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1.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusions (CTO) remains debated. Therefore the aim of this large-scale observational multi-center registry was to compare the long-term outcome of CTO patients undergoing different therapeutic approaches comparing successful CTO revascularization either by PCI or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), failed CTO-PCI and optimal medical therapy (OMT) alone. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 6630 CTO patients were enrolled from two high-volume centers to compare different treatment strategies. All procedures were performed by high-volume CTO operators in tertiary university hospital. Successful CTO-PCI was performed in 3906 patients, failed CTO-PCI in 1479 patients, 412 patients underwent CABG surgery and 833 patients were treated with OMT. During the 5-year follow-up period, 1019 (15%) patients died. Kaplan-Meier analysis unveiled a significantly improved long-term outcome for CTO patients undergoing revascularization either by PCI or by CABG compared to patients with failed CTO-PCI or OMT alone (log-rank P < 0.001). In the multivariate Cox-regression analysis successful CTO-PCI was associated with significantly improved long-term outcome compared to patients under OMT (adj. HR 0.39, 95%CI 0.33-0.45, P < 0.001) or CABG (adj. HR 0.68, 95%CI 0.53-0.86, P = 0.002) independent of clinical confounders encompassing age, BMI, diabetes, kidney function and left ventricular function. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed an improved long-term outcome for CTO revascularization compared to optimal medical therapy, independent from revascularization mode, with the highest survival rate in patients undergoing successful CTO-PCI.

2.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(4): 300-309, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approaches to risk assessment in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) include the noninvasive French risk assessment approach (number of low-risk criteria based on the European Society of Cardiology and European Respiratory Society guidelines) and Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL) 2.0 risk calculator. The prognostic and predictive value of these methods for morbidity/mortality was evaluated in the predominantly prevalent population of GRIPHON, the largest randomized controlled trial in PAH. METHODS: GRIPHON randomized 1,156 patients with PAH to selexipag or placebo. Post-hoc analyses were performed on the primary composite end-point of morbidity/mortality by the number of low-risk criteria (World Health Organization functional class I-II; 6-minute walk distance >440 m; N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide <300 ng/liter) and REVEAL 2.0 risk category. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Both the number of low-risk criteria and the REVEAL 2.0 risk category were prognostic for morbidity/mortality at baseline and any time-point during the study. Patients with 3 low-risk criteria at baseline had a 94% reduced risk of morbidity/mortality compared to patients with 0 low-risk criteria and were all categorized as low-risk by REVEAL 2.0. The treatment effect of selexipag on morbidity/mortality was consistent irrespective of the number of low-risk criteria or the REVEAL 2.0 risk category at any time-point during the study. Selexipag-treated patients were more likely to increase their number of low-risk criteria from baseline to week 26 than placebo-treated patients (odds ratio 1.69, p = 0.0002); similar results were observed for REVEAL 2.0 risk score. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the association between risk profile and long-term outcome and suggest that selexipag treatment may improve risk profile.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078212

RESUMO

AIMS: Concomitant cardiac amyloidosis (CA) in severe aortic stenosis (AS) is difficult to recognize, since both conditions are associated with concentric left ventricular thickening. We aimed to assess type, frequency, screening parameters, and prognostic implications of CA in AS. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 191 consecutive AS patients (81.2 ± 7.4 years; 50.3% female) scheduled for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) were prospectively enrolled. Overall, 81.7% underwent complete assessment including echocardiography with strain analysis, electrocardiography (ECG), cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), 99m Tc-DPD scintigraphy, serum and urine free light chain measurement, and myocardial biopsy in immunoglobulin light chain (AL)-CA. Voltage/mass ratio (VMR; Sokolow-Lyon index on ECG/left ventricular mass index) and stroke volume index (SVi) were tested as screening parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curve, binary logistic regression, and Kaplan-Meier curve analyses were performed. CA was found in 8.4% of patients (n = 16); 15 had transthyretin (TTR)-CA and one AL-CA. While global longitudinal strain by echo did not reliably differentiate AS from CA-AS [area under the curve (AUC) 0.643], VMR as well as SVi showed good discriminative power (AUC 0.770 and 0.773, respectively), which was comparable to extracellular volume by CMR (AUC 0.756). Also, VMR and SVi were independently associated with CA by multivariate logistic regression analysis (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027, respectively). CA did not significantly affect survival 15.3 ± 7.9 months after TAVR (P = 0.972). CONCLUSION: Both TTR- and AL-CA can accompany severe AS. Parameters solely based on ECG and echocardiography allow for the identification of the majority of CA-AS. In the present cohort, CA did not significantly worsen prognosis 15.3 months after TAVR.

