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1.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242873, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227027

RESUMO

The animal-human relationship is essential for farm animal welfare and production. Generally, gentle tactile and vocal interactions improve the animal-human relationship in cattle. However, cows that are fearful of humans avoid their close presence and touch; thus, the animal-human relationship first has to be improved to a point where the animals accept stroking before their perception of the interactions and consequently the animal-human relationship can become positive. We tested whether the animal-human relationship of cows fearful of humans is improved more effectively by gentle interactions during restraint, allowing physical contact from the beginning, or if the gentle interactions are offered while the animals are free to move, giving them more control over the situation and thus probably a higher level of agency and a more positive perception of the interactions. Thirty-six dairy cows (median avoidance distance 1.6 m) were assigned to three treatments (each n = 12): gentle vocal and tactile interactions during restraint in the feeding rack (LOCK); gentle vocal and, if possible, tactile interactions while free in the barn (FREE); routine management without additional interactions (CON). Treatments were applied for 3 min per cow on 10 d per fortnight for 6 weeks (i.e., three periods). Avoidance and approach behaviour towards humans was tested before the start of the treatment period, and then at 2-week intervals. The recorded variables were reduced to one score by Principal Component Analysis. The resulting relationship score (higher values implying a better relationship with humans) increased in all groups; the increase was stronger in FREE than in CON, with the increase in LOCK being not significantly different from the other treatment groups. Thus, we recommend that gentle interactions with cows should take place while they are unrestrained, if possible.

2.
Front Psychol ; 11: 579346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178082

RESUMO

The quality of the animal-human relationship and, consequently, the welfare of animals can be improved by gentle interactions such as stroking and talking. The perception of different stimuli during these interactions likely plays a key role in their emotional experience, but studies are scarce. During experiments, the standardization of verbal stimuli could be increased by using a recording. However, the use of a playback might influence the perception differently than "live" talking, which is closer to on-farm practice. Thus, we compared heifers' (n = 28) reactions to stroking while an experimenter was talking soothingly ("live") or while a recording of the experimenter talking soothingly was played ("playback"). Each animal was tested three times per condition and each trial comprised three phases: pre-stimulus, stimulus (stroking and talking) and post-stimulus. In both conditions, similar phrases with positive content were spoken calmly, using long low-pitched vowels. All tests were video recorded and analyzed for behaviors associated with different affective states. Effects on the heifers' cardiac parameters were assessed using analysis of heart rate variability. Independently of the auditory stimuli, longer durations of neck stretching occurred during stroking, supporting our hypothesis of a positive perception of stroking. Observation of ear positions revealed longer durations of the "back up" position and less ear flicking and changes of ear positions during stroking. The predicted decrease in HR during stroking was not confirmed; instead we found a slightly increased mean HR during stroking with a subsequent decrease in HR, which was stronger after stroking with live talking. In combination with differences in HRV parameters, our findings suggest that live talking might have been more pleasurable to the animals and had a stronger relaxing effect than "playback." The results regarding the effects of the degree of standardization of the stimulus on the variability of the data were inconclusive. We thus conclude that the use of recorded auditory stimuli to promote positive affective states during human-animal interactions in experimental settings is possible, but not necessarily preferable.

3.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(3)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143274

RESUMO

Gentle animal-human interactions, such as stroking, can promote positive emotions and thus welfare in cattle. While previous studies showed that stroking at the ventral neck elicited the most positive reactions in cows, intra-specific allogrooming in cattle includes different body regions and is probably guided partly by the receiver. Thus, we compared heifers' (n = 28) reactions to stroking with the experimenter either reactively responding to perceived momentary preferences of the heifers or exclusively stroking the ventral neck. Independently of the stroking style, longer durations of neck stretching and contact occurred during stroking, supporting our hypothesis of a positive perception of stroking. We did not confirm the predicted decrease in heart rate and increase in heart rate variability, but instead found a slightly increased mean heart rate during stroking. The different stroking styles elicited differences in the heifers' ear positions: "reactive" stroking led to longer durations of low ear positions during stroking, while during "ventral neck" stroking, the duration of back up increased. However, no other behaviours differed significantly between different stroking styles, indicating that the exact manner of stroking applied in our treatments seemed to be less important in the promotion of positive affective states in cattle through gentle human-animal interactions.

4.
Lung Cancer ; 74(2): 178-87, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21511354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies implying a very poor prognosis for patients even under therapy. Since it is known that SCLC cells exhibit neurone-like characteristics, we investigated whether a neuronal induction medium (NID) consisting of indomethacin (200 µM), 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, 500 µM) and insulin (5 µg/ml) induces neuronal differentiation and by this reduces malignancy of SCLC in vitro. METHODS: Anti-proliferative effects were tested by incubating five SCLC cell lines (OH1, OH3, SW2, H69 and H82) with NID for 72 h (XTT-assay). Afterwards, anti-proliferative as well as cytotoxic effects (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] assay, electron microscopy) of a range of drug concentrations (indomethacin 6.25-800 µM, IBMX 15.625-2000 µM and combinations of both) regarding H82 and SW2 were analysed. We further investigated the presence of cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 1 and 2 (IHC, Western blot) as well as levels of COX-2 before and after treatment. Neuronal differentiation was evaluated by morphological analyses (electron microscopy), detection of CD 56 and CD 171 (FACS) and recording Na(+) and K(+) currents (patch clamp). RESULTS: Proliferation of all cell lines was inhibited significantly in a dose dependent manner (linear regression), whereas SW2 and H82 were most sensitive. Treatment with insulin alone had no effect at all. Cytotoxic effects were only observed after incubation with high concentrations of indomethacin (H82) and combined treatment (SW2). COX-1 and 2 were detectable in H82 and SW2, whereas the level of COX-2 remained unaffected under treatment. By electron microscopy, we could not observe distinct neurone-like morphological changes after 72 h of treatment. However, the majority of H82 and SW2 cells expressed both CD 56 (NCAM) and CD 171 (L1), showing an increase of NCAM and L1 intensity at the cell surface after 7 and 14 days of treatment. We further demonstrated an up-regulation of neurone-specific Na(+) currents as well as a significant down-regulation of herg K(+) currents after NID treatment. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate significant anti-proliferative, non-toxic effects of indomethacin and IBMX on SCLC cells in vitro. Treated SCLC cells further possess increased neuronal characteristics in vitro, possibly leading to a reduced malignant potential.


Assuntos
1-Metil-3-Isobutilxantina/farmacologia , Indometacina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Antígeno CD56/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Processos de Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Molécula L1 de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Canais de Sódio/genética , Canais de Sódio/metabolismo
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