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1.
Brain ; 142(10): 3176-3189, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430377

RESUMO

Intracerebral haemorrhage and small vessel ischaemic stroke (SVS) are the most acute manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease, with no established preventive approaches beyond hypertension management. Combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of these two correlated diseases may improve statistical power to detect novel genetic factors for cerebral small vessel disease, elucidating underlying disease mechanisms that may form the basis for future treatments. Because intracerebral haemorrhage location is an adequate surrogate for distinct histopathological variants of cerebral small vessel disease (lobar for cerebral amyloid angiopathy and non-lobar for arteriolosclerosis), we performed GWAS of intracerebral haemorrhage by location in 1813 subjects (755 lobar and 1005 non-lobar) and 1711 stroke-free control subjects. Intracerebral haemorrhage GWAS results by location were meta-analysed with GWAS results for SVS from MEGASTROKE, using 'Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS' (MTAG) to integrate summary data across traits and generate combined effect estimates. After combining intracerebral haemorrhage and SVS datasets, our sample size included 241 024 participants (6255 intracerebral haemorrhage or SVS cases and 233 058 control subjects). Genome-wide significant associations were observed for non-lobar intracerebral haemorrhage enhanced by SVS with rs2758605 [MTAG P-value (P) = 2.6 × 10-8] at 1q22; rs72932727 (P = 1.7 × 10-8) at 2q33; and rs9515201 (P = 5.3 × 10-10) at 13q34. In the GTEx gene expression library, rs2758605 (1q22), rs72932727 (2q33) and rs9515201 (13q34) are significant cis-eQTLs for PMF1 (P = 1 × 10-4 in tibial nerve), NBEAL1, FAM117B and CARF (P < 2.1 × 10-7 in arteries) and COL4A2 and COL4A1 (P < 0.01 in brain putamen), respectively. Leveraging S-PrediXcan for gene-based association testing with the predicted expression models in tissues related with nerve, artery, and non-lobar brain, we found that experiment-wide significant (P < 8.5 × 10-7) associations at three genes at 2q33 including NBEAL1, FAM117B and WDR12 and genome-wide significant associations at two genes including ICA1L at 2q33 and ZCCHC14 at 16q24. Brain cell-type specific expression profiling libraries reveal that SEMA4A, SLC25A44 and PMF1 at 1q22 and COL4A1 and COL4A2 at 13q34 were mainly expressed in endothelial cells, while the genes at 2q33 (FAM117B, CARF and NBEAL1) were expressed in various cell types including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. Our cross-phenotype genetic study of intracerebral haemorrhage and SVS demonstrates novel genome-wide associations for non-lobar intracerebral haemorrhage at 2q33 and 13q34. Our replication of the 1q22 locus previous seen in traditional GWAS of intracerebral haemorrhage, as well as the rediscovery of 13q34, which had previously been reported in candidate gene studies with other cerebral small vessel disease-related traits strengthens the credibility of applying this novel genome-wide approach across intracerebral haemorrhage and SVS.

2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(10): 2027-2036, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two coding variants in the apo L1 gene (APOL1) are strongly associated with kidney disease in blacks. Kidney disease itself increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but whether these variants have an independent direct effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease is unclear. Previous studies have had inconsistent results. METHODS: We conducted a two-stage individual participant data meta-analysis to assess the association of APOL1 kidney-risk variants with adjudicated cardiovascular disease events and death, independent of kidney measures. The analysis included 21,305 blacks from eight large cohorts. RESULTS: Over 8.9±5.0 years of follow-up, 2076 incident cardiovascular disease events occurred in the 16,216 participants who did not have cardiovascular disease at study enrollment. In fully-adjusted analyses, individuals possessing two APOL1 kidney-risk variants had similar risk of incident cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure; hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.28) compared to individuals with zero or one kidney-risk variant. The risk of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure considered individually was also comparable by APOL1 genotype. APOL1 genotype was also not associated with death. There was no difference in adjusted associations by level of kidney function, age, diabetes status, or body-mass index. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, two-stage individual participant data meta-analysis, APOL1 kidney-risk variants were not associated with incident cardiovascular disease or death independent of kidney measures.

