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1.
BMJ ; 368: l6987, 2020 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the magnitude and duration of any hypothesised protective effect of household exposure to a child with varicella on the relative incidence of herpes zoster in adults. DESIGN: Self controlled case series. SETTING: UK general practices contributing to Clinical Practice Research Datalink. PARTICIPANTS: 9604 adults (≥18 years) with a diagnosis of herpes zoster (in primary care or hospital records) between 1997 and 2018, who during their observation period lived with a child (<18 years) with a diagnosis of varicella. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative incidence of herpes zoster in the 20 years after exposure to a child with varicella in the household compared with baseline time (all other time, excluding the 60 days before exposure). RESULTS: 6584 of the 9604 adults with herpes zoster (68.6%) were women. Median age of exposure to a child with varicella was 38.3 years (interquartile range 32.3-48.8 years) and median observation period was 14.7 (11.1-17.7) years. 4116 adults developed zoster in the baseline period, 433 in the 60 days before exposure and 5055 in the risk period. After adjustment for age, calendar time, and season, strong evidence suggested that in the two years after household exposure to a child with varicella, adults were 33% less likely to develop zoster (incidence ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.73) compared with baseline time. In the 10-20 years after exposure, adults were 27% less likely to develop herpes zoster (0.73, 0.62 to 0.87) compared with baseline time. A stronger boosting effect was observed among men than among women after exposure to varicella. CONCLUSIONS: The relative incidence of zoster was lower in the periods after exposure to a household contact with varicella, with modest but long lasting protective effects observed. This study suggests that exogenous boosting provides some protection from the risk of herpes zoster, but not complete immunity, as assumed by previous cost effectiveness estimates of varicella immunisation.


Assuntos
Varicela/imunologia , Herpes Zoster/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Varicela/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Herpes Zoster/imunologia , Herpes Zoster/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(1): 248-257.e16, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic eczema is a common and debilitating condition associated with depression and anxiety, but the nature of this association remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore the temporal relationship between atopic eczema and new depression/anxiety. METHODS: This matched cohort study used routinely collected data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, linked to hospital admissions data. We identified adults with atopic eczema (1998-2016) using a validated algorithm, and up to 5 individuals without atopic eczema matched on date of diagnosis, age, sex, and general practice. We estimated the hazard ratio (HR) for new depression/anxiety using stratified Cox regression to account for age, sex, calendar period, Index of Multiple Deprivation, glucocorticoid treatment, obesity, smoking, and harmful alcohol use. RESULTS: We identified 526,808 adults with atopic eczema who were matched to 2,569,030 without. Atopic eczema was associated with increased incidence of new depression (HR, 1.14; 99% CI, 1.12-1.16) and anxiety (HR, 1.17; 99% CI, 1.14-1.19). We observed a stronger effect of atopic eczema on depression with increasing atopic eczema severity (HR [99% CI] compared with no atopic eczema: mild, 1.10 [1.08-1.13]; moderate, 1.19 [1.15-1.23]; and severe, 1.26 [1.17-1.37]). A dose-response association, however, was less apparent for new anxiety diagnosis (HR [99% CI] compared with no atopic eczema: mild, 1.14 [1.11-1.18]; moderate, 1.21 [1.17-1.26]; and severe, 1.15; [1.05-1.25]). CONCLUSIONS: Adults with atopic eczema are more likely to develop new depression and anxiety. For depression, we observed a dose-response relationship with atopic eczema severity.

