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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10924, 2019 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358806

RESUMO

Keratins are the main cytoskeletal proteins of epithelial cells and changes in the expression of keratins have contributed to the evolutionary adaptation of epithelia to different environments. Keratin K24 was proposed to be a differentiation marker of epidermal keratinocytes but the significance of K24 expression in the epidermis versus other tissues has remained elusive. Here, we show by RT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses that K24 is highly expressed in the epithelium of the cornea whereas its expression levels are significantly lower in other stratified epithelia including in the epidermis. To investigate the evolutionary history of K24, we screened the genome sequences of vertebrates for orthologs of the human KRT24 gene. The results of this comparative genomics study suggested that KRT24 originated in a common ancestor of amniotes and that it was lost independently in three clades of mammals, i.e. camels, cetaceans, and a subclade of pinnipeds comprising eared seals and the walrus. Together, the results of this study identify K24 as component of the cytoskeleton in the human corneal epithelium and reveal previously unknown differences of keratin gene content among mammalian species.

2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(2): 328-340, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517738

RESUMO

Keratins are the main intermediate filament proteins of epithelial cells. In keratinocytes of the mammalian epidermis they form a cytoskeleton that resists mechanical stress and thereby are essential for the function of the skin as a barrier against the environment. Here, we performed a comparative genomics study of epidermal keratin genes in terrestrial and fully aquatic mammals to determine adaptations of the epidermal keratin cytoskeleton to different environments. We show that keratins K5 and K14 of the innermost (basal), proliferation-competent layer of the epidermis are conserved in all mammals investigated. In contrast, K1 and K10, which form the main part of the cytoskeleton in the outer (suprabasal) layers of the epidermis of terrestrial mammals, have been lost in whales and dolphins (cetaceans) and in the manatee. Whereas in terrestrial mammalian epidermis K6 and K17 are expressed only upon stress-induced epidermal thickening, high levels of K6 and K17 are consistently present in dolphin skin, indicating constitutive expression and substitution of K1 and K10. K2 and K9, which are expressed in a body site-restricted manner in human and mouse suprabasal epidermis, have been lost not only in cetaceans and manatee but also in some terrestrial mammals. The evolution of alternative splicing of K10 and differentiation-dependent upregulation of K23 have increased the complexity of keratin expression in the epidermis of terrestrial mammals. Taken together, these results reveal evolutionary diversification of the epidermal cytoskeleton in mammals and suggest a complete replacement of the quantitatively predominant epidermal proteins of terrestrial mammals by originally stress-inducible keratins in cetaceans.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Diferenciação Celular , Cetáceos/genética , Queratinócitos/fisiologia , Queratinas/genética , Sirênios/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Genômica , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia
3.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 39(1): 40-44, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27219353

RESUMO

The authors have recently proposed to use the name pachyonychia as an umbrella term that includes 2 distinctly different entities in the form of congenital pachyonychia and acquired longitudinal pachyonychia. Congenital pachyonychia is defined by a diffuse hyperkeratosis of the nail bed. Acquired longitudinal pachyonychia correspond to the true definition of pachyonychia, that is, a thickened nail plate without subungual keratosis. Acquired (monodactylous) pachyonychia can be diffuse typifying onychomatricoma or localized as a longitudinal band with three etiological possibilities: onychomatricoma, onychocytic matricoma, and onychocytic carcinoma. On histopathological examination, onychomatricoma is a fibroepithelial tumor; conversely, onychocytic matricoma and carcinoma are purely epithelial tumors. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical profiles of 2 cases of in situ onychocytic carcinoma, to discuss the role of high-risk human papillomavirus in the pathogenesis of this tumor, and to confirm the interest value of nail clipping microscopy in the surgical planning of the acquired (monodactylous) pachyonychia band pattern. Two men were referred for a longitudinal thickening of the lateral part of the nail plate of their fingers. The bands were yellowish with a faint to dominant black coloration. Nail clippings were obtained before excision in one case; the nail plate was thickened with minute holes in a honeycomb pattern. Nail biopsy specimens revealed an onychocytic carcinoma with epithelial projections inducing active production of the nail plate and multiple minute cavitations into the thick nail plate. Hair-related keratins were expressed in all specimens. One tumor expressed p16 in a diffuse pattern, whereas the other showed an unspecific faint patchy staining. p53 was negative. A clinical finding of longitudinal pachyonychia, which by nail clipping microscopy contains small cavities in a honeycomb-like pattern, should be considered an alert to the possibility of a malignant lesions.