3.
Urology ; 132: 81-86, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of multiple (2 or more) bladder hydrodistentions (HODs) on anesthetic bladder capacity (BC) in a large cohort of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) patients. Urinary HOD under anesthesia is a third line therapeutic approach used to treat patients with IC/BPS. There is some concern that performing multiple therapeutic HODs may be contraindicated due to the potential for contributing to a diminished BC over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of IC/BPS patients from a single institution who had undergone 2 or more bladder HOD procedures. Patient demographic and clinical data, including BC under anesthesia, were retrieved from patient charts for analysis. Least squares regression slopes of BC under anesthesia were calculated and used to estimate within-patient BC changes over time. RESULTS: Data from 168 patients (637 HOD procedures) were included for analysis. The average change in BC, 0.52 ± 8.33 mL/mo, was not significantly different from 0 (P= .42). Linear regression analyses did not identify any significant correlation between BC over time with: (1) age, (2) number of HODs, (3) frequency of HODs, (4) average BC, (5) length of time with an IC/BPS diagnosis, or (6) length of time during which the patient's BC was evaluated. Moreover, there was no difference in BC change over time in patients with and without Hunner's lesion (P = .86). CONCLUSION: Multiple therapeutic HODs, over several years, do not result in a significant change in BC in IC/BPS patients.

4.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(7): e002338, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci associated with stroke. However, the specific stroke subtypes affected, and whether loci influence both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, remains unknown. For loci associated with stroke, we aimed to infer the combination of stroke subtypes likely to be affected, and in doing so assess the extent to which such loci have homogeneous effects across stroke subtypes. METHODS: We performed Bayesian multinomial regression in 16 664 stroke cases and 32 792 controls of European ancestry to determine the most likely combination of stroke subtypes affected for loci with published genome-wide stroke associations, using model selection. Cases were subtyped under 2 commonly used stroke classification systems, TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 Acute Stroke Treatment) and causative classification of stroke. All individuals had genotypes imputed to the Haplotype Reference Consortium 1.1 Panel. RESULTS: Sixteen loci were considered for analysis. Seven loci influenced both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, 3 of which influenced ischemic and hemorrhagic subtypes under both TOAST and causative classification of stroke. Under causative classification of stroke, 4 loci influenced both small vessel stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. An EDNRA locus demonstrated opposing effects on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. No loci were predicted to influence all stroke subtypes in the same direction, and only one locus (12q24) was predicted to influence all ischemic stroke subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity in the influence of stroke-associated loci on stroke subtypes is pervasive, reflecting differing causal pathways. However, overlap exists between hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, which may reflect shared pathobiology predisposing to small vessel arteriopathy. Stroke is a complex, heterogeneous disorder requiring tailored analytic strategies to decipher genetic mechanisms.

5.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 28, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) can increase the risk of developing pain; however, the molecular mechanisms of RT-related pain remain unclear. The current study aimed to identify susceptibility loci and enriched pathways for clinically relevant acute post-RT pain, defined as having moderate to severe pain (pain score ≥ 4) at the completion of RT. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 1,344,832 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a gene-based analysis using PLINK set-based tests of 19,621 genes, and a functional enrichment analysis of a gene list of 875 genes with p < 0.05 using NIH DAVID functional annotation module with KEGG pathways and GO terms (n = 380) among 1112 breast cancer patients. RESULTS: About 29% of patients reported acute post-RT pain. None of SNPs nor genes reached genome-wide significant level. Four SNPs showed suggestive associations with post-RT pain; rs16970540 in RFFL or near the LIG3 gene (p = 1.7 × 10-6), rs4584690, and rs7335912 in ABCC4/MPR4 gene (p = 5.5 × 10-6 and p = 7.8 × 10-6, respectively), and rs73633565 in EGFL6 gene (p = 8.1 × 10-6). Gene-based analysis suggested the potential involvement of neurotransmitters, olfactory receptors, and cytochrome P450 in post-RT pain, whereas functional analysis showed glucuronidation (FDR-adjusted p value = 9.46 × 10-7) and olfactory receptor activities (FDR-adjusted p value = 0.032) as the most significantly enriched biological features. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first GWAS suggesting that post-RT pain is a complex polygenic trait influenced by many biological processes and functions such as glucuronidation and olfactory receptor activities. If validated in larger populations, the results can provide biological targets for pain management to improve cancer patients' quality of life. Additionally, these genes can be further tested as predictive biomarkers for personalized pain management.