4.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 34(1): 53-63, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062795

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Since ticagrelor inhibits the cellular uptake of adenosine, thereby increasing extracellular adenosine concentration and biological activity, we hypothesized that ticagrelor has adenosine-dependent antiplatelet properties. In the current study, we compared the effects of ticagrelor and prasugrel on platelet activation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Platelet surface expression of P-selectin and activated glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), the toll-like receptor (TLR)-1/2 agonist Pam3CSK4, the TLR-4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 agonist SFLLRN, and the PAR-4 agonist AYPGKF were measured by flow cytometry in blood from 80 ticagrelor- and 80 prasugrel-treated ACS patients on day 3 after percutaneous coronary intervention. Residual platelet aggregation to arachidonic acid (AA) and ADP were assessed by multiple electrode aggregometry and light transmission aggregometry. RESULTS: ADP-induced platelet activation and aggregation, and AA-induced platelet aggregation were similar in patients on ticagrelor and prasugrel, respectively (all p ≥ 0.3). Further, LPS-induced platelet surface expression of P-selectin and activated GPIIb/IIIa did not differ significantly between ticagrelor- and prasugrel-treated patients (both p > 0.4). In contrast, Pam3CSK4-induced platelet surface expression of P-selectin and activated GPIIb/IIIa were significantly lower in ticagrelor-treated patients (both p ≤ 0.005). Moreover, SFLLRN-induced platelet surface expression of P-selectin and activated GPIIb/IIIa were significantly less pronounced in patients on ticagrelor therapy compared to prasugrel-treated patients (both p < 0.03). Finally, PAR-4 mediated platelet activation as assessed by platelet surface expression of activated GPIIb/IIIa following stimulation with AYPGKF was significantly lower in patients receiving ticagrelor (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Ticagrelor inhibits TLR-1/2 and PAR mediated platelet activation in ACS patients more strongly than prasugrel.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990323

RESUMO

AIMS: We assessed morphological features of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-detected lipid-rich plaques (LRPs) by using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). METHODS AND RESULTS: IVUS-NIRS and OCT were performed in the two non-infarct-related arteries (non-IRAs) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for treatment of an acute coronary syndrome. A lesion was defined as the 4 mm segment with the maximum amount of lipid core burden index (maxLCBI4mm) of each LRP detected by NIRS. We divided the lesions into three groups based on the maxLCBI4mm value: <250, 250-399, and ≥400. OCT analysis and IVUS analysis were performed blinded for NIRS. We measured fibrous cap thickness (FCT) by using a semi-automated method. A total of 104 patients underwent multimodality imaging of 209 non-IRAs. NIRS detected 299 LRPs. Of those, 41% showed a maxLCBI4mm <250, 39% a maxLCBI4mm 251-399, and 19% a maxLCBI4mm ≥400. LRPs with a maxLCBI4mm ≥400, as compared with LRPs with a maxLCBI4mm 250-399 and <250, were more frequently thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) (42.1% vs. 5.1% and 0.8%; P < 0.001) with a smaller minimum FCT (80 µm vs. 110 µm and 120 µm; P < 0.001); a higher IVUS-derived percent atheroma volume (53% vs. 53% and 44%; P < 0.001) and a higher remodelling index (1.08 vs. 1.02 and 1.01; P < 0.001). MaxLCBI4mm correlated with OCT-derived FCT (r = 0.404; P < 0.001) and was the best predictor for TCFA with an optimal cut-off value of 401 (area under the curve = 0.882; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: LRPs with increasing maxLCBI4mm exhibit OCT and IVUS features of presumed plaque vulnerability including TCFA morphology, increased plaque burden, and positive remodelling.