Assuntos
Carcinoma in Situ/patologia , Unhas Malformadas/patologia , Unhas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biópsia , Carcinoma in Situ/química , Carcinoma in Situ/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unhas/química , Unhas/cirurgia , Unhas Malformadas/metabolismo , Unhas Malformadas/cirurgia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Neoplasias Cutâneas/química , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia
4.
Matrix Biol ; 56: 42-56, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27234308

RESUMO

Laminins are the most abundant non-collagenous basement membrane (BM) components, composed of an α, ß and γ chain. The laminin γ1 chain, encoded by LAMC1, is the most abundant γ chain. The main laminin isoforms in the dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ) are laminin-332, laminin-511 and laminin-211, the latter being restricted to the lower part of hair follicles (HFs). Complete deletion of LAMC1 results in lethality around embryonic day 5.5. To study the function of laminin γ1 containing isoforms in skin development and maturation after birth, we generated mice lacking LAMC1 expression in basal keratinocytes (LAMC1EKO) using the keratin 14 (K14) Cre/loxP system. This deletion resulted in loss of keratinocyte derived laminin-511 and in deposition of fibroblast derived laminin-211 throughout the whole DEJ. The DEJ in areas between hemidesmosomes was thickened, whereas hemidesmosome morphology was normal. Most strikingly, LAMC1EKO mice showed delayed HF morphogenesis accompanied by reduced proliferation of hair matrix cells and impaired differentiation of hair shafts (HS). However, this deletion did not interfere with early HF development, since placode numbers and embryonic hair germ formation were not affected. Microarray analysis of skin revealed down regulation of mainly different hair keratins. This is due to reduced expression of transcription factors such as HoxC13, FoxN1, FoxQ1 and Msx2, known to regulate expression of hair keratins. While the role of laminin-511 in signaling during early hair germ formation and elongation phase has been described, we here demonstrate that epidermal laminin-511 is also a key regulator for later hair development and HS differentiation.


Assuntos
Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Laminina/genética , Animais , Membrana Basal/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Deleção de Genes , Expressão Gênica , Folículo Piloso/citologia , Folículo Piloso/embriologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Laminina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Morfogênese
5.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 38(9): 664-71, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26978004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Besides onychomatricoma (OM), which shows a clinical band pattern of nail plate thickening, 2 new onychomatrical tumors with this clinical feature have recently been described: onychocytic matricoma (OCM) and in situ onychocytic carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to present 4 cases of OCMs and compare their clinical and histopathologic characteristics with usual OMs. METHODS: We studied 4 cases of OCMs with nail clipping in 3 cases and an extensive immunohistochemical study for hair-related keratins and epithelial keratins. Nail clipping of OCMs was compared with the distal nail plate of 5 cases of OMs. RESULTS: All cases showed an acquired localized longitudinal band pattern of a thickened nail plate with yellow discoloration in 2 cases and a black streak in 2 cases. All cases showed a V-shaped keratogenous epithelial tumor with a papillomatous pattern of growth. The nail plate was thickened with small holes in a honeycomb pattern. In contrast, the 5 OMs showed the classical pattern of a panonychoma fibropapilliferum. The nail plate showed large cavities in a honeycomb pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This case series raises awareness of the clinical value of longitudinal pachyonychia coupled with nail clipping in the early detection of onychomatrical tumors as generic diagnosis with a limited differential diagnosis and a simple therapeutic approach. Nail clipping could be an aid in the surgical planning of onychomatrical tumor. A diagnosis of a benign growth could be suggested when the average dimensions of cavities are superior to 0.15 mm sparing the patient from an excisional procedure with its risk of subsequent permanent nail dystrophy. In contrast, nail clipping with a honeycomb pattern of minute cavities with average dimension inferior to 0.10 mm should prompt a biopsy of the distal matrix to rule out a malignant lesion.