6.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(8): 1331-1337, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Populations of Mexican American ancestry are at an increased risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether loci in known and novel genes were associated with variation in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (n = 3,644), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (n = 3,595), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (n = 1,577) levels by conducting the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of liver enzymes, which commonly measure liver function, in individuals of Mexican American ancestry. METHODS: Levels of AST, ALT, and GGT were determined by enzymatic colorimetric assays. A multi-cohort GWAS of individuals of Mexican American ancestry was performed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were tested for association with liver outcomes by multivariable linear regression using an additive genetic model. Association analyses were conducted separately in each cohort, followed by a nonparametric meta-analysis. RESULTS: In the PNPLA3 gene, rs4823173 (P = 3.44 × 10-10 ), rs2896019 (P = 7.29 × 10-9 ), and rs2281135 (P = 8.73 × 10-9 ) were significantly associated with AST levels. Although not genome-wide significant, these same SNPs were the top hits for ALT (P = 7.12 × 10-8 , P = 1.98 × 10-7 , and P = 1.81 × 10-7 , respectively). The strong correlation (r2 = 1.0) for these SNPs indicated a single hit in the PNPLA3 gene. No genome-wide significant associations were found for GGT. CONCLUSIONS: PNPLA3, a locus previously identified with ALT, AST, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in European and Japanese GWAS, is also associated with liver enzymes in populations of Mexican American ancestry.

7.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 21, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is a significant public health concern disproportionately affecting African Americans (AAs). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the leading cause of ESKD in the USA, and efforts to uncover genetic susceptibility to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) have had limited success. A prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) in AAs with T2D-ESKD was expanded with additional AA cases and controls and genotypes imputed to the higher density 1000 Genomes reference panel. The discovery analysis included 3432 T2D-ESKD cases and 6977 non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls (N = 10,409), followed by a discrimination analysis in 2756 T2D non-nephropathy controls to exclude T2D-associated variants. RESULTS: Six independent variants located in or near RND3/RBM43, SLITRK3, ENPP7, GNG7, and APOL1 achieved genome-wide significant association (P < 5 × 10-8) with T2D-ESKD. Following extension analyses in 1910 non-diabetic ESKD cases and 908 non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls, a meta-analysis of 5342 AA all-cause ESKD cases and 6977 AA non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls revealed an additional novel all-cause ESKD locus at EFNB2 (rs77113398; P = 9.84 × 10-9; OR = 1.94). Exclusion of APOL1 renal-risk genotype carriers identified two additional genome-wide significant T2D-ESKD-associated loci at GRAMD3 and MGAT4C. A second variant at GNG7 (rs373971520; P = 2.17 × 10-8, OR = 1.46) remained associated with all-cause ESKD in the APOL1-negative analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide further evidence for genetic factors associated with advanced kidney disease in AAs with T2D.

9.
J Lipid Res ; 60(8): 1425-1431, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133557

RESUMO

apoM is a minor HDL apolipoprotein and carrier for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). HDL apoM and S1P concentrations are inversely associated with atherosclerosis progression in rodents. We evaluated associations between plasma concentrations of S1P, plasma concentrations of apoM, and HDL apoM levels with prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis and mortality in the African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants (N = 545). Associations between plasma S1P, plasma apoM, and HDL apoM with subclinical atherosclerosis and mortality were assessed using multivariate parametric, nonparametric, and Cox proportional hazards models. At baseline, participants' median (25th percentile, 75th percentile) age was 55 (49, 62) years old and their coronary artery calcium (CAC) mass score was 26.5 (0.0, 346.5). Plasma S1P, plasma apoM, and HDL apoM were not associated with CAC. After 64 (57.6, 70.3) months of follow-up, 81 deaths were recorded. Higher concentrations of plasma S1P [odds ratio (OR) = 0.14, P = 0.01] and plasma apoM (OR = 0.10, P = 0.02), but not HDL apoM (P = 0.89), were associated with lower mortality after adjusting for age, sex, statin use, CAC, kidney function, and albuminuria. We conclude that plasma S1P and apoM concentrations are inversely and independently associated with mortality, but not CAC, in African Americans with type 2 diabetes after accounting for conventional risk factors.

