of the year results among girls. No such associations were found among boys. No significant associations were found for socioeconomic status and hemoglobin levels. The prevalence of stunting and STH infections were low in the present sample. Risk factors seem differently associated with girls' and boys' academic achievement. Promoting nutrition may help to promote academic achievement among girls living in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669905

RESUMO

The coexistence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors has been reported in school-aged children from the age of nine years, but most evidence stems from high-income countries. This cross-sectional study aimed at describing the cardiovascular health risk, physical activity (PA) behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels of South African primary schoolchildren, and at examining the associations between PA/CRF and a composite measure of cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional data from 832 primary schoolchildren (grade 1-4) were analyzed. Total cholesterol/HDL ratio, triglycerides, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, body fat, and glycated hemoglobin were assessed as cardiovascular risk markers. Data were analyzed via mixed linear regressions and analyses of covariance. Overall, 24.2% of the participants did not meet current PA standards. Higher CRF/PA were associated with lower body fat and lower clustered cardiovascular risk (p < 0.05). When categorizing children into CRF/PA quartiles, a lower clustered cardiovascular risk gradient was found in children with higher CRF (p < 0.05) or PA (p < 0.05). Our data shows that higher CRF/PA is associated with lower clustered cardiovascular risk already from a young age. Given that clustered cardiovascular risk present during childhood can track into adulthood, we advocate for PA participation and a healthy weight from a young age onwards.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Aptidão Física , Fatores de Risco , Populações Vulneráveis
7.
Trials ; 21(1): 22, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In low- and middle-income countries, infectious diseases remain a key public health issue. Additionally, non-communicable diseases are a rapidly growing public health problem that impose a considerable burden on population health. One way to address this dual disease burden, is to incorporate (lifestyle) health promotion measures within the education sector. In the planned study, we will (i) assess and compare physical activity, physical fitness, micronutrient status, body composition, infections with soil-transmitted helminths, Schistosoma mansoni, malaria, inflammatory and cardiovascular health risk markers, cognitive function, health-related quality of life, and sleep in schoolchildren in Côte d'Ivoire, South Africa and Tanzania. We will (ii) determine the bi- and multivariate associations between these variables and (iii) examine the effects of a school-based health intervention that consists of physical activity, multi-micronutrient supplementation, or both. METHODS: Assuming that no interaction occurs between the two interventions (physical activity and multi-micronutrient supplementation), the study is designed as a cluster-randomised, placebo-controlled trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design. Data will be obtained at three time points: at baseline and at 9 months and 21 months after the baseline assessment. In each country, 1320 primary schoolchildren from grades 1-4 will be recruited. In each school, classes will be randomly assigned to one of four interventions: (i) physical activity; (ii) multi-micronutrient supplementation; (iii) physical activity plus multi-micronutrient supplementation; and (iv) no intervention, which will serve as the control. A placebo product will be given to all children who do not receive multi-micronutrient supplementation. After obtaining written informed consent from the parents/guardians, the children will be subjected to anthropometric, clinical, parasitological and physiological assessments. Additionally, fitness tests will be performed, and children will be invited to wear an accelerometer device for 7 days to objectively assess their physical activity. Children infected with S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths will receive deworming drugs according to national policies. Health and nutrition education will be provided to the whole study population independently of the study arm allocation. DISCUSSION: The study builds on the experience and lessons of a previous study conducted in South Africa. It involves three African countries with different social-ecological contexts to investigate whether results are generalisable across the continent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered on August 9, 2018, with ISRCTN. https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN29534081.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Acelerometria , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Proteção da Criança , Costa do Marfim , Feminino , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , África do Sul , Tanzânia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Sport Health Sci ; 8(3): 280-288, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193298