Assuntos
Doenças da Unha/patologia , Unhas Malformadas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 17(2)2016 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26828486

RESUMO

Despite decades of skin research, regulation of proliferation and homeostasis in human epidermis is still insufficiently understood. To address the role of mitoses in tissue regulation, we utilized human long-term skin equivalents and systematically assessed mitoses during early epidermal development and long-term epidermal regeneration. We now demonstrate four different orientations: (1) horizontal, i.e., parallel to the basement membrane (BM) and suggestive of symmetric divisions; (2) oblique with an angle of 45°-70°; or (3) perpendicular, suggestive of asymmetric division. In addition, we demonstrate a fourth substantial fraction of suprabasal mitoses, many of which are committed to differentiation (Keratin K10-positive). As verified also for normal human skin, this spatial mitotic organization is part of the regulatory program of human epidermal tissue homeostasis. As a potential marker for asymmetric division, we investigated for Numb and found that it was evenly spread in almost all undifferentiated keratinocytes, but indeed asymmetrically distributed in some mitoses and particularly frequent under differentiation-repressing low-calcium conditions. Numb deletion (stable knockdown by CRISPR/Cas9), however, did not affect proliferation, neither in a three-day follow up study by life cell imaging nor during a 14-day culture period, suggesting that Numb is not essential for the general control of keratinocyte division.


Assuntos
Células Epidérmicas , Homeostase , Mitose , Divisão Celular Assimétrica , Cálcio/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Epiderme/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo
7.
Cell Tissue Res ; 363(3): 735-50, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26340985

RESUMO

Among the 26 human type II keratins, K78 is the only one that has not yet been explored with regard to its expression characteristics. Here, we show that, at both the transcriptional and translational levels, K78 is strongly expressed in the basal and parabasal cell layers with decreasing intensity in the lower suprabasal cells of keratinising and non-keratinising squamous epithelia and keratinocyte cultures. The same pattern has been detected at the transcriptional level in the corresponding mouse epithelia. Murine K78 protein, which contains an extraordinary large extension of its tail domain, which is unique among all known keratins, is not detectable by the antibody used. Concomitant studies in human epithelia have confirmed K78 co-expression with the classical basal keratins K5 and K14. Similarly, K78 co-expression with the differentiation-related type I keratins K10 (epidermis) and K13 (non-keratinising epithelia) occurs in the parabasal cell layer, whereas that of the corresponding type II keratins K1 (epidermis) and K4 (non-keratinising epithelia) unequivocally starts subsequent to the respective type I keratins. Our data concerning K78 expression modify the classical concept of keratin pair K5/K14 representing the basal compartment and keratin pairs K1/K10 or K4/K13 defining the differentiating compartment of stratified epithelia. Moreover, the K78 expression pattern and the decoupled K1/K10 and K4/K13 expression define the existence of a hitherto unperceived early differentiation stage in the parabasal layer characterized by K78/K10 or K78/K13 expression.


