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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031749

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder with a prominent genetic component. Individuals of African ancestry (AA) experience the disease more severely and with an increased co-morbidity burden compared to European ancestry (EA) populations. We hypothesize that the disparities in disease prevalence, activity, and response to standard medications between AA and EA populations is partially conferred by genomic influences on biological pathways. To address this, we applied a comprehensive approach to identify all genes predicted from SNP-associated risk loci detected with the Immunochip. By combining genes predicted via eQTL analysis, as well as those predicted from base-pair changes in intergenic enhancer sites, coding-region variants, and SNP-gene proximity, we were able to identify 1,731 potential ancestry-specific and trans-ancestry genetic drivers of SLE. Gene associations were linked to upstream and downstream regulators using connectivity mapping, and predicted biological pathways were mined for candidate drug targets. Examination of trans-ancestral pathways reflect the well-defined role for interferons in SLE and revealed pathways associated with tissue repair and remodeling. EA-dominant genetic drivers were more often associated with innate immune and myeloid cell function pathways, whereas AA-dominant pathways mirror clinical findings in AA subjects, suggesting disease progression is driven by aberrant B cell activity accompanied by ER stress and metabolic dysfunction. Finally, potential ancestry-specific and non-specific drug candidates were identified. The integration of all SLE SNP-predicted genes into functional pathways revealed critical molecular pathways representative of each population, underscoring the influence of ancestry on disease mechanism and also providing key insight for therapeutic selection.

2.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084892

RESUMO

In genomic fine-mapping studies, some approaches leverage annotation data to prioritize likely functional polymorphisms. However, existing annotation resources can present challenges as many lack information for novel variants and/or may be uninformative for non-coding regions. We propose a novel annotation source, sequence-dependent DNA topology, as a prioritization metric for fine-mapping. DNA topology and function are well-intertwined, and as an intrinsic DNA property, it is readily applicable to any genomic region. Here, we constructed and applied Minor Groove Width (MGW) as a prioritization metric. Using an established MGW-prediction method, we generated a MGW census for 199 038 197 SNPs across the human genome. Summarizing a SNP's change in MGW (ΔMGW) as a Euclidean distance, ΔMGW exhibited a strongly right-skewed distribution, highlighting the infrequency of SNPs that generate dissimilar shape profiles. We hypothesized that phenotypically-associated SNPs can be prioritized by ΔMGW. We tested this hypothesis in 116 regions analyzed by a Massively Parallel Reporter Assay and observed enrichment of large ΔMGW for functional polymorphisms (P = 0.0007). To illustrate application in fine-mapping studies, we applied our MGW-prioritization approach to three non-coding regions associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Together, this study presents the first usage of sequence-dependent DNA topology as a prioritization metric in genomic association studies.

3.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the role of platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chain (GPIbα) plasma protein levels in cardiovascular, autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases and whether its effects are mediated by platelet count. METHODS: We performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study, using both cis and trans-acting protein expression quantitative trait loci (pQTL) near GP1BA and BRAP genes as instruments. To assess if platelet count mediated the effect, we then performed a two-step MR study. Putative associations (GPIbα/ platelet count/ disease) detected by MR analyses were subsequently assessed using multiple-trait-colocalization analyses. RESULTS: After correcting for multiple testing (P ≤ 2×10-3 ), GPIbα, instrumented by either cis-pQTL or trans-pQTL, was causally implicated with increased risk of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA - oligoarticular and rheumatoid factor negative subtypes). These effects of GPIbα appear to be mediated by platelet count and are supported by strong evidence of colocalization (probability of all three traits sharing a common causal variant ≥ 0.80). GPIbα instrumented by cis-pQTL did not appear to affect cardiovascular risk, although the GPIbα trans-pQTL associates with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and autoimmune diseases but decreased risk of autoinflammatory diseases, suggesting this trans- instrument acts through other pathways. CONCLUSION: The role of platelets in thrombosis is well-established, however our findings provided some novel genetic evidence that platelets may be causally implicated in the development of JIA, and GPIba as a putative therapeutic target for these JIA subtypes.

4.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12015868, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100049

RESUMO

Intensive blood pressure control decreases the rate of cardiovascular events by >25% compared with standard blood pressure control. We sought to determine whether the decrease in cardiovascular events seen with intensive blood pressure control is associated with an increased rate of other causes of hospitalization. This is a post hoc analysis of SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) in 9361 adult participants with hypertension and elevated cardiovascular risk. Participants were randomly assigned to an intensive or standard systolic blood pressure goal (<120 or <140 mm Hg, respectively). The primary outcome was hospitalization rates per 100 person-years for hospitalizations not associated with SPRINT primary events. After excluding hospitalizations linked to SPRINT primary events, there were 4678 participants with a rate of 19.70 hospitalizations per 100 person-years, compared with 4683 participants with a rate of 19.65 (P=0.37). Equivalence testing shows that these hospitalization rates were statistically equivalent at the P=0.05 level. Of those with hospitalizations, >1 hospitalization was seen in 38.8% of intensive arm participants and 41.9% of standard arm participants (P=0.08). The mean cumulative count of nonprimary event hospitalizations was comparable between the two arms. The most common causes of hospitalization were cardiovascular (23.6%) followed by injuries, including bone and joint therapeutic procedures (15.7%), infections (12.0%), and nervous systems disorders (10.7%). No categories of hospitalization were statistically more common in the intensive arm compared with the standard arm. Thus, the decrease in cardiovascular events seen with intensive blood pressure control is not associated with an increased rate of other causes of hospitalization. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01206062.