6.
Circulation ; 141(5): 376-386, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the gold standard treatment for patients with operable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. However, persistent pulmonary hypertension (PH) after PEA remains a major determinant of poor prognosis. A concomitant small-vessel arteriopathy in addition to major pulmonary artery obstruction has been suggested to play an important role in the development of persistent PH and survival after PEA. One of the greatest unmet needs in the current preoperative evaluation is to assess the presence and severity of small-vessel arteriopathy. Using the pulmonary artery occlusion technique, we sought to assess the presence and degree of small-vessel disease in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension undergoing PEA to predict postoperative outcome before surgery. METHODS: Based on pulmonary artery occlusion waveforms yielding an estimate of the effective capillary pressure, we partitioned pulmonary vascular resistance in larger arterial (upstream resistance [Rup]) and small arterial plus venous components (downstream resistance) in 90 patients before PEA. For validation, lung wedge biopsies were taken from nonobstructed and obstructed lung territories during PEA in 49 cases. Biopsy sites were chosen according to the pulmonary angiogram still frames that were mounted in the operating room. All vessels per specimen were measured in each patient. Percent media (%MT; arteries) and intima thickness (%IT; arteries, veins, and indeterminate vessels) were calculated relative to external vessel diameter. RESULTS: Decreased Rup was an independent predictor of persistent PH (odds ratio per 10%, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.23-0.69]; P=0.001) and survival (hazard ratio per 10%, 0.03 [95% CI, 0.00-0.33]; p=0.004). Arterial %MT and %IT of nonobstructed lung territories and venous %IT of obstructed lung territories were significantly increased in patients with persistent PH and nonsurvivors. Rup correlated inversely with %MT (r=-0.72, P<0.001) and %IT (r=-0.62, P<0.001) of arteries from nonobstructed lung territories and with %IT (r=-0.44, P=0.024) of veins from obstructed lung territories. Receiver operating characteristic analysis disclosed that Rup <66% predicted persistent PH after PEA, whereas Rup <60% identified patients with poor prognosis after PEA. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary artery occlusion waveform analysis with estimation of Rup seems to be a valuable technique for assessing the degree of small-vessel disease and postoperative outcome after PEA in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

7.
Int J Cardiol ; 301: 183-189, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806280

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is an obstructive pulmonary vasculopathy that leads to increased pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular overload and failure, and death. Patients' clinical status and prognosis depend mostly on the capability of the right ventricle to adapt to the increased afterload, maintain function, and preserve cardiac output. As a result, reducing the hemodynamic burden of the right ventricle should be a key target of current treatments, along with improvement in WHO functional class, 6-minute walk distance, and rates of hospitalization. However, physicians still find it challenging to integrate the evaluation of right ventricular function into widely accepted clinical parameters in order to stratify patients more accurately. This limitation is very relevant, since higher-risk patients are more likely to benefit from a more aggressive therapeutic approach. We analyzed the hemodynamic burden in pulmonary arterial hypertension, the importance of echocardiographic evaluation of the right ventricle, the impact of current treatments on hemodynamic parameters, and the identification of patients who are more likely to benefit from a more aggressive therapeutic approach.

8.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 132(3-4): 69-72, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549230

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy are the most common causes of pregnancy-associated mortality.Vaginal delivery is the preferred mode of birth in the majority of pregnancies.It is recommended that patients with modified World Health Organization (mWHO) class IV risk are counselled against pregnancy.Patients carrying mWHO II-III, III, and class IV risks should undergo prepregnancy counselling by a multidisciplinary pregnancy heart team to determine a delivery plan and define postpartum care.Specific medications should not be principally withheld in pregnancy but the risk-benefit ratio should be carefully evaluated prior to administration.Beta blockers are recommended during and after pregnancy for congenital long QT syndrome and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.Low molecular weight heparin is the ideal substance for prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy under weekly monitoring of anti-factor Xa activity.

10.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(1): 151-161, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women are more susceptible than men to several forms of pulmonary hypertension, but have better survival. Sparse data are available on chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). METHODS: We investigated sex-specific differences in the clinical presentation of CTEPH, performance of pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), and survival. RESULTS: Women constituted one-half of the study population of the European CTEPH registry (N = 679) and were characterized by a lower prevalence of some cardiovascular risk factors, including prior acute coronary syndrome, smoking habit, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but more prevalent obesity, cancer, and thyroid diseases. The median age was 62 (interquartile ratio, 50-73) years in women and 63 (interquartile ratio, 53-70) in men. Women underwent PEA less often than men (54% vs 65%), especially at low-volume centers (48% vs 61%), and were exposed to fewer additional cardiac procedures, notably coronary artery bypass graft surgery (0.5% vs 9.5%). The prevalence of specific reasons for not being operated, including patient's refusal and the proportion of proximal vs distal lesions, did not differ between sexes. A total of 57 (17.0%) deaths in women and 70 (20.7%) in men were recorded over long-term follow-up. Female sex was positively associated with long-term survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.94). Short-term mortality was identical in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Women with CTEPH underwent PEA less frequently than men, especially at low-volume centers. Furthermore, they had a lower prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and were less often exposed to additional cardiac surgery procedures. Women had better long-term survival.