Assuntos
Epitélio/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Queratinas Tipo II/genética , Queratinas Tipo II/metabolismo , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Epiderme/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Imunofluorescência , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Hibridização In Situ , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinas Tipo II/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Transporte Proteico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
8.
J Dermatol Sci ; 81(1): 10-6, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26603179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: K1 and K2 are the main type II keratins in the suprabasal epidermis where each of them heterodimerizes with the type I keratin K10 to form intermediate filaments. In regions of the ears, tail, and soles of the mouse, only K2 is co-expressed with K10, suggesting that these keratins suffice to form a mechanically resilient cytoskeleton. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of the suppression of both main keratins, K2 and K10, in the suprabasal plantar epidermis of the mouse. METHODS: Krt2(-/-) Krt10(-/-) mice were generated by crossing Krt2(-/-) and Krt10(-/-) mice. Epidermal morphology of soles of hind-paws was examined macroscopically and histologically. Immunofluorescence analysis and quantitative PCR analysis were performed to analyze the expression of keratins in sole skin of wildtype and Krt2(-/-) Krt10(-/-) mice. Highly abundant proteins of the sole stratum corneum were determined by electrophoretic and chromatographic separation and subsequent mass spectrometry. RESULTS: K2 and K10 are the most prominent suprabasal keratins in normal mouse soles with the exception of the footpads where K1, K9 and K10 predominate. Mice lacking both K2 and K10 were viable and developed epidermal acanthosis and hyperkeratosis in inter-footpad epidermis of the soles. The expression of keratins K1, K9 and K16 was massively increased at the RNA and protein levels in the soles of Krt2(-/-) Krt10(-/-) mice. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the loss of the main cytoskeletal components of plantar epidermis, i.e. K2 and K10, can be only partly compensated by the upregulation of other keratins. The thickening of the epidermis in the soles of Krt2(-/-) Krt10(-/-) mice may serve as a model for pathomechanistic aspects of palmoplantar keratoderma.


Assuntos
Epiderme/fisiologia , Queratina-10/fisiologia , Queratina-2/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epiderme/anatomia & histologia , Extremidades , Humanos , Queratina-1/genética , Queratina-1/metabolismo , Queratina-10/genética , Queratina-16/genética , Queratina-16/metabolismo , Queratina-2/deficiência , Queratina-2/genética , Queratina-9/genética , Queratina-9/metabolismo , Ceratodermia Palmar e Plantar/genética , Ceratodermia Palmar e Plantar/metabolismo , Ceratodermia Palmar e Plantar/patologia , Ceratose/genética , Ceratose/metabolismo , Ceratose/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
9.
J Invest Dermatol ; 134(10): 2579-2588, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24751727

RESUMO

Keratin K2 is one of the most abundant structural proteins of the epidermis; however, its biological significance has remained elusive. Here we show that suprabasal type II keratins, K1 and K2, are expressed in a mutually exclusive manner at different body sites of the mouse, with K2 being confined to the ear, sole, and tail skin. Deletion of K2 caused acanthosis and hyperkeratosis of the ear and the tail epidermis, corneocyte fragility, increased transepidermal water loss, and local inflammation in the ear skin. The loss of K2 was partially compensated by upregulation of K1 expression. However, a significant portion of K2-deficient suprabasal keratinocytes lacked a regular cytoskeleton and developed massive aggregates of the type I keratin, K10. Aggregate formation, but not hyperkeratosis, was suppressed by the deletion of both K2 and K10, whereas deletion of K10 alone caused clumping of K2 in ear skin. Taken together, this study demonstrates that K2 is a necessary and sufficient binding partner of K10 at distinct body sites of the mouse and that unbalanced expression of these keratins results in aggregate formation.