10.
Diabetes ; 68(7): 1508-1522, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010960

RESUMO

Insulin resistance (IR) is a harbinger of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and partly determined by genetic factors. However, genetically regulated mechanisms of IR remain poorly understood. Using gene expression, genotype, and insulin sensitivity data from the African American Genetics of Metabolism and Expression (AAGMEx) cohort, we performed transcript-wide correlation and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses to identify IR-correlated cis-regulated transcripts (cis-eGenes) in adipose tissue. These IR-correlated cis-eGenes were tested in the European ancestry individuals in the Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) cohort for trans-ethnic replication. Comparison of Matsuda index-correlated transcripts in AAGMEx with the METSIM study identified significant correlation of 3,849 transcripts, with concordant direction of effect for 97.5% of the transcripts. cis-eQTL for 587 Matsuda index-correlated genes were identified in both cohorts. Enoyl-CoA hydratase domain-containing 3 (ECHDC3) was the top-ranked Matsuda index-correlated cis-eGene. Expression levels of ECHDC3 were positively correlated with Matsuda index, and regulated by cis-eQTL, rs34844369 being the top cis-eSNP in AAGMEx. Silencing of ECHDC3 in adipocytes significantly reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and Akt Ser473 phosphorylation. RNA sequencing analysis identified 691 differentially expressed genes in ECHDC3-knockdown adipocytes, which were enriched in γ-linolenate biosynthesis, and known IR genes. Thus, our studies elucidated genetic regulatory mechanisms of IR and identified genes and pathways in adipose tissue that are mechanistically involved in IR.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5987, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979947

RESUMO

In children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who present to the gastroenterologist with chronic constipation on a background of colonic inflammation, we have identified two distinct clinical subtypes: (1) patients who experience a sustained state of GI symptomatic remission while on maintenance anti-inflammatory therapy (fast responders) and, (2) those with recurrent right-sided fecal loading requiring regular colon cleanouts during treatment for enterocolitis (slow responders). We hypothesized that a detailed molecular analysis of tissue from the affected region of the colon would provide mechanistic insights regarding the fast versus slow response to anti-inflammatory therapy. To test this, ascending colon biopsy tissues from 35 children with ASD (20 slow responders and 15 fast responders) were analyzed by RNAseq. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to assign samples to clusters and gene expression analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) between samples within the clusters. Significant differences were found between the two clusters with fast responder-predominant cluster showing an upregulation of transcripts involved in the activation of immune and inflammatory response and the slow responder-predominant cluster showing significant over-representation of pathways impacting colonic motility (e.g. genes involved in tryptophan and serotonin degradation and mitochondrial dysfunction). Regression analysis identified a single long non-coding RNA that could predict cluster assignment with a high specificity (0.88), sensitivity (0.89) and accuracy (0.89). Comparison of gene expression profiles in the ascending colon from a subset of patients with ASD, chronic right-sided fecal loading constipation and a slow versus fast response to therapy has identified molecular mechanisms that likely contribute to this differential response following the primary therapeutic intervention (i.e. treatment for colonic inflammation with brief induction immunosuppression followed by maintenance non-steroidal anti-inflammatory therapy). Importantly, we have identified a transcript that, if validated, may provide a biomarker that can predict from the outset which patients will be slow responders who would benefit from an alternate therapeutic strategy in treating their constipation.