11.
Chest ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has evolved substantially over the past two decades and varies according to etiology, functional class (FC), hemodynamic parameters, and other clinical factors. Current guidelines do not provide definitive recommendations regarding the use of oral prostacyclin pathway agents (PPAs) in PAH. To provide guidance on the use of these agents, an expert panel was convened to develop consensus statements for the initiation of oral PPAs in adults with PAH. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE. The established RAND/University of California Los Angeles appropriateness method, which incorporates the Delphi method and the nominal group technique, was used to create consensus statements. Idiopathic, heritable, repaired congenital heart defect, and drug- or toxin-induced PAH (IPAH+) was considered as one etiologic grouping. The process was focused on the use of oral treprostinil or selexipag in patients with IPAH+ or connective tissue disease-associated PAH and FC II or III symptoms receiving background dual endothelin receptor antagonist/phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy. RESULTS: The panel developed 14 consensus statements regarding the appropriate use of oral PPAs in the target population. The panel identified 13 clinical scenarios in which selexipag may be considered as a treatment option. CONCLUSIONS: The paucity of clinical evidence overall, and particularly from randomized trials in this setting, creates a gap in knowledge. These consensus statements are intended to aid physicians in navigating treatment options and using oral PPAs in the most appropriate manner in patients with PAH.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16304, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704966

RESUMO

Neutrophils release their chromatin into the extracellular space upon activation. These web-like structures are called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and have potent prothrombotic and proinflammatory properties. In ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), NETs correlate with increased infarct size. The interplay of neutrophils and monocytes impacts cardiac remodeling. Monocyte subsets are classified as classical, intermediate and non-classical monocytes. In the present study, in vitro stimulation with NETs led to an increase of intermediate monocytes and reduced expression of CX3CR1 in all subsets. Intermediate monocytes have been associated with poor outcome, while non-classical CX3CR1-positive monocytes could have reparative function after STEMI. We characterized monocyte subsets and NET markers at the culprit lesion site of STEMI patients (n = 91). NET surrogate markers were increased and correlated with larger infarct size and with fewer non-classical monocytes. Intermediate and especially non-classical monocytes were increased at the culprit site compared to the femoral site. Low CX3CR1 expression of monocytes correlated with high NET markers and increased infarct size. In this translational system, causality cannot be proven. However, our data suggest that NETs interfere with monocytic differentiation and receptor expression, presumably promoting a subset shift at the culprit lesion site. Reduced monocyte CX3CR1 expression may compromise myocardial salvage.

16.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e029661, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although substantial progress in the treatment of stable angina pectoris (sAP) has been made, little is known about the functional status and quality of life (QoL) of patients in different healthcare systems. DESIGN AND METHODS: We undertook a survey using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) (five domains scored form 0-worst assessment to 100-best assessment) to assess symptoms, QoL (including limitation of activities), demographics, geographic distribution and individual disease data in patients with stable coronary artery disease in Austrian cardiology practices. RESULTS: A total of 660 patients with sAP with a mean age of 69.2 years were included. SAQ scores were 67.5±24.4 for physical limitation, 65.5±26.6 for angina stability, 79.3±23.2 for angina frequency, 86.3±16.2 for treatment satisfaction and 63.7±24.2 for overall QoL. Multiple regression identified male gender, but also female gender, Eastern Austrian residence and high body mass index as predictive factors for SAQ scoring. A total of 35.6% of the patients reported at least one desirable activity that was limited through AP symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Activity and QoL assessments are in accordance with published literature: The number and the diversity of desired activities indicate the need to focus on patient's individual activity level to improve symptom management.