Assuntos
Dermatite/metabolismo , Hiperceratose Epidermolítica/metabolismo , Queratina-10/metabolismo , Queratina-2/deficiência , Queratina-2/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/metabolismo , Animais , Dermatite/genética , Dermatite/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Orelha , , Hiperceratose Epidermolítica/genética , Hiperceratose Epidermolítica/patologia , Queratina-1/metabolismo , Queratina-10/genética , Queratina-2/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/genética , Dermatopatias/patologia , Cauda
10.
J Cutan Pathol ; 41(5): 427-36, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24673383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pilomatricomas are tumors that emulate the differentiation of matrix cells of the hair follicle, showing cortical differentiation, with sequential expression of K35 and K31 keratins. Beta-catenin gene is frequently mutated in pilomatricoma, leading to beta-catenin nuclear accumulation, and to downstream expression of LEF1. Skin matrical tumors other than pilomatricoma are very rare, and comprise purely matrical tumors and focally matrical tumors. We aimed at studying cortical differentiation, beta-catenin pathway and expression of the follicular stem-cell marker PHLDA1 in a series of matrical tumors other than pilomatricoma. METHODS: In 36 prospectively collected tumors, K31, K35, CK17, LEF1, HOXC13, beta-catenin and PHLDA1 expressions were evaluated. Five pilomatricomas were used as controls. RESULTS: In 18 purely matrical tumors (11 matrical carcinomas, 4 melanocytic matricomas, 3 matricomas) and 18 focally matrical tumors (11 basal cell carcinomas, 3 trichoepithelioma/trichoblastomas, 4 others), sequential K35, HOXC13 and K31 expressions were found, indicating cortical differentiation. Germinative matrix cells were always CK17-, and showed nuclear beta-catenin accumulation, with LEF1 and PHLDA1 expressions. CONCLUSIONS: Nuclear beta-catenin and LEF1 expression was highly conserved in matrical tumors, and suggested a common tumorigenesis driven by Wnt pathway activation. PHLDA1 was consistently expressed in matrical tumors and in areas of matrical differentiation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cabelo/patologia , Queratinas Específicas do Cabelo/biossíntese , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , beta Catenina/biossíntese , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Feminino , Doenças do Cabelo/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Queratinas Específicas do Cabelo/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/análise , Adulto Jovem , beta Catenina/análise
11.
EMBO Mol Med ; 6(4): 442-57, 2014 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24503019

RESUMO

The transcription factor Nrf2 is a key regulator of the cellular stress response, and pharmacological Nrf2 activation is a promising strategy for skin protection and cancer prevention. We show here that prolonged Nrf2 activation in keratinocytes causes sebaceous gland enlargement and seborrhea in mice due to upregulation of the growth factor epigen, which we identified as a novel Nrf2 target. This was accompanied by thickening and hyperkeratosis of hair follicle infundibula. These abnormalities caused dilatation of infundibula, hair loss, and cyst development upon aging. Upregulation of epigen, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (Slpi), and small proline-rich protein 2d (Sprr2d) in hair follicles was identified as the likely cause of infundibular acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and cyst formation. These alterations were highly reminiscent to the phenotype of chloracne/"metabolizing acquired dioxin-induced skin hamartomas" (MADISH) patients. Indeed, SLPI, SPRR2, and epigen were strongly expressed in cysts of MADISH patients and upregulated by dioxin in human keratinocytes in an NRF2-dependent manner. These results identify novel Nrf2 activities in the pilosebaceous unit and point to a role of NRF2 in MADISH pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Cloracne/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Cloracne/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epigen/genética , Epigen/metabolismo , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Inibidor Secretado de Peptidases Leucocitárias/genética , Inibidor Secretado de Peptidases Leucocitárias/metabolismo
12.
Cell Tissue Res ; 354(3): 793-812, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24057875

RESUMO

The differential expression of keratins is central to the formation of various epithelia and their appendages. Structurally, the type II keratin K77 is closely related to K1, the prototypical type II keratin of the suprabasal epidermis. Here, we perform a developmental study on K77 expression in human and murine skin. In both species, K77 is expressed in the suprabasal fetal epidermis. While K77 appears after K1 in the human epidermis, the opposite is true for the murine tissue. This species-specific pattern of expression is also found in conventional and organotypic cultures of human and murine keratinocytes. Ultrastructure investigation shows that, in contrast to K77 intermediate filaments of mice, those of the human ortholog are not attached to desmosomes. After birth, K77 disappears without deleterious consequences from human epidermis while it is maintained in the adult mouse epidermis, where its presence has so far gone unnoticed. After targeted Krt1 gene deletion in mice, K77 is normally expressed but fails to functionally replace K1. Besides the epidermis, both human and mouse K77 are present in luminal duct cells of eccrine sweat glands. The demonstration of a K77 ortholog in platypus but not in non-mammalian vertebrates identifies K77 as an evolutionarily ancient component of the mammalian integument that has evolved different patterns of intracellular distribution and adult tissue expression in primates.