3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(2): 563-571.e8, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence suggests increased fracture risk in people with atopic eczema. Any link could have substantial effect; atopic eczema is common, and fractures have associated morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine whether atopic eczema is associated with fracture and whether fracture risk varies with eczema severity. METHODS: We performed a matched cohort study set in primary care (Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD 1998-2016) and linked hospital admissions data (Hospital Episode Statistics), including adults (≥18 years old) with atopic eczema matched (by age, sex, general practice, and cohort entry date) with up to 5 individuals without eczema. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) from stratified Cox regression comparing risk of major osteoporotic (hip, pelvis, spine, wrist, and proximal humerus) fractures individually and any fracture in those with and without atopic eczema. RESULTS: We identified 526,808 people with atopic eczema and 2,569,030 people without atopic eczema. Those with eczema had increased risk of hip (HR, 1.10; 99% CI, 1.06-1.14), pelvic (HR, 1.10; 99% CI, 1.02-1.19), spinal (HR, 1.18; 99% CI, 1.10-1.27), and wrist (HR, 1.07; 99% CI, 1.03,-1.11) fractures. We found no evidence of increased proximal humeral (HR, 1.06; 99% CI, 0.97-1.15) fracture risk. Fracture risk increased with increasing eczema severity, with the strongest associations in people with severe eczema (compared with those without) for spinal (HR, 2.09; 99% CI, 1.66-2.65), pelvic (HR, 1.66; 99% CI, 1.26-2.20), and hip (HR, 1.50; 99% CI, 1.30-1.74) fractures. Associations persisted after oral glucocorticoid adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: People with atopic eczema have increased fracture risk, particularly major osteoporotic fractures.

4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 72(2): 653-662, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the UK, an estimated one third of people with dementia have not received a diagnosis. Good evidence suggests that dementia risk is increased among widowed individuals; however, it is not clear if they are being diagnosed in routine primary care. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate if bereavement influenced the probability of having received a dementia diagnosis. METHODS: A population-based cohort study using UK electronic health records, between 1997 and 2017, among 247,586 opposite-sex partners. Those experiencing partner bereavement were matched (age, sex, and date of bereavement) to a non-bereaved person living in a partnership. Multivariate cox regression was performed. RESULTS: Partner bereavement was associated with an increased risk of receiving a diagnosis of dementia in the first three months (hazard ratio (HR) 1.43, 95% CI 1.20-1.71) and first six months (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.09-1.41), while there was a small reduced risk of getting a dementia diagnosis over all follow-up (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Partner bereavement appears to lead to a short-term increased risk of the surviving partner receiving a diagnosis of dementia, suggesting that bereavement unmasks existing undiagnosed dementia. Over the longer term, however, bereaved individuals are less likely to have a diagnosis of dementia in their health records than non-bereaved individuals.

5.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis is characterized by chronic inflammation, which is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between hospital-diagnosed atopic dermatitis and atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Using linked population-based Danish registries, we identified persons with an inpatient or outpatient hospital diagnosis of atopic dermatitis during 1977-2013 and a comparison cohort individually matched to the atopic dermatitis cohort. We followed cohorts until death, emigration, atrial fibrillation diagnosis, or end of study (January 1, 2013). We compared 35-year risk of atrial fibrillation and estimated hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals using Cox regression, adjusting for birth year and sex. We validated 100 atopic dermatitis diagnoses from a dermatologic department through medical record review. RESULTS: We included 13,126 persons with atopic dermatitis and 124,211 comparators and followed them for a median of 19.3 years. The 35-year risk of atrial fibrillation was 0.81% and 0.67%, respectively. The positive predictive value of atopic dermatitis diagnoses was 99%. The hazard ratio was 1.2 (95% confidence interval 1.0-1.6) and remained increased after adjusting for various atrial fibrillation risk factors. LIMITATIONS: Analyses were limited to persons with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis, and we had no lifestyle data. CONCLUSION: Patients with hospital-diagnosed atopic dermatitis have a 20% increased long-term risk of atrial fibrillation, but the absolute risk remains low.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(3): 710-719, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic eczema onset is described primarily in early childhood, and the frequency and characteristics of adult-onset disease remain controversial. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the proportion of subjects who report atopic eczema symptoms between birth and midadulthood and to examine demographic, immunologic, and genetic factors associated with period of symptom onset. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study using data from 2 nationally representative community-based birth cohorts from the United Kingdom: the British Cohort Studies 1958 and 1970. Subjects were followed from birth through age 42 to 50 years. The primary outcome was the age period of self-reported atopic eczema symptom onset based on repeated measures of self-reported atopic eczema at each survey wave. RESULTS: The annual period prevalence of atopic eczema ranged from 5% to 15% in 2 cohorts of more than 17,000 participants each followed from birth through middle age. There was no clear trend in prevalence by age, and among adults reporting active atopic eczema during a given year, only 38% had symptom onset reported in childhood. When compared with subjects whose eczema started in childhood, those with adult-onset disease were more likely to be women, from Scotland or Northern England, of lower childhood socioeconomic group, smokers in adulthood, and less likely to have a history of asthma. In a subanalysis using data from the 1958 cohort only, genetic mutations previously associated with atopic eczema, including filaggrin-null mutations, and allergen-specific IgE were more common among those with childhood-onset disease. CONCLUSION: Rates of self-reported atopic eczema remain high after childhood, and adult-onset atopic eczema has different risk factor associations than childhood-onset eczema.