RESUMO

Background: Preliminary evidence among adults suggests that the ways in which individuals think about their physical activity (PA) behavior is more closely associated with their well-being than self-reported PA. This study therefore aimed to examine whether and how self-reported PA and personal beliefs about sufficient PA are associated with sleep and psychological functioning in a sample of Swiss adolescents, using both cross-sectional and prospective data. Methods: An overall sample of 864 vocational students (368 girls, 17.98 ±â€¯1.36 years, mean ±â€¯SD) was followed prospectively over a 10-month period. At each measurement occasion, participants filled in a series of self-report questionnaires to assess their PA levels, their personal beliefs about whether or not they engage in sufficient PA, sleep (insomnia symptoms, sleep quality, sleep-onset latency, and number of awakenings), and psychological functioning (depressive symptoms, quality of life, perceived stress, and mental toughness). Results: Adolescents who believe that they are sufficiently physically active to maintain good health reported more restoring sleep. No differences in sleep were found between adolescents who meet PA recommendations vs. those who do not. Additionally, adolescents who believe that they were sufficiently physically active also reported better psychological functioning. This close relationship between adolescents' beliefs about their PA involvement and their sleep and psychological functioning was corroborated in the prospective analyses. Conclusion: Cognitive factors should be studied more intensively when elucidating the relationship among PA, sleep, and psychological functioning in young people, particularly when aiming to develop new exercise interventions targeting psychological outcomes.

9.
Sports Med ; 48(3): 683-703, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29352373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Athletes experience various situations and conditions that can interfere with their sleep, which is crucial for optimal psychological and physiological recovery as well as subsequent performance. Conventional sleep screening and intervention approaches may not be efficacious for athletes given their lifestyle, the demands of training and travel associated with interstate/international competition. OBJECTIVES: The present systematic review aimed to summarize and evaluate sleep intervention studies targeting subsequent performance and recovery in competitive athletes. Based on the findings, a secondary aim was to outline a possible sleep intervention for athletes, including recommendations for content, mode of delivery and evaluation. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted based on the PRISMA guidelines in May 2016 with an update completed in September 2017. Ten studies met our inclusion criteria comprising a total of 218 participants in the age range of 18-24 years with athletes from various sports (e.g., swimming, soccer, basketball, tennis). A modified version of the quality assessment scale developed by Abernethy and Bleakley was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. RESULTS: The included studies implemented several sleep interventions, including sleep extension and napping, sleep hygiene, and post-exercise recovery strategies. Evidence suggests that sleep extension had the most beneficial effects on subsequent performance. Consistent with previous research, these results suggest that sleep plays an important role in some, but not all, aspects of athletes' performance and recovery. CONCLUSION: Future researchers should aim to conduct sleep interventions among different athlete populations, compare results, and further establish guidelines and intervention tools for athletes to address their specific sleep demands and disturbances.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Educação Física e Treinamento , Futebol , Adulto Jovem
10.
Neurol Sci ; 38(6): 1047-1058, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28321516

RESUMO

Research shows that dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions play an important role in the development, maintenance and exacerbation of insomnia. This study examines the factorial validity, psychometric properties and both concurrent and predictive validity of the German version of the 16-item DBAS (dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep) scale. Data was collected in 864 vocational students from the German-speaking part of Switzerland (43% females, M age = 17.9 years). Data collection took place twice within a 10-month interval. The students completed a German translation of the DBAS-16, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and provided information about their psychological functioning. Descriptive statistics, factorial validity, internal consistency, gender differences, concurrent, and predictive validity were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the 4-factor structure of the DBAS-16. All factors (consequences, worry/helplessness, expectations, medication) were positively correlated and had acceptable psychometric properties. Females reported higher scores across all DBAS measures. Weak-to-moderate correlations were found between dysfunctional sleep-related beliefs, insomnia and poor sleep quality. Dysfunctional sleep-related beliefs were also associated with decreased psychological functioning, and consistently predicted insomnia and poor psychological functioning at follow-up, even after controlling for socio-demographic background and baseline levels. The present study provides support for the validity and psychometric properties of the German version of the DBAS-16. Most importantly, it corroborates the relevance of cognitive-emotional factors in the onset and maintenance of insomnia and psychological symptoms among young people.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Fatores Sexuais , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Estudantes
11.
Sleep Med Rev ; 34: 122-129, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27546185