5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most prevalent form of juvenile rheumatic disease. Our understanding of the genetic risk factors for this disease is limited due to low disease prevalence and extensive clinical heterogeneity. The objective of this research is to identify novel JIA susceptibility variants and link these variants to target genes, which is essential to facilitate the translation of genetic discoveries to clinical benefit. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 3305 patients and 9196 healthy controls, and used a Bayesian model selection approach to systematically investigate specificity and sharing of associated loci across JIA clinical subtypes. Suggestive signals were followed-up for meta-analysis with a previous GWAS (2751 cases/15 886 controls). We tested for enrichment of association signals in a broad range of functional annotations, and integrated statistical fine-mapping and experimental data to identify target genes. RESULTS: Our analysis provides evidence to support joint analysis of all JIA subtypes with the identification of five novel significant loci. Fine-mapping nominated causal single nucleotide polymorphisms with posterior inclusion probabilities ≥50% in five JIA loci. Enrichment analysis identified RELA and EBF1 as key transcription factors contributing to disease risk. Our integrative approach provided compelling evidence to prioritise target genes at six loci, highlighting mechanistic insights for the disease biology and IL6ST as a potential drug target. CONCLUSIONS: In a large JIA GWAS, we identify five novel risk loci and describe potential function of JIA association signals that will be informative for future experimental works and therapeutic strategies.

6.
Diabetes ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928872

RESUMO

Decline in insulin sensitivity due to dysfunction of adipose tissue (AT) is one of the earliest pathogenic events in Type 2 Diabetes. We hypothesize that differential DNA methylation (DNAm) controls insulin sensitivity and obesity by modulating transcript expression in AT. Integrating AT DNAm profiles with transcript profile data measured in a cohort of 230 African Americans from AAGMEx cohort, we performed cis-expression quantitative trait methylation (cis-eQTM) analysis to identify epigenetic regulatory loci for glucometabolic trait-associated transcripts. We identified significantly associated CpG-regions for 82 transcripts (FDR-P<0.05). The strongest eQTM locus was observed for the proopiomelanocortin (POMC; ρ= -0.632, P= 4.70X10-27) gene. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) further identified 155, 46, and 168 CpG regions associated (FDR-P <0.05) with Matsuda index, SI and BMI, respectively. Intersection of EWAS, transcript level to trait association, and eQTM results, followed by causal inference test identified significant eQTM loci for 23 genes that were also associated with Matsuda index, SI and/or BMI in EWAS. These associated genes include FERMT3, ITGAM, ITGAX, and POMC In summary, applying an integrative multi-omics approach, our study provides evidence for DNAm-mediated regulation of gene expression at both previously identified and novel loci for many key AT transcripts influencing insulin resistance and obesity.

7.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment failure in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is common. We hypothesize that DNA methylation differs between patients by treatment response to topical steroids (oral viscous budesonide), thus offering the potential to inform targeting therapies. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify differentially methylated sites and affiliated genes in pre-treatment esophageal cells between responders and non-responders and test for accelerated epigenetic aging in esophageal cells of EoE patients. METHODS: DNA was extracted from prospectively collected and biobanked esophageal biopsies from 36 Caucasian treatment naïve EoE patients at diagnosis. Methylation assays were completed using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Normalized ß values for each CpG site was tested (t-test) for differential methylation. Further, 353 CpG probes were used to estimate epigenetic age for each patient and a linear regression model tested whether chronologic age and epigenetic age differed. Epigenetic age results were confirmed in an independent cohort of healthy controls. RESULTS: Eighteen CpG sites were differentially methylated by treatment response (p<0.00001). The mean epigenetic age and chronological age was 56.1 ± 11.1 and 36.7 ± 12.3 years, a mean age difference of 19.3 ± 5.2 years (p < 0.0001); accelerated aging was not observed in the esophageal cells of healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: EoE patients that respond versus do not respond to treatment have differences in their methylation profile, including enrichment of genes in pathways consistent with cellular injury and repair due to environmental stress and cell adhesion and barrier integrity. EoE also appears to accelerate cellular aging. Whether treatment can arrest or reverse accelerated epigenetic aging and the implications for long-term disease progression are important areas for future research.

8.
Genome Res ; 30(10): 1379-1392, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967914

RESUMO

Sex differences in adipose tissue distribution and function are associated with sex differences in cardiometabolic disease. While many studies have revealed sex differences in adipocyte cell signaling and physiology, there is a relative dearth of information regarding sex differences in transcript abundance and regulation. We investigated sex differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue transcriptional regulation using omic-scale data from ∼3000 geographically and ethnically diverse human samples. We identified 162 genes with robust sex differences in expression. Differentially expressed genes were implicated in oxidative phosphorylation and adipogenesis. We further determined that sex differences in gene expression levels could be related to sex differences in the genetics of gene expression regulation. Our analyses revealed sex-specific genetic associations, and this finding was replicated in a study of 98 inbred mouse strains. The genes under genetic regulation in human and mouse were enriched for oxidative phosphorylation and adipogenesis. Enrichment analysis showed that the associated genetic loci resided within binding motifs for adipogenic transcription factors (e.g., PPARG and EGR1). We demonstrated that sex differences in gene expression could be influenced by sex differences in genetic regulation for six genes (e.g., FADS1 and MAP1B). These genes exhibited dynamic expression patterns during adipogenesis and robust expression in mature human adipocytes. Our results support a role for adipogenesis-related genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue sex differences in the genetic and environmental regulation of gene expression.

9.
Stroke ; 51(8): 2454-2463, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a complex disease with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Blacks endure a nearly 2-fold greater risk of stroke and are 2× to 3× more likely to die from stroke than European Americans. METHODS: The COