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1.
Pediatr Radiol ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology European Neuroblastoma Research Network (SIOPEN) skeletal score using 123iodine-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has been confirmed for people with high-risk neuroblastoma. Whole-body MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging is used increasingly. OBJECTIVE: To compare the original SIOPEN score and its adaption by diffusion-weighted imaging in high-risk stage 4 neuroblastoma and to evaluate any consequences of score differences on overall survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study included pediatric patients who underwent MIBG scintigraphy and whole-body MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging, between 2010 and 2015. Semi-quantitative skeletal scores for each exam were calculated independently. A difference of two or more points was defined as clinically relevant and counted as M+ (more in diffusion-weighted imaging) or S+ (more in MIBG). In cases of a negative result in one of the studies, residual disease of 1 point was also rated as relevant. We tested correlation and differences on an exam basis and also grouped by different therapeutic conditions. Overall survival was used to evaluate prognostic relevance. RESULTS: Seventeen children with 25 paired examinations were evaluated. Median MIBG scintigraphy score was 0 (interquartile range [IQR] 0-4, range 0-25) vs. a median whole-body MRI score of 1 (IQR 0-5.5, range 0-35) (P=0.018). A relevant difference between whole-body MRI and MIBG scintigraphy was noted in 14 of the 25 paired examinations (M+: n=9; S+: n=5). After treatment, the median survival of cases with M+ was 14 months (IQR 4-59, range 1-74 months), while S+ cases showed a median survival of 49 months (IQR 36-52, range 36-52 months) (P=0.413). CONCLUSION: The SIOPEN scoring system is feasible for whole-body MRI but might result in slightly higher scores, probably because of MRI's superior spatial resolution. Further studies are necessary to validate any impact on prognosis.

2.
Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates towards an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and procoagulatory state in blood. Thromboelastographic investigations are useful point-of-care devices to assess coagulation and fibrinolysis. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the hypothesis that the procoagulatory state in COVID-19 patients is caused by impaired fibrinolysis system. METHODS: COVID-19 patients admitted to normal wards or to the intensive care unit (ICU) were included in the study. Whole blood samples were investigated by thromboelastography. Additionally, global parameters of coagulation and factors of fibrinolysis as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activity and alpha 2-antiplasmin (A2AP) were determined. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A significantly increased lysis-resistance and a significantly longer time of lysis after adding tissue plasminogen activator was observed in blood samples from ICU COVID-19 patients compared to controls (maximal lysis: 3.25% ± 0.56 vs. 6.20% ± 0.89, p=0.0127; lysis time: 365.7s ± 44.6 vs. 193.2s ± 16.3, p=0.0014). PAI-1 activity was significantly higher in plasma samples of ICU COVID-19 patients (PAI-1: 4.92U/ml ± 0.91 vs. 1.28U/ml ± 0.33, p=0.001). Interestingly, a positively correlation between the activity of PAI-1 and the lysis time of the formed clot (r=0.7015, p=0.0006) was observed. Our data suggest that severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with impaired fibrinolytic activity in blood, where fibrinolytic inhibitors are elevated leading to an increased resistance to clot lysis. Future clinical studies should address the contribution of the fibrinolysis system to the procoagulatory state in blood of COVID-19 patients and investigate potential therapeutic targets in this system.

3.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; : 1-19, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635158

RESUMO

Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has become an established component of treatment protocols for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with excellent efficacy and no relevant sustained toxicity. Part of its action has been attributed to the inhibition of Hedgehog signaling (Hh) which enables a possible therapeutic approach as many pediatric tumor entities have been associated with increased Hh activity. We retrospectively analyzed 31 patients with refractory and relapsed pediatric cancer who were treated with ATO at the University Children's Hospital of Tuebingen. Additionally a literature review on the clinical and preclinical use of ATO in pediatric cancer treatment was performed.ATO alone as well as combinations with other drugs have proven effective in vitro and in mouse models of various pediatric malignancies. However, only few data on the clinical use of ATO in pediatric patients besides APL exist. In our patient sample, ATO was overall well tolerated in the treatment of various pediatric cancers, even in combination with other cytostatic drugs. Due to distinct tumor entities, differently progressed disease stages and varying co-medication, no clear statement can be made regarding the efficacy of ATO treatment. However, patients with proven Hh activation in molecular tumor profiling surpassed all other patients, who received ATO in an experimental treatment setting, in terms of survival. As molecular profiling of tumors increases and enhanced Hh activity can be detected at an early stage, ATO might expand its clinical use to other pediatric malignancies beyond APL depending on further clinical studies.

4.
Stem Cells Dev ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446053

RESUMO

Steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). Alternative treatment options are often insufficient. Several studies have proven the efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the treatment of therapy-refractory acute GvHD in adult and pediatric patients. Long-term data in pediatric patients are scarce. In this retrospective analysis, a total of 25 patients with a median age of 10.6 years (range 0.6-22.1 years) who received bone marrow-derived MSCs after alloHSCT for the treatment of steroid-refractory III and IV GvHD were analyzed. The median observation period of the surviving patients was 9.3 years (1.3-12.7 years) after HSCT. Among the 25 patients, 10 (40.0%) died [relapse (n = 3), multiorgan failure (n = 6), cardiorespiratory failure (n = 1)] at median 0.5 years (0.2-2.3 years) after HSCT. Partial response and complete remission (PR, CR) of the GvHD were achieved in 76.0% and 24.0% of the patients, respectively. Transplant-related mortality was 0% in the patients who achieved CR after MSC treatment and 26.3% for those with PR. A median improvement by one intestinal or liver GvHD stage (range 1-4) could be achieved after MSC application. No potentially MSC-related long-term adverse effects, for example, secondary malignancy, were identified. In conclusion, the intravenous application of allogeneic MSCs was safe and proved effective for the treatment of steroid-refractory GvHD. However, larger, prospective, and randomized trials are needed to evaluate these findings.

5.
Eur J Haematol ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia have a poor prognosis. We here assess the response rates, adverse events, and long-term follow-up of pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving blinatumomab. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a single-center experience with blinatumomab in 38 patients over a period of 10 years. RESULTS: The median age at onset of therapy was 10 years (1-21 years). Seventy-one percent of patients had undergone at least one hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) prior to treatment with blinatumomab. We observed a response to blinatumomab in 13/38 patients (34%). The predominant side effect was febrile reactions, nearly half of the patients developed a cytokine release syndrome. Eight events of neurotoxicity were registered over the 78 cycles (15%). To date, nine patients (24%) are alive and in complete molecular remission. All survivors underwent haploidentical HSCT after treatment with blinatumomab. CONCLUSIONS: Despite heavy pretreatment of most of our patients, severe adverse events were rare and response rates encouraging. Blinatumomab is a valuable bridging salvage therapy for relapsed or refractory patients to a second or even third HSCT.

6.
Pediatr Transplant ; : e13892, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098344

RESUMO

HSCT is curative in SCD. Patients with HLA-identical sibling donor have an excellent outcome ranging from 90%-100% overall and event-free survival. However, due to the lack of matched sibling donors this option is out of reach for 70% of patients with SCD. The pool of potential donors needs to be extended. Transplantations from HLA-matched unrelated donors were reported to be less successful with shorter event-free survival and higher incidences of complications including graft-vs-host disease, especially in patients with advanced stage SCD. Here we report transplantation outcomes for 25 children with SCD transplanted using HLA-matched grafts from related or unrelated donors. Overall survival was 100% with no severe (grade III-IV) graft-vs-host disease and a 12% rejection rate. Mixed donor chimerisms only occurred in transplantations from siblings, while transplantations from unrelated donors resulted in either complete donor chimerism or rejection. Despite the small patient number, overall and disease-free survival for unrelated donor transplantations is excellent in this cohort. The advanced disease state, higher alloreactive effect and stronger immunosuppression in unrelated donor transplantations raises patient risk, for which possible solutions could be found in optimization of transplant preparation, graft manipulation or haploidentical transplantation using T cell receptor α/ß-depleted grafts.

7.
Children (Basel) ; 7(11)2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126407

RESUMO

Adverse thromboembolic events following administration of the anti-fibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid (TA), used to prevent/treat excessive blood loss, are rare. We present the clinical course of two young patients (22 and 56 months) receiving busulfan/melphalan (Bu/Mel) high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to treat high-risk neuroblastoma, who developed hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) within 48 h after systemic TA treatment for a hemodynamically relevant hemorrhage. Defibrotide treatment resolved hepatic SOS, but the short time between TA administration and SOS onset suggests a causal association.

8.
Psychophysiology ; 57(12): e13702, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031583
9.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 3915-3927, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061297

RESUMO

Background: High-dose myeloablative conditioning prior to autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (autoHSCT) in pediatric patients is usually highly emetogenic. The antiemetic neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist fosaprepitant was safe and effective in children receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Data on fosaprepitant during autoHSCT in children are currently not available. Methods: A total of 35 consecutive pediatric patients, who received an antiemetic prophylaxis with fosaprepitant (4 mg/kg; single dose, max. 1 x 150 mg/kg BW) and ondansetron (24-hours continuous infusion; 8-32 mg/24h) or granisetron (2 x 40 µg/kg∙d-1) during highly emetogenic conditioning chemotherapy before autoHSCT were retrospectively analyzed, and their results were compared with a control group comprising 35 consecutive pediatric patients, who received granisetron or ondansetron only. The antiemetic efficacy and the safety of the two prophylaxis regimens were compared with respect to three time periods after the first chemotherapy administration (0-24h, >24-120h, >120-240h). Results: Clinical adverse events and clinically relevant increases/decreases of laboratory markers were similarly low and did not significantly differ between the two study groups (p>0.05). The registered number of vomiting events was significantly higher in the control group in the time periods of 0-24h (64 vs 22 events; p<0.01), >24-120h (135 vs 78 events; p<0.0001), >120-240h (268 vs 105 events; p<0.0001), and the whole observation period 0-240h (467 vs 205 events; p<0.0001). The percentage of patients experiencing vomiting was higher in the control group during the time period of >24-120h (100% vs 74.3%) but not the other analyzed time periods (p>0.05). Conclusion: The fosaprepitant-based antiemetic prophylaxis was safe, well tolerated and significantly reduced vomiting in children undergoing highly emetogenic chemotherapy prior to autoHSCT. Prospective randomized trials are necessary to confirm these results.

10.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(5): 622-625, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951037

RESUMO

The pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection is a severe complication of coronavirus disease 2019. Since impaired coagulation and thrombosis/endotheliitis are suspected pathomechanisms, we treated 2 patients with defibrotide, a profibrinolytic, antithrombotic, antiinflammatory oligonucleotide. Symptoms resolved during treatment. Moreover, coagulation parameters indicating hypofibrinolysis and complement activation normalized. The pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection is a severe complication of coronavirus disease 2019. Since impaired coagulation and thrombosis/endotheliitis are suspected pathomechanisms, 2 patients received defibrotide, a profibrinolytic, antithrombotic, antiinflammatory oligonucleotide. Symptoms resolved and hypofibrinolysis/complement activation normalized during treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Polidesoxirribonucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/análise , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
11.
Mol Cell Pediatr ; 7(1): 12, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term outcomes of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children with juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) have been investigated systematically, while short-term effects of HSCT on the course of the disease remain to be elucidated. RESULTS: In this study, the clinical course was evaluated over the first 24 months following HSCT, conducted at our center in 12 children with juvenile MLD (mean follow-up 6.75 years, range 3-13.5) and compared with 35 non-transplanted children with juvenile MLD. Motor function (GMFM-88 and GMFC-MLD), cognitive function (FSIQ), peripheral neuropathy (tibial nerve conduction velocity), and cerebral changes (MLD-MR severity score) were tested prospectively. Seven children remained neurologically stable over a long period, five exhibited rapid disease progression over the first 12 to 18 months after transplantation. In the latter, time from first gross motor symptoms to loss of independent walking was significantly shorter compared with non-transplanted patients at the same stage of disease (p < 0.02). Positive prognostic factors were good motor function (GMFM = 100%, GMFC-MLD = 0) and a low MR severity score (≤ 17) at the time of HSCT. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that if disease progression occurs, this happens early on after HSCT and proceeds faster than in non-transplanted children with juvenile MLD, indicating that HSCT may trigger disease progression.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are inherited disorders of the immune system with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as the only curative treatment in some of them. In case a HLA-matched donor is not available, HSCT from a haploidentical family donor may be considered. OBJECTIVE: We compared the outcomes of HSCT from HLA-matched unrelated or related donors (MUD or MRD) and mismatched related haploidentical donors (MMRD) in patients with a variety of PIDs in two centers. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 44 pediatric patients were evaluated. We reviewed the outcomes of 25 children transplanted with HLA-matched grafts (n = 13 MRD; n = 12 MUD) and 19 patients receiving haploidentical stem cells. Bone marrow (BM) was transplanted in 85% (MRD) and 75% (MUD) of the matched cohort and peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) in 15% (MRD), 25% (MUD) and 100% of the MMRD group. All but 9 patients (n = 6 MRD; n = 3 MMRD) with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) received a chemotherapy based conditioning regimen. RESULTS: Immune reconstitution of T-, B- and NK--cells was comparable for all groups with an advantage of recipients of MRD grafts in early CD4 reconstitution. However, deaths due to viral infections occurred more often in the haploidentical cohort. The disease free survival was 91.7% (MRD), 66.7% (MUD) and 62.7% (MMRD), respectively. Acute GvHD II-IV occurred in 15% (MRD), 8% (MUD) and 21% (MMRD) of the patients. Though, only one patient suffered of severe GvHD IV in the MRD group, whereas no GVHD >II was observed in the MUD or MMRD cohort. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that in the absence of a suitable HLA-identical family donor haploidentical HSCT may be a viable option for patients with life-threatening disease and urgent need of HSCT.

13.
J Affect Disord ; 276: 1142-1148, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791350

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The DSM-5 explicitly states that the neural system model of specific phobia is centered on the amygdala. However, this hypothesis is predominantly supported by human studies on animal phobia, whereas visual cuing of other specific phobias, such as dental fear, do not consistently show amygdala activation. Considering that fear of anticipated pain is one of the best predictors of dental phobia, the current study investigated neural and autonomic activity of pain anticipation in individuals varying in the degree of fear of dental pain. METHOD: Functional brain activity (fMRI) was measured in women (n = 31) selected to vary in the degree of self-reported fear of dental pain when under the threat of shock, in which one color signaled the possibility of receiving a painful electric shock and another color signaled safety. RESULTS: Enhanced functional activity during threat, compared to safety, was found in regions including anterior insula and anterior/mid cingulate cortex. Importantly, threat reactivity in the anterior insula increased as reported fear of pain increased and further predicted skin conductance changes during pain anticipation. LIMITATIONS: The sample was comprised of women. CONCLUSIONS: Individual differences in fear of pain vary with activation in the anterior insula, rather than with the amygdala, indicating that fear is not uniquely associated with amygdala activation. Whereas coping techniques such as emotion regulation have been found to vary with activation in a frontal-amygdala circuit when confronted with visual cues, precision psychiatry may need to target specific brain circuits to diagnose and treat different types of specific phobia.

14.
Biol Psychol ; 154: 107926, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621851

RESUMO

Unpleasant, compared to neutral, scenes reliably prompt enhanced functional brain activity in the amygdala and inferotemporal cortex. Considering data from psychophysiological studies in which defensive reactivity is further enhanced when viewing unpleasant scenes under threat of shock (compared to safety), the current study investigates functional activation in the amygdala-inferotemporal circuit when unpleasant (or neutral) scenes are viewed under threat of shock or safety. In this paradigm, a cue signaling threat or safety was presented in conjunction with either an unpleasant or neutral picture. Replicating previous studies, unpleasant, compared to neutral, scenes reliably enhanced activation in the amygdala and inferotemporal cortex. Functional activity in these regions, however, did not differ whether scenes were presented in a context threatening shock exposure, compared to safety, which instead activated regions of the anterior insula and cingulate cortex. Taken together, the data support a view in which neural regions activated in different defensive situations act independently.

15.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(9): e28523, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduced toxicity conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of patients with hemophagocyticlymphohistiocytosis (HLH) results in favorable survival, however at the expense of relevant rates of mixed chimerism. Factors predisposing to mixed chimerism remain to be determined. PROCEDURE: Patients with primary HLH transplanted 2009-2016 after treosulfan- or melphalan-based conditioning regimens were analyzed in a retrospective multicenter study for survival, engraftment, chimerism, and adverse events. Mixed chimerism was considered substantial if < 25% donor chimerism occurred and/or if secondary cell therapy was administered. Donor type, graft source, type of alkylating agent, type of serotherapy, and remission status were analyzed as potential risk factors in a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among 60 patients, engraftment was achieved in 95%, and the five-year estimated overall survival rate was 75%. Prevalence of any recipient chimerism was 48%. Substantial recipient chimerism was recorded in 32% of patients. Secondary post-HSCT cell therapy was administered in 30% of patients. A human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched donor (< 10/10) was the only significant risk factor for the occurrence of substantial recipient chimerism (P = 0.01; odds ratio, 5.8; CI 95%, 1.5-26.3). CONCLUSION: The use of an HLA-matched donor is the most important factor to avoid substantial recipient chimerism following treosulfan -or melphalan-based conditioning in primary HLH.

16.
Blood Adv ; 4(8): 1760-1769, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343795

RESUMO

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital pure red cell aplasia associated with congenital abnormalities and cancer predisposition. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can correct the hematological phenotype and is indicated in transfusion-dependent patients. In 70 children reported to the German DBA and French HSCT registries, HSCT was performed from 1985 to 2017. Median age at HSCT was 5.5 years (range, 0.9-17.3 years). Two-thirds of patients (64%) were transplanted from a matched sibling donor (MSD), and most procedures were performed after the year 1999 (73%). Primary engraftment was achieved in all patients. One patient developed secondary graft failure. Cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 24% for °II-IV (95% confidence interval [CI], 16% to 37%) and 7% for °III-IV (95% CI, 3% to 17%); cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 11% (95% CI, 5% to 22%). The probability of chronic GVHD-free survival (cGFS) was 87% (95% CI, 79% to 95%) and significantly improved over time (<2000: 68% [95% CI, 47% to 89%] vs ≥2000: 94% [95% CI, 87% to 100%], P < .01). cGFS was comparable following HSCT from a MSD and an unrelated donor (UD). Of note, no severe chronic GVHD or deaths were reported following MSD-HSCT after 1999. The difference of cGFS in children transplanted <10 years of age compared with older patients did not reach statistical significance (<10 years: 90% [95% CI, 81% to 99%] vs 10-18 years 78% [95% CI, 58% to 98%]). In summary, these data indicate that HSCT is efficient and safe in young DBA patients and should be considered if a MSD or matched UD is available. HSCT for transfusion dependency only must be critically discussed in older patients.

17.
Stem Cells Dev ; 29(13): 811-822, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295491

RESUMO

Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a severe complication of immunosuppressant therapy or chemotherapy. A beneficial AVN therapy with core decompression (CD) and intraosseous infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been described in adult patients, but there are only few data on MSC applications in pediatric and young adult patients (PYAP). Between 2006 and 2015, 14 AVN lesions of 10 PYAP (6 females) with a median age of 16.9 years (range 8.5-25.8 years) received CD and intraosseous application of autologous MSCs. Data of these patients were analyzed regarding efficacy, safety, and feasibility of this procedure as AVN therapy and compared with a control group of 13 AVN lesions of 11 PYAP (5 females) with a median age of 17.9 years (range 13.5-27.5 years) who received CD only. During the follow-up analysis [MSC group: median 3.1 (1.6-5.8) years after CD; CD group: median 2.0 (1.5-8.5) years after CD], relative lesion sizes (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging) compared with the initial lesion volume, were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the MSC group (volume reduction to a median of 18.5%) when compared with the CD group (58.0%). One lesion in the MSC group comprised a complete remission. Size progression was not observed in either group. Clinical improvement (pain, mobility) was not significantly different between the two groups. None of the patients experienced treatment-related adverse effects. CD and additional MSC application was regarded safe, effective, feasible, and superior in reducing the lesion size when compared with CD only. Prospective, randomized clinical trials are needed to further evaluate these findings.

18.
Biol Psychol ; 153: 107885, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278595

RESUMO

Pupil diameter is dynamically modulated by a number of factors, including emotion, motor activity, and attention. Here, pupil modulation was examined as it varies with locus of control during aversive processing. Participants could control aversive exposure either by escape (terminating the event) or avoidance (blocking the event entirely), or they had no control. Highly anxious (n = 19), moderately anxious (n = 23), and less anxious (n = 23) participants saw cues that signaled whether a fast button press would terminate, prevent, or not affect subsequent presentation of an aversive picture. Pupil diameter was measured throughout the cuing interval. Pupil diameter was larger when preparing to escape or avoid compared to anticipating uncontrollable exposure. All participants, regardless of reported anxiety, showed increased pupil diameter in coping, relative to uncontrollable, contexts. Results support hypotheses that pupil diameter reflects action preparation and that differences in trait anxiety do not modulate this aspect of coping behavior in healthy subjects.

19.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 55(9): 1744-1753, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127657

RESUMO

This study (NCT01288573) investigated plerixafor's safety and efficacy in children with cancer. Stage 1 investigated the dosage, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and safety of plerixafor + standard mobilization (G-CSF ± chemotherapy). The stage 2 primary endpoint was successful mobilization (doubling of peripheral blood CD34+ cell count in the 24 h prior to first apheresis) in patients treated with plerixafor + standard mobilization vs. standard mobilization alone. In stage 1, three patients per age group (2-<6, 6-<12, and 12-<18 years) were treated at each dose level (160, 240, and 320 µg/kg). Based on PK and PD data, the dose proposed for stage 2 was 240 µg/kg (patients 1-<18 years), in which 45 patients were enrolled (30 plerixafor arm, 15 standard arm). Patient demographics and characteristics were well balanced across treatment arms. More patients in the plerixafor arm (24/30, 80%) met the primary endpoint of successful mobilization than in the standard arm (4/14, 28.6%, p = 0.0019). Adverse events reported as related to study treatment were mild, and no new safety concerns were identified. Plerixafor + standard G-CSF ± chemotherapy mobilization was generally well tolerated and efficacious when used to mobilize CD34+ cells in pediatric cancer patients.

20.
Psychophysiology ; 57(4): e13522, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011742

RESUMO

Meta-analytic and experimental studies investigating the neural basis of emotion often compare functional activation in different emotional induction contexts, assessing evidence for a "core affect" or "salience" network. Meta-analyses necessarily aggregate effects across diverse paradigms and different samples, which ignore potential neural differences specific to the method of affect induction. Data from repeated measures designs are few, reporting contradictory results with a small N. In the current study, functional brain activity is assessed in a large (N = 61) group of healthy participants during two common emotion inductions-scene perception and narrative imagery-to evaluate cross-paradigm consistency. Results indicate that limbic and paralimbic regions, together with visual and parietal cortex, are reliably engaged during emotional scene perception. For emotional imagery, in contrast, enhanced functional activity is found in several cerebellar regions, hippocampus, caudate, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, consistent with the conception that imagery is an action disposition. Taken together, the data suggest that a common emotion network is not engaged across paradigms, but that the specific neural regions activated during emotional processing can vary significantly with the context of the emotional induction.

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