8.
JAMA Dermatol ; 155(5): 556-563, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892577

RESUMO

Importance: The well-being and development of children is strongly influenced by parents' physical and psychosocial health. Data from small, clinic-based studies suggest that sleep loss may be common in parents of children with atopic dermatitis (AD), but longitudinal population-based studies are lacking. Objectives: To compare sleep disturbances over time between mothers of children with and without AD and to determine whether these disturbances are associated with the child's disease severity and the child's sleep disturbances. Design, Setting, and Participants: In the ongoing Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, all pregnant women residing in Avon, United Kingdom, with an expected delivery date between April 1, 1991, and December 31, 1992, were recruited. Analyses for this study, a secondary analysis of this cohort, were performed from September 2017 to September 2018. Mother-child pairs were followed up with a time-varying measure of child AD activity and severity and self-reported maternal sleep measures repeated at multiple time points between child ages 6 months and 11 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Time-varying binary measures of maternal sleep duration (<6 vs ≥6 hours per night), difficulty falling asleep, early morning awakening, subjectively insufficient sleep, and daytime exhaustion. Results: The study followed up 13 988 mother-child pairs from birth for a median duration of 11 (interquartile range, 7-11) years. Among the cohort, 11 585 of 13 972 mothers (82.9%) were aged 21 to 34 years and 12 001 of 12 324 (97.4%) were of white race/ethnicity; 7220 of 13 978 children (51.7%) were male. Sleep duration (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.09; 95% CI, 0.90-1.32) and early morning awakenings (AOR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.93-1.46) were similar between mothers of children with and without AD. In contrast, mothers of children with AD were more likely to report difficulty falling asleep (AOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.83), subjectively insufficient sleep (AOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.24-1.66), and daytime exhaustion (AOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.12-1.78) independent of the child's comorbid asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. For all measures, worse child AD severity was associated with worse maternal sleep outcomes. The magnitude and significance of the associations were largely unchanged after adjustment for child sleep disturbances. Conclusions and Relevance: Mothers of children with AD reported difficulty falling asleep, subjectively insufficient sleep, and daytime exhaustion throughout the first 11 years of childhood. However, child sleep disturbances did not fully explain maternal sleep disturbances, and future research should investigate other mechanisms. In caring for children with AD, clinicians should consider maternal sleep disturbances and caregiver fatigue.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
9.
JAMA Pediatr ; 173(5): e190025, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830151