12.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 58, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune fibrosing disease with an incompletely understood genetic and non-genetic etiology. Defining its etiology is important to allow the development of effective predictive, preventative, and therapeutic strategies. We conducted this epigenomic study to investigate the contributions of DNA methylation to the etiology of SSc while minimizing confounding due to genetic heterogeneity. METHODS: Genomic methylation in whole blood from 27 twin pairs discordant for SSc was assayed over 450 K CpG sites. In silico integration with reported differentially methylated cytosines, differentially expressed genes, and regulatory annotation was conducted to validate and interpret the results. RESULTS: A total of 153 unique cytosines in limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc) and 266 distinct sites in diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) showed suggestive differential methylation levels in affected twins. Integration with available data revealed 76 CpGs that were also differentially methylated in blood cells from lupus patients, suggesting their role as potential epigenetic blood biomarkers of autoimmunity. It also revealed 27 genes with concomitant differential expression in blood from SSc patients, including IFI44L and RSAD2. Regulatory annotation revealed that dcSSc-associated CpGs (but not lcSSc) are enriched at Encyclopedia of DNA Elements-, Roadmap-, and BLUEPRINT-derived regulatory regions, supporting their potential role in disease presentation. Notably, the predominant enrichment of regulatory regions in monocytes and macrophages is consistent with the role of these cells in fibrosis, suggesting that the observed cellular dysregulation might be, at least partly, due to altered epigenetic mechanisms of these cells in dcSSc. CONCLUSIONS: These data implicate epigenetic changes in the pathogenesis of SSc and suggest functional mechanisms in SSc etiology.

13.
EBioMedicine ; 42: 76-85, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune disease prevention requires tools to assess an individual's risk of developing a specific disease. One tool is disease-associated autoantibodies, which accumulate in an asymptomatic preclinical period. However, patients sometimes exhibit autoantibodies associated with a different disease classification. When and how these alternative autoantibodies first appear remain unknown. This cross-sectional study characterizes alternative autoimmunity, and associated genetic and environmental factors, in unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients, who exhibit increased future risk for the same disease. METHODS: Samples (n = 1321) from disease-specific autoantibody-positive (aAb+) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients; and unaffected aAb+ and autoantibody-negative (aAb-) SLE and RA FDRs were tested for SLE, RA, and T1D aAbs, as well as anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti-cardiolipin and anti-thyroperoxidase. FDR SLE and RA genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated. FINDINGS: Alternative autoimmunity occurred in SLE patients (56%) and FDRs (57·4%), RA patients (32·6%) and FDRs (34·8%), and T1D patients (43%). Expanded autoimmunity, defined as autoantibodies spanning at least two other diseases, occurred in 18·5% of SLE patients, 16·4% of SLE FDRs, 7·8% of RA patients, 5·3% of RA FDRs, and 10·8% of T1D patients. SLE FDRs were more likely to have alternative (odds ratio [OR] 2·44) and expanded (OR 3·27) autoimmunity than RA FDRs. Alternative and expanded autoimmunity were associated with several environmental exposures. Alternative autoimmunity was associated with a higher RA GRS in RA FDRs (OR 1·41), and a higher SLE GRS in aAb+ RA FDRs (OR 1·87), but not in SLE FDRs. INTERPRETATION: Autoimmunity commonly crosses disease-specific boundaries in systemic (RA, SLE) and organ-specific (T1D) autoimmune diseases. Alternative autoimmunity is more common in SLE FDRs than RA FDRs, and is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. These findings have substantial implications for preclinical disease pathogenesis and autoimmune disease prevention studies. FUND: NIH U01AI101981, R01AR051394, U19AI082714, P30AR053483, P30GM103510, U54GM104938, U01AI101934, R01AI024717, U01AI130830, I01BX001834, & U01HG008666.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etiologia , Núcleo Familiar , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
14.
Neurology ; 92(17): e1969-e1974, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine whether longer lifespans in African Americans with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), compared to white non-Hispanics, are secondary to higher rates of tracheostomy and invasive ventilation (TIV) in African Americans. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted with 49 African Americans with ALS matched by age, gender, and site of onset to 137 white persons with ALS. RESULTS: African Americans had longer survival than whites when the outcome was death (p = 0.016), but this was no longer significant when the outcome was death or TIV (p = 0.100). African Americans also had a lower rate of noninvasive ventilation use compared to whites (27 [55%] vs 96 [70%], p = 0.015) and a higher rate of TIV (8 [16%] vs 7 [5%], p = 0.016), but after controlling for baseline severity, only the noninvasive ventilation difference (p = 0.036), and not the TIV difference (p = 0.115), remained significant. CONCLUSION: African Americans with ALS live longer than white persons with ALS, and this may be secondary to higher rates of TIV use among African Americans.