Assuntos
Queratinas/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Células Epidérmicas , Epiderme/química , Epiderme/embriologia , Epiderme/metabolismo , Gorilla gorilla , Humanos , Queratinócitos/química , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinas/biossíntese , Queratinas/química , Queratinas/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica , Dados de Sequência Molecular , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Pele/química , Pele/citologia , Pele/embriologia , Frações Subcelulares/química , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo
13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 22(20): 4164-79, 2013 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23748427

RESUMO

Skin barrier function is primarily assigned to the outer epidermal layer, the stratum corneum (SC), mainly composed of corneocytes and lipid-enriched extracellular matrix. Epidermal ceramides (Cers) are essential barrier lipids, containing ultra-long-chain (ULC) fatty acids (FAs) with a unique ω-hydroxy group, which is necessary for binding to corneocyte proteins. In the SC, Cers are believed to derive from glucosylated intermediates, namely glucosylceramides (GlcCers), as surmised from human Gaucher's disease and related mouse models. Tamoxifen (TAM)-induced deletion of the endogenous GlcCer-synthesizing enzyme UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG) in keratin K14-positive cells resulted in epidermal GlcCer depletion. Although free extractable Cers were elevated in total epidermis and as well in SC, protein-bound Cers decreased significantly in Ugcg(f/fK14CreERT2) mice, indicating glucosylation to be required for regular Cer processing as well as arrangement and extrusion of lipid lamellae. The almost complete loss of protein-bound Cers led to a disruption of the water permeability barrier (WPB). UGCG-deficient mice developed an ichthyosis-like skin phenotype marked by impaired keratinocyte differentiation associated with delayed wound healing. Gene expression profiling of Ugcg-mutant skin revealed a subset of differentially expressed genes involved in lipid signaling and epidermal differentiation/proliferation, correlating to human skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARß/δ), a Cer-sensitive transcription factor was identified as potential mediator of the altered gene sets.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Células Epidérmicas , Glucosilceramidas/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/citologia , Animais , Epiderme/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Camundongos , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele
14.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 35(6): 679-84, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23518638

RESUMO

We have recently described a new nail tumor known as onychocytic matricoma. Herein, we describe its malignant counterpart. Clinically, the tumor simulates onychomatricoma (OM). Histologically, this in situ malignant epithelial tumor exhibits a distinct picture of onychocytic differentiation with signs of both nail matrical differentiation and nail plate differentiation. We have proposed the name onychocytic carcinoma for this singular adnexal neoplasm. Given the peculiar thickening of the nail plate observed in OM, onychocytic matricoma, and onychocytic carcinoma, the clinical individualization of a new type of nail band pattern could be proposed. It presents as an acquired localized (monodactylous) longitudinal pachyonychia. Such longitudinal pachyonychia allow the recognition of the matrical nail tumor, which has a limited etiological spectrum. Xantholeucopachyonychia suggests mainly OM and rarely onychocytic carcinoma. Pachymelanonychia suggests onychocytic matricoma and rarely pigmented OM or onychocytic carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/classificação , Doenças da Unha/classificação , Unhas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biópsia , Carcinoma/química , Carcinoma/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Dedos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Queratinas Específicas do Cabelo/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Unha/metabolismo , Doenças da Unha/patologia , Unhas/química , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Neoplasias Cutâneas/química , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 91(4): 754-9, 2012 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23000146