RESUMO

Adolescents are vulnerable to inadequate sleep due to a unique constellation of risk factors. In particular, the puberty-related phase delay in the timing of the circadian system postpones the onset of sleep. Resultantly, disordered sleep is common among teenagers and young adults, with the most common sleep problem being delayed sleep wake-phase disorder (DSWPD). Although current treatments for DSWPD show promise, novel ways to improve our youth's sleep are needed. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the evidence for the role of exercise as a method to shift and/or regulate circadian timing, and thus improve sleep, in adolescents and young adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that nocturnal exercise can delay circadian timing. However, exercise administered at different times of the 24-h day may result in phase advances, particularly when the timing of exercise is gradually advanced in small daily increments. The implications of these results for young people's sleep health are discussed and suggestions are provided for ways that exercise could be used clinically, to improve the treatment of DSWPD.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/terapia , Humanos
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 16: 174, 2016 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27245844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A variety of objective and subjective methods exist to assess insomnia. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was developed to provide a brief self-report instrument useful to assess people's perception of sleep complaints. The ISI was developed in English, and has been translated into several languages including German. Surprisingly, the psychometric properties of the German version have not been evaluated, although the ISI is often used with German-speaking populations. METHODS: The psychometric properties of the ISI are tested in three independent samples: 1475 adolescents, 862 university students, and 533 police and emergency response service officers. In all three studies, participants provide information about insomnia (ISI), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and psychological functioning (diverse instruments). Descriptive statistics, gender differences, homogeneity and internal consistency, convergent validity, and factorial validity (including measurement invariance across genders) are examined in each sample. RESULTS: The findings show that the German version of the ISI has generally acceptable psychometric properties and sufficient concurrent validity. Confirmatory factor analyses show that a 1-factor solution achieves good model fit. Furthermore, measurement invariance across gender is supported in all three samples. CONCLUSIONS: While the ISI has been widely used in German-speaking countries, this study is the first to provide empirical evidence that the German version of this instrument has good psychometric properties and satisfactory convergent and factorial validity across various age groups and both men and women. Thus, the German version of the ISI can be recommended as a brief screening measure in German-speaking populations.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sono , Tradução , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sleep Med Rev ; 28: 32-45, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26447947

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) is considered an effective, non-pharmacological approach to improve sleep. However, the accurate measurement of PA and sleep among adolescents is fraught with challenges. Additionally, comparing the results of different studies is often difficult due to the diversity of assessment tools, analyses and data reporting procedures used. While previous reviews have considered variables that may confound this relationship, this systematic review examines the variations in measurement methods. Based on this overview, a meta-analysis was performed to assess possible influences of the various approaches on effect sizes. Twenty-one studies were included in the systematic review, of which 12 were appropriate for meta-analysis. For this, four subgroups were formed: subjective PA and subjective sleep, objective PA and subjective sleep, subjective PA and objective sleep, and objective PA and objective sleep. The majority of studies used subjective measures, often with unknown reliability or validity. Few studies employed objective tools to measure sleep. The results suggest that adolescents with higher subjective and objective PA are more likely to experience good sleep subjectively and objectively. More studies employing subjective and objective measures for both PA and sleep are needed. Researchers should take into account several assessment factors unique to the adolescent population.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychol Rep ; 117(3): 703-23, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26652888