15.
JAMA Neurol ; 76(4): 480-491, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726504

RESUMO

Importance: Genetic studies of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have focused mainly on white participants, but genetic risk may vary or could be concealed by differing nongenetic coexposures in nonwhite populations. Transethnic analysis of risk may clarify the role of genetics in ICH risk across populations. Objective: To evaluate associations between established differences in ICH risk by race/ethnicity and the variability in the risks of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 alleles, the most potent genetic risk factor for ICH. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study of primary ICH meta-analyzed the association of APOE allele status on ICH risk, applying a 2-stage clustering approach based on race/ethnicity and stratified by a contributing study. A propensity score analysis was used to model the association of APOE with the burden of hypertension across race/ethnic groups. Primary ICH cases and controls were collected from 3 hospital- and population-based studies in the United States and 8 in European sites in the International Stroke Genetic Consortium. Participants were enrolled from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2017. Participants with secondary causes of ICH were excluded from enrollment. Controls were regionally matched within each participating study. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical variables were systematically obtained from structured interviews within each site. APOE genotype was centrally determined for all studies. Results: In total, 13 124 participants (7153 [54.5%] male with a median [interquartile range] age of 66 [56-76] years) were included. In white participants, APOE ε2 (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.24-1.80; P < .001) and APOE ε4 (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.23-1.85; P < .001) were associated with lobar ICH risk; however, within self-identified Hispanic and black participants, no associations were found. After propensity score matching for hypertension burden, APOE ε4 was associated with lobar ICH risk among Hispanic (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.28; P = .01) but not in black (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.98-1.07; P = .25) participants. APOE ε2 and ε4 did not show an association with nonlobar ICH risk in any race/ethnicity. Conclusions and Relevance: APOE ε4 and ε2 alleles appear to affect lobar ICH risk variably by race/ethnicity, associations that are confirmed in white individuals but can be shown in Hispanic individuals only when the excess burden of hypertension is propensity score-matched; further studies are needed to explore the interactions between APOE alleles and environmental exposures that vary by race/ethnicity in representative populations at risk for ICH.

16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(6): 2286-2294, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715336

RESUMO

PURPOSE: African Americans who shed JC polyomavirus (JCV) in their urine have reduced rates of nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). We assessed the associations between urinary JCV and urine BK polyomavirus (BKV) with CKD in African Americans with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: African Americans with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and controls lacking nephropathy from the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes Consortium (FIND) and African American-Diabetes Heart Study (AA-DHS) had urine tested for JCV and BKV using quantitative PCR. Of the 335 individuals tested, 148 had DKD and 187 were controls. RESULTS: JCV viruria was detected more often in the controls than in the patients with DKD (FIND: 46.6% vs 32.2%; OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.93; P = 0.03; AA-DHS: 30.4% vs 26.2%; OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.27 to 1.48; P = 0.29). A joint analysis adjusted for age, sex, and study revealed that JC viruria was inversely associated with DKD (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.91; P = 0.02). Statistically significant relationships between BKV and DKD were not observed. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: The results from the present study extend the inverse association between urine JCV and nondiabetic nephropathy in African Americans to DKD. These results imply that common pathways likely involving the innate immune system mediate coincident chronic kidney injury and restriction of JCV replication. Future studies are needed to explore causative pathways and characterize whether the absence of JC viruria can serve as a biomarker for DKD in the African American population.

17.
Cytokine ; 2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: High serum interferon alpha (IFN-α) is an important heritable phenotype in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) which is involved in primary disease pathogenesis. High vs. low levels of IFN-α are associated with disease severity and account for some of the biological heterogeneity between SLE patients. The aim of the study was to replicate and fine-map previously detected genetic associations with serum IFN-α in SLE. METHODS: We previously undertook a case-case genome-wide association study of SLE patients stratified by ancestry and extremes of phenotype in serum IFN-α. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven loci identified in this screen were selected for follow up in a large independent cohort of 1370 SLE patients (703 European-ancestry, 432 African ancestry, and 235 Amerindian ancestry). Each ancestral background was analyzed separately, and ancestry-informative markers were used to control for ancestry and admixture. RESULTS: We find a rare haplotype spanning the promoter region of EFNA5 that is strongly associated with serum IFN-α in both African-American and European-American SLE patients (OR = 3.0, p = 3.7 × 10-6). We also find SNPs in the PPM1H, PTPRM, and NRGN regions associated with IFN-α levels in European-American, Amerindian, and African-American SLE patients respectively. Many of these associations are within regulatory regions of the gene, suggesting an impact on transcription. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the power of molecular sub-phenotypes to reveal genetic factors involved in complex autoimmune disease. The distinct associations observed in different ancestral backgrounds emphasize the heterogeneity of molecular pathogenesis in SLE.