RESUMO

Importance: Pruritus, a hallmark of atopic dermatitis (AD), is thought to disrupt sleep, yet little is known about how variations in disease activity and severity of this common childhood condition may be associated with sleep patterns over time. Objective: To determine whether children with active AD have impaired sleep duration and quality at multiple time points throughout childhood and whether disease severity affects sleep outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal cohort study used data of children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a population-based birth cohort in Avon, United Kingdom. Participants were children (N = 13 988) alive at 1 year and followed up with repeated measures of self-reported AD and sleep through 16 years of age. This study was based on data collected from 1990 to 2008. Data analysis was performed from September 2017 to September 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Standardized measure of sleep duration and composite measure of sleep quality, including nighttime awakenings, early morning awakenings, difficulty falling asleep, and nightmares, were repeated at multiple time points between 2 and 16 years of age. Results: The study sample comprised 13 988 children (7220 male [51.6%]) followed up for a median (interquartile range [IQR]) duration of 11 (5-14) years. Of this total, 4938 children (35.3%) met the definition of having atopic dermatitis between 2 and 16 years of age. Total sleep duration was similar between children with active AD and without AD at all ages, and the average estimated difference across childhood was a clinically negligible difference of 2 minutes less per day for children with AD (95% CI, -4 to 0 minutes). In contrast, children with active AD were more likely to report worse sleep quality at all time points, with a nearly 50% higher odds of experiencing more sleep-quality disturbances (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.48; 95% CI, 1.33 to 1.66). Children with more severe active disease (quite bad or very bad AD: aOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.42 to 1.98) and with comorbid asthma or allergic rhinitis (aOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.54 to 2.09) had worse sleep quality. However, even children with mild AD (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.54) or inactive AD (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.55) had statistically significantly increased odds of impaired sleep quality. Conclusions and Relevance: Atopic dermatitis appeared to be associated with impaired sleep quality throughout childhood; thus, it is suggested that clinicians should consider sleep quality among all children with AD, especially those with comorbid asthma or allergic rhinitis and severe disease, and that interventions to improve sleep quality are needed.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite Atópica/psicologia , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Prurido/complicações , Prurido/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
13.
JAMA Dermatol ; 155(3): 298-306, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484823

RESUMO

Importance: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the most common skin cancer with metastatic potential, but epidemiologic data are poor. Changes to the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (NCRAS) in England have allowed more accurate data analysis of primary and metastatic cSCC since 2013. Objective: To assess the national incidence of cSCC and metastatic cSCC (mcSCC) in England from 2013 through 2015. Design, Setting, and Participants: This national population-based study identified a cohort of patients with cSCC and mcSCC in England from January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015. Patients were identified using diagnostic codes derived from pathology reports in the NCRAS. Data were analyzed from March 1, 2017, through March 1, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence rates across sex and risk factors for cSCC were derived from the NCRAS data. Risk of occurrence of mcSCC among the population with cSCC was assessed with Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to determine indicators of mcSCC. Results: Among the 76 977 patients with first primary cSCC in 2013 through 2015 (62.7% male; median age, 80 years [interquartile range, 72-86 years]), the age-standardized rates for the first registered cSCC in England from 2013 through 2015 were 77.3 per 100 000 person-years (PY) (95% CI, 76.6-78.0) in male patients and 34.1 per 100 000 PY (95% CI, 33.7-34.5) in female patients. Increased primary cSCC tumor count was observed in older, white male patients in lower deprivation quintiles. After a maximum follow-up of 36 months, cumulative incidence of mcSCC developed in 1.1% of women and 2.4% of men with a primary cSCC. Significant increases in the risk of metastasis with adjusted hazard rates of approximately 2.00 were observed in patients who were aged 80 to 89 years (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07-1.43), 90 years or older (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.09-1.66), male (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.52-2.10), immunosuppressed (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.64-2.42), and in higher deprivation quintiles (HR for highest quintile, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.35-2.00). Primary cSCC located on the ear (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.42-2.03) and lip (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.29-2.63) were at highest risk of metastasis. Conclusions and Relevance: This study presents the first national study of the incidence of mcSCC. With limited health care resources and an aging population, accurate epidemiologic data are essential for informing future health care planning, identifying high-risk patients, and evaluating skin cancer prevention policies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
14.
J Invest Dermatol ; 139(5): 1023-1036, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521836