RESUMO

Past research has shown that higher stress is associated with increased burnout symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test whether mental toughness protects against symptoms of burnout and whether mental toughness moderates the relationship between perceived stress and burnout over time. Fifty-four vocational students (M age = 18.1 yr., SD = 1.2; 27 males, 27 females) completed self-report questionnaires twice, 10 mo. apart. Perceived stress, mental toughness, and burnout were measured using the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ), the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ), and the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM). Students who perceived higher stress and lower mental toughness scores reported higher burnout symptoms. Although no significant interaction effects were found between stress and mental toughness in the prediction of burnout, the graphical inspection of the interactions indicated that among students with high stress, those with high mental toughness remained below the cutoff for mild burnout, whereas an increase in burnout symptoms was observable among peers with low mental toughness.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Psicometria , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça , Educação Vocacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 37(2): 180-92, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25996108

RESUMO

This study examines how students who met the current recommendations for vigorous physical activity (VPA) of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) differ from peers who did not reach these standards with regard to self-reported burnout, before and after controlling for light physical activity and moderate physical activity. A sample of 144 vocational students (Mage =16.2 years, SD = 1.13, 98 males) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure, and the School Burnout Inventory. Bivariate correlations revealed that only VPA was associated with reduced burnout. Both the ACSM and CDC guidelines were useful to identify significant differences in burnout symptoms between students who met versus did not meet the standards. Health policy makers should develop strategies to integrate more VPA into the lives of adolescent students so as to reach a minimum of 60 min per week.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Medicina Esportiva/normas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
16.
J Sports Sci ; 33(4): 369-80, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25098842

RESUMO

Stress exposure may undermine exercisers' capability to self-regulate their exercise behaviour. This longitudinal study examined the interplay between perceived stress, exercise self-regulation (assessment of action and coping planning) and participation in vigorous exercise in vocational students. Moreover, this study examined whether high exercise self-regulation moderates the assumed negative relationship between stress and exercise. A sample of 580 physically active vocational students ([Formula: see text] ± s 17.8 ± 1.3 years, 33.8% girls) was assessed. All participants completed two identical validated questionnaires assessing stress, exercise self-regulation and exercise with a span of 10 months in between survey completion periods. The cross-sectional analyses show that high exercise self-regulation attenuated the assumed negative relationship between stress and exercise. In the longitudinal analyses, however, only a non-significant trend was found. Significant longitudinal relationships existed between exercise self-regulation and exercise involvement. Latent difference score models revealed that a drop in the exercise self-regulation was associated with a concurrent decrease in exercise participation. Cross-lagged panel analyses showed that high exercise self-regulation levels positively predicted exercise behaviour, but an inverse relationship was not supported. The findings suggested that higher exercise self-regulation levels were positively associated with future exercise involvement in currently active adolescents. While partial support was found that exercise self-regulation moderated the influence of stress on exercise, the findings demonstrated that higher exercise self-regulation levels had a positive impact on future exercise involvement in already active individuals.


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Percepção , Esforço Físico , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Physiol Behav ; 120: 46-53, 2013 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23851332

RESUMO

Both scientists and the general public assume that physical activity (PA) is an effective, non-pharmacological approach to improvement in sleep quality. However, objective and reliable data on this relationship are scarce, particularly for adolescents. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to test the relationship by assessing both PA and sleep subjectively and objectively. A total of 56 adolescent vocational school students (Mean age=17.98, SD=1.36; 28 males, 28 females) participated in the study. Sleep and PA were subjectively assessed via questionnaires. Accelerometers objectively assessed PA, while sleep-EEG devices objectively assessed sleep. The data supported our prediction that adolescents with high PA levels would have longer TST, fewer wakening at night (WASO), fewer symptoms of insomnia, and higher sleep quality. However, gender influenced this pattern of results in that significant findings were only found between high self-reported PA levels and shorter perceived sleep onset latency (SOL). Though self-reported PA levels were a better predictor of good sleep than objectively assessed PA levels, gender was associated with sleep complaints; females reported more sleep complaints. Results indicate that among a non-clinical sample of adolescents increased PA is favorably associated with restoring sleep. Therefore, PA seems beneficial not only for physical and mental health, but also for sleep restoration.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Actigrafia , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Fases do Sono , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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