18.
Muscle Nerve ; 59(4): 478-481, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635914

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inclusion body myositis (IBM) can have clinical and electrodiagnostic features similar to other neuromuscular diseases, making it a diagnostic challenge. This prospective study was designed to determine the accuracy of forearm ultrasound for IBM. METHODS: Sixty adults were recruited (15 with IBM, 15 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [ALS], 15 with other myopathies, and 15 healthy controls), and each underwent ultrasound of the bilateral forearms (imaging the flexor digitorum profundus and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles). Three clinicians with varying ultrasound expertise assigned a diagnosis of IBM, ALS, other myopathy, or control, based on images alone. RESULTS: Intrarater reliability was moderately strong. Interrater reliability varied based on clinician experience. Sensitivity was 73.33% and 66.67% for the expert raters. Specificity was strong for all 3 clinicians (93.33%, 84.44%, and 91.11%). DISCUSSION: Neuromuscular ultrasound of the forearm is reliable and accurate for the diagnosis of IBM, although sensitivity was higher among experienced clinicians. Muscle Nerve 59:478-481, 2019.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Miosite de Corpos de Inclusão/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Antebraço/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 28(1): 65-69, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320619

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The presence of viruses in urine (urine virome) typically reflects infection in the kidneys and urinary tract. The urinary virome is associated with HIV-associated nephropathy and chronic glomerulosclerosis. There are many associations of this microbiome with human diseases that remain to be described. This manuscript reviews emerging data on relationships between kidney disease and urinary tract infection/colonization with JC polyomavirus (JCPyV). RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately 30% of the adult population sheds JCPyV in the urine. Further, urinary tract infection with one polyomavirus strain appears to inhibit secondary infections. The presence of urinary JCPyV and BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) replication were measured with polymerase chain reaction in African Americans to assess relationships with apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1)-associated nephropathy. Urinary JCPyV was associated with paradoxically lower rates of nephropathy in those with APOL1 high-risk genotypes. Subsequent studies revealed African Americans with JCPyV viruria had lower rates of nondiabetic nephropathy independent from APOL1. SUMMARY: Urinary tract JCPyV replication is common and associates with lower rates of nephropathy. This relationship is observed in diverse settings. Results support a host immune system that fails to eradicate nonnephropathic viruses and is also less likely to manifest renal parenchymal inflammation resulting in glomerulosclerosis.


Assuntos
Vírus JC/fisiologia , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Urinárias/virologia , Urina/virologia , Apolipoproteína L1/genética , Apolipoproteína L1/fisiologia , Humanos , Replicação Viral
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The TG/HDL-C ratio is used as a marker of insulin resistance (IR) in Caucasians; however, there is limited data in other ethnic groups. We hypothesized that the TG/HDL-C ratio is associated with IR in Hispanics and African Americans (AA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study was examined for associations between TG/HDL-C ratio and IR, ß-cell function and incident diabetes in non-diabetic Hispanics (n = 872, 63% female) and AA (n = 371, 61% female). Insulin sensitivity index (SI) and disposition index (DI) from frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests were used as markers of IR and ß-cell function respectively. Incident type 2 diabetes was determined by fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dl or initiation of anti-hyperglycemia agents over 5 year follow-up. RESULTS: Higher TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with IR in Hispanic and AA men and women (P < 0.0002), as well as ß-cell function in Hispanic women and AA men and women (P < 0.02). TG/HDL-C predicted incident type 2 diabetes in women (area under the curves 0.703 and 0.795 for Hispanics and AA respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Similar to Caucasians, the TG/HDL-C ratio can be used to identify IR in Hispanics and AA, and may predict type 2 diabetes in women.

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