17.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; : 1-7, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545126

RESUMO

Introduction: Parenteral treprostinil for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension has resulted in improvement of exercise capacity, functional class, hemodynamics, and survival. Recently, a first randomized trial performed in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension confirmed the efficacy of subcutaneous treprostinil in this subset of pulmonary hypertension. Areas covered: Treprostinil sodium is a prostacyclin analog produced synthetically. Drug characteristics include potent systemic and pulmonary vasodilatory effects. Local side-effects of subcutaneous treprostinil have been an obstacle for its use. However, in contrast to other prostacyclins, treprostinil has favorable features. We performed a literature survey by searching PubMed for clinical trials published in any language, investigating medicinal treatments for CTEPH. We used the search terms 'inoperable', and 'chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension' with 'randomized clinical trial', and have put treprostinil for CTEPH in the contest of published literature. Expert opinion: Drugs approved for PAH have recently shown excellent efficacy in patients with non-operable CTEPH. Rather than head-to-head comparisons of drugs, combination treatments are to be expected in the near future. Furthermore, drugs will have to be tested alongside with pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), and alongside balloon pulmonary angioplasty, a promising percutaneous mechanical treatment for CTEPH that is not suited for PEA.

18.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 3(3): 383-390, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294325

RESUMO

Background: Despite the increasing use of potent P2Y12 inhibitors, further atherothrombotic events still impair the prognosis of many acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. This may in part be attributable to intact platelet aggregation via the human thrombin receptors protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-4. Objective: We studied PAR mediated platelet aggregation in ACS patients following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation in a cross-sectional study. Methods: Platelet aggregation to ADP as well as to the PAR-1 agonist SFLLRN and the PAR-4 agonist AYPGKF was assessed by multiple electrode aggregometry in 194 ACS patients on dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and either prasugrel (n = 114) or ticagrelor (n = 80) 3 days after PCI. Results: Based on the consensus cutoff value, high on-treatment residual platelet reactivity to ADP (HRPR ADP) was observed in only 2 prasugrel-treated patients. Both patients with HRPR ADP had also a normal response to SFLLRN and AYPGKF. Among the 112 prasugrel-treated patients with adequate P2Y12 inhibition, 50 patients (45%) still had a normal response to SFLLRN, and 70 patients (63%) still had a normal response to AYPGKF. Among the 80 ticagrelor-treated patients with adequate P2Y12 inhibition, 25 patients (31%) still had a normal response to SFLLRN, and 50 (63%) still had a normal response to AYPGKF. Conclusion: Normal platelet aggregation via PAR-1 and PAR-4 is preserved in many patients with adequate P2Y12 inhibition by prasugrel and ticagrelor. The present findings may at least in part explain adverse ischemic events despite potent P2Y12 inhibition.

19.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(19): 1367-1372, 2019 09.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277079

RESUMO

The ESC/ERS guidelines (published at the end of 2015) and other international recommendations defined pulmonary hypertension (PH) by an invasively measured mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) ≥ 25 mmHg at rest. At the 6th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in Nice a modification of this hemodynamic definition in the sense of lowering the threshold to > 20 mmHg was proposed. A pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) ≥ 3 Wood units (WU) is additionally required for the diagnosis of pre-capillary PH. This modification must be critically reviewed with regard to the underlying rationale and possible consequences. Therefore, a detailed explanation is required. In particular, it must be made clear that this change currently has no influence on the evidence-based and approval-compliant prescription of drugs for the targeted therapy of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Cardiologia/organização & administração , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/classificação , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pneumologia/organização & administração , Resistência Vascular
20.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 114(5): 33, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312919

RESUMO

Leukocyte-mediated inflammation is central in atherothrombosis and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been shown to enhance atherothrombosis and stimulate fibroblast function. We analyzed the effects of NETs on cardiac remodeling after STEMI. We measured double-stranded (ds)DNA and citrullinated histone H3 (citH3) as NET surrogate markers in human culprit site and femoral blood collected during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 50). Fibrocytes were characterized in whole blood by flow cytometry, and in culprit site thrombi and myocardium by immunofluorescence. To investigate mechanisms of fibrocyte activation, isolated NETs were used to induce fibrocyte responses in vitro. Enzymatic infarct size was assessed using creatine-phosphokinase isoform MB area under the curve. Left ventricular function was measured by transthoracic echocardiography. NET surrogate markers were increased at the culprit site compared to the femoral site and were positively correlated with infarct size and left ventricular dysfunction at follow-up. In vitro, NETs promoted fibrocyte differentiation from monocytes and induced fibrocyte activation. Highly activated fibrocytes accumulated at the culprit site and in the infarct transition zone. Our data suggest that NETs might be important mediators of fibrotic remodeling after STEMI, possibly by stimulating fibrocytes.


Assuntos
Armadilhas Extracelulares , Fibroblastos/patologia , Leucócitos/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fibrose/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/imunologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/patologia
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