RESUMO

Some previously described environmental associations for atopic eczema may be due to reverse causation. We explored the role of reverse causation by comparing individual- and school-level results for multiple atopic eczema risk factors. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (i.e, ISAAC) Phase Three surveyed children in schools (the sampling unit) regarding atopic eczema symptoms and potential risk factors. We assessed the effect of these risk factors on atopic eczema symptoms using mixed-effect logistic regression models, first with individual-level exposure data and second with school-level exposure prevalence. Overall, 546,348 children from 53 countries were included. At ages 6-7 years, the strongest individual-level associations were with current paracetamol use (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37-1.54), which persisted at school-level (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.10-2.21), early-life antibiotics (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.34-1.48), and early-life paracetamol use (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.21-1.36), with the former persisting at the school level, whereas the latter was no longer observed (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.00-1.82 and OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.69-1.28, respectively). At ages 13-14 years, the strongest associations at the individual level were with current paracetamol use (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.51-1.63) and open-fire cooking (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.33-1.62); both were stronger at the school level (OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.84-3.59 and OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.52-3.73, respectively). Association with exposure to heavy traffic (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.27-1.36) also persisted at the school level (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.07-1.82). Most individual- and school-level effects were consistent, tending to exclude reverse causation.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(5): 1821-1829, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic eczema is a common inflammatory skin disease. Various inflammatory conditions have been linked to cardiovascular disease, a major cause of global mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVE: We sought to systematically review and meta-analyze population-based studies assessing associations between atopic eczema and specific cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health were searched from inception to December 2017. We obtained pooled estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. We used a multivariate Bayesian meta-regression model to estimate the slope of effect of increasing atopic eczema severity on cardiovascular outcomes. RESULTS: Nineteen relevant studies were included. The effects of atopic eczema reported in cross-sectional studies were heterogeneous, with no evidence for pooled associations with angina, myocardial infarction, heart failure, or stroke. In cohort studies atopic eczema was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (n = 4; relative risk [RR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00-1.25), stroke (n = 4; RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.17), ischemic stroke n = 4; RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.14-1.20), angina (n = 2; RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.24), and heart failure (n = 2; RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.51). Prediction intervals were wide for myocardial infarction and stroke. The risk of cardiovascular outcomes appeared to increase with increasing severity (mean RR increase between severity categories, 1.15; 95% credibility interval, 1.09-1.21; uncertainty interval, 1.04-1.28). CONCLUSION: Significant associations with cardiovascular outcomes were more common in cohort studies but with considerable between-study heterogeneity. Increasing atopic eczema severity was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes. Improved awareness among stakeholders regarding this small but significant association is warranted.

16.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207183, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify inequalities in zoster vaccine uptake by determining its association with socio-demographic factors: age, gender, ethnicity, immigration status, deprivation (at Lower-layer Super Output Area-level), care home residence and living arrangements. METHOD: This population-based cohort study utilised anonymised primary care electronic health records from England (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) linked to deprivation and hospitalisation data. Data from 35,333 individuals from 277 general practices in England and eligible for zoster vaccination during the two-year period (2013-2015) after vaccine introduction were analysed. Logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for the association of socio-demographic factors with zoster vaccine uptake for adults aged 70 years (main target group) and adults aged 79 years (catch-up group). RESULTS: Amongst those eligible for vaccination, 52.4% (n = 18,499) received the vaccine. Socio-demographic factors independently associated with lower zoster vaccine uptake in multivariable analyses were: being older (catch-up group: aged 79 years) aOR = 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI):0.85-0.93), care home residence (aOR = 0.64 (95%CI: 0.57-0.73)) and living alone (aOR = 0.85 (95%CI: 0.81-0.90)). Uptake decreased with increasing levels of deprivation (p-value for trend<0.0001; aOR most deprived versus least deprived areas = 0.69 (95%CI: 0.64-0.75)). Uptake was also lower amongst those of non-White ethnicities (for example, Black versus White ethnicity: aOR = 0.61 (95%CI: 0.49-0.75)) but was not lower among immigrants after adjusting for ethnicity. Lower uptake was also seen amongst females compared to men in the catch-up group. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities in zoster vaccine uptake exist in England; with lower uptake among those of non-White ethnicities, and among those living alone, in a care home and in more deprived areas. Tailored interventions to increase uptake in these social groups should assist in realising the aim of mitigating vaccination inequalities. As care home residents are also at higher risk of zoster, improving the uptake of zoster vaccination in this group will also mitigate inequalities in zoster burden.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster , Vacinação , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206163, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpesviruses induce a range of inflammatory effects potentially contributing to an increased risk of stroke. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether patients with infection, or reactivation of, human herpesviruses are at increased stroke risk, compared to those without human herpesviruses. DATA SOURCES: Six medical databases and grey literature sources from inception to January 2017. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies where the exposure was any human herpesvirus and the outcome was stroke. We included randomised controlled trials, cohort, case-control, case-crossover and self-controlled case series designs. METHODS: Meta-analyses when sufficiently homogeneous studies were available. Quality of evidence across studies was assessed. RESULTS: We identified 5012 publications; 41 met the eligibility criteria. Across cohort and self-controlled case series studies, there was moderate quality evidence that varicella infection in children was associated with a short-term increased stroke risk. Zoster was associated with a 1.5-fold increased stroke risk four weeks following onset (summary estimate: 1.55, 95%CI 1.46-1.65), which resolved after one year. Subgroup analyses suggested post-zoster stroke risk was greater among ophthalmic zoster patients, younger individuals and those not prescribed antivirals. Recent infection/reactivation of cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex viruses, but not past infection, was associated with increased stroke risk; however the evidence across studies was mainly derived from small, very low quality case-control studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our review shows an increased stroke risk following zoster and suggests that recent infection or reactivation of other herpesviruses increases stroke risk, although better evidence is needed. Herpesviruses are common and potentially preventable; these findings may have implications for reducing stroke burden.