RESUMO

Punctate palmoplantar keratodermas (PPKPs) are rare autosomal-dominant inherited skin diseases that are characterized by multiple hyperkeratotic plaques distributed on the palms and soles. To date, two different loci in chromosomal regions 15q22-15q24 and 8q24.13-8q24.21 have been reported. Pathogenic mutations, however, have yet to be identified. In order to elucidate the genetic cause of PPKP type Buschke-Fischer-Brauer (PPKP1), we performed exome sequencing in five affected individuals from three families, and we identified in chromosomal region 15q22.33-q23 two heterozygous nonsense mutations-c.370C>T (p.Arg124(∗)) and c.481C>T (p.Arg161(∗))-in AAGAB in all affected individuals. Using immunoblot analysis, we showed that both mutations result in premature termination of translation and truncated protein products. Analyses of mRNA of affected individuals revealed that the disease allele is either not detectable or only detectable at low levels. To assess the consequences of the mutations in skin, we performed immunofluorescence analyses. Notably, the amount of granular staining in the keratinocytes of affected individuals was lower in the cytoplasm but higher around the nucleus than it was in the keratinocytes of control individuals. AAGAB encodes the alpha-and gamma-adaptin-binding protein p34 and might play a role in membrane traffic as a chaperone. The identification of mutations, along with the results from additional studies, defines the genetic basis of PPKP1 and provides evidence that AAGAB plays an important role in skin integrity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Ceratodermia Palmar e Plantar/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular , Alelos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Ceratodermia Palmar e Plantar/metabolismo , Masculino , Linhagem , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Dermatopatias/genética , Dermatopatias/metabolismo
16.
Cell Tissue Res ; 350(3): 445-53, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22968961

RESUMO

Despite the discovery of the widely expressed CLCA (chloride channel regulators, calcium-activated) proteins more than 15 years ago, their seemingly diverse functions are still poorly understood. With the recent generation of porcine animal models for cystic fibrosis (CF), members of the porcine CLCA family are becoming of interest as possible modulators of the disease in the pig. Here, we characterize pCLCA2, the porcine ortholog of the human hCLCA2 and the murine mCLCA5, which are the only CLCA members expressed in the skin. Immunohistochemical studies with a specific antibody against pCLCA2 have revealed a highly restricted pCLCA2 protein expression in the skin. The protein is strictly co-localized with filaggrin and trichohyalin in the granular layer of the epidermis and the inner root sheath of the hair follicles, respectively. No differences have been observed between the expression patterns of wild-type pigs and CF transmembrane conductance regulator(-/-) pigs. We speculate that pCLCA2 plays an as yet undefined role in the structural integrity of the skin or, possibly, in specialized functions of the epidermis, including barrier or defense mechanisms.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/biossíntese , Células Epidérmicas , Epiderme/metabolismo , Folículo Piloso/citologia , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Canais de Cloreto/imunologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/metabolismo , Queratinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Pele/citologia , Pele/metabolismo , Suínos , Transfecção
18.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 33(2): 131-9, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21358379

RESUMO

Onychomatricoma (OM) is an uncommon benign tumor of the nail thought to exhibit differentiation limited toward the nail matrix. Four recent articles from our laboratory have shown, in some respect, a morphological and immunohistochemical homology between the nail unit and the hair follicle at the level of the matrix and isthmus. The purposes of this article are as follows: to investigate whether the sequential pattern of hair keratin expression in the normal nail matrix is maintained in OM, to compare and contrast follicular tumors with matrix differentiation in OM, and to furnish morphological and immunohistochemical markers of the onychogenic capacity of OM. Formalin-fixed paraffin sections from 6 OM were examined using specific keratin (K) antibodies for the matrix, nail bed, and nail isthmus. Hair keratins were expressed in a sequential pattern similar to normal nail matrix. In 3 cases where the cavities were completely lined by the fibroepithelial projections, the morphological aspect and the pattern of expression of K5, K17, K6, K16, and K75 suggested a differentiation toward the nail bed and the nail isthmus. This study shows for the first time that OM can recapitulate the entire nail unit with differentiation toward the nail bed and the nail isthmus. We have identified new histopathological and immunohistochemical features in OM, and we have abridged the diversity of its histological presentation in 2 main patterns: a lobulated or foliated pattern, observed principally on transverse section, and a "glove-finger" mono- or multidigitate pattern, observed mainly on longitudinal section. We have also concluded that OM is not a nail variant of trichoblastoma, pilomatricoma, or other pilar tumors. The concept of epithelial onychogenic tumor with onychogenic mesenchyme could shed more light about the true nature of this peculiar mixed tumor. However, the term OM is short and sanctioned by usage, which justifies keeping it.