Assuntos
Herpesviridae/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia , Seguimentos , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Humanos , Viés de Publicação , Fatores de Risco
19.
Res Integr Peer Rev ; 3: 9, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397513

RESUMO

Background: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are often complex and expensive to perform. Less than one third achieve planned recruitment targets, follow-up can be labor-intensive, and many have limited real-world generalizability. Designs for RCTs conducted using cohorts and routinely collected health data, including registries, electronic health records, and administrative databases, have been proposed to address these challenges and are being rapidly adopted. These designs, however, are relatively recent innovations, and published RCT reports often do not describe important aspects of their methodology in a standardized way. Our objective is to extend the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement with a consensus-driven reporting guideline for RCTs using cohorts and routinely collected health data. Methods: The development of this CONSORT extension will consist of five phases. Phase 1 (completed) consisted of the project launch, including fundraising, the establishment of a research team, and development of a conceptual framework. In phase 2, a systematic review will be performed to identify publications (1) that describe methods or reporting considerations for RCTs conducted using cohorts and routinely collected health data or (2) that are protocols or report results from such RCTs. An initial "long list" of possible modifications to CONSORT checklist items and possible new items for the reporting guideline will be generated based on the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) and The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data (RECORD) statements. Additional possible modifications and new items will be identified based on the results of the systematic review. Phase 3 will consist of a three-round Delphi exercise with methods and content experts to evaluate the "long list" and generate a "short list" of key items. In phase 4, these items will serve as the basis for an in-person consensus meeting to finalize a core set of items to be included in the reporting guideline and checklist. Phase 5 will involve drafting the checklist and elaboration-explanation documents, and dissemination and implementation of the guideline. Discussion: Development of this CONSORT extension will contribute to more transparent reporting of RCTs conducted using cohorts and routinely collected health data.

20.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e023097, 2018 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224395

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Atopic dermatitis is a complex disease with differing clinical presentations. Many attempts have been made to identify uniform subtypes, or phenotypes, of atopic dermatitis in order to identify different aetiologies, improve diagnosis, estimate more accurate clinical prognoses, inform treatment andmanagement or predict treatment efficacy andeffectiveness. However, no consensus yet exists on exactly what defines these phenotypes or how many there are and whether they are genuine or statistical artefacts. This review aims to identify previously reported phenotypes of atopic dermatitis, the features used to define them and any characteristics or clinical outcomes significantly associated with them. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search Ovid Embase, Ovid MEDLINE and Web of Science from inception to the latest available date at the time of the search for studies attempting to classify atopic dermatitis in humans using any cross-sectional or longitudinal epidemiological or interventional design. Primary outcomes are atopic dermatitis phenotypes, features used to define them and characteristics associated with them in subsequent analyses. A secondary outcome is the methodological approach used to derive them. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts for inclusion, extract data and assess study quality. We will present the results of this review descriptively and with frequencies where possible. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for this study as it is a systematic review. We will report results from this systematic review in a peer-reviewed journal. The main value of this study will be to inform further research. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018087500.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/classificação , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Humanos , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa
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