Assuntos
Doenças da Unha/patologia , Unhas/ultraestrutura , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Doenças da Unha/metabolismo , Unhas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo
19.
Mol Biol Cell ; 22(6): 782-94, 2011 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21289094

RESUMO

The mechanism by which transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) regulates differentiation in human epidermal keratinocytes is still poorly understood. To assess the role of Smad signaling, we engineered human HaCaT keratinocytes either expressing small interfering RNA against Smads2, 3, and 4 or overexpressing Smad7 and verified impaired Smad signaling as decreased Smad phosphorylation, aberrant nuclear translocation, and altered target gene expression. Besides abrogation of TGFß-dependent growth inhibition in conventional cultures, epidermal morphogenesis and differentiation in organotypic cultures were disturbed, resulting in altered tissue homeostasis with suprabasal proliferation and hyperplasia upon TGFß treatment. Neutralizing antibodies against TGFß, similar to blocking the actions of EGF-receptor or keratinocyte growth factor, caused significant growth reduction of Smad7-overexpressing cells, thereby demonstrating that epithelial hyperplasia was attributed to TGFß-induced "dermis"-derived growth promoting factors. Furthermore impaired Smad signaling not only blocked the epidermal differentiation process or caused epidermal-to-mesenchymal transition but induced a switch to a complex alternative differentiation program, best characterized as mucous/intestinal-type epithelial differentiation. As the same alternative phenotype evolved from both modes of Smad-pathway interference, and reduction of Smad7-overexpression caused reversion to epidermal differentiation, our data suggest that functional TGFß/Smad signaling, besides regulating epidermal tissue homeostasis, is not only essential for terminal epidermal differentiation but crucial in programming different epithelial differentiation routes.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Queratinócitos/fisiologia , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células Epidérmicas , Epiderme/fisiologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Smad/genética
20.
J Biol Chem ; 285(47): 36909-21, 2010 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20843789

RESUMO

Of the 54 human keratins, five members have, at present, only been characterized at the gene level. In this study we have investigated the expression patterns of keratin K80, whose gene is located at the centromeric end of the type II keratin gene domain. K80 possesses a number of highly unusual properties. Structurally, it is distinctly closer to type II hair keratins than to type II epithelial keratins. Nonetheless, it is found in virtually all types of epithelia (stratified keratinizing/non-keratinizing, hard-keratinizing, as well as non-stratified tissues, and cell cultures thereof). This conspicuously broad expression range implies an unprecedented in vivo promiscuity of K80, which involves more than 20 different type I partners for intermediate filament (IF) formation. Throughout, K80 expression is related to advanced tissue or cell differentiation. However, instead of being part of the cytoplasmic IF network, K80 containing IFs are located at the cell margins close to the desmosomal plaques, where they are tightly interlaced with the cytoplasmic IF bundles abutting there. In contrast, in cells entering terminal differentiation, K80 adopts the "conventional" cytoplasmic distribution. In evolutionary terms, K80 is one of the oldest keratins, demonstrable down to fish. In addition, KRT80 mRNA is subject to alternative splicing. Besides K80, we describe a smaller but fully functional splice variant K80.1, which arose only during mammalian evolution. Remarkably, unlike the widely expressed K80, the expression of K80.1 is restricted to soft and hard keratinizing epithelial structures of the hair follicle and the filiform tongue papilla.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Cabelo/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinas Tipo II/genética , Pele/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Bovinos , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Cobaias , Cabelo/citologia , Humanos , Hibridização In Situ , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinas Tipo II/imunologia , Queratinas Tipo II/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Pele/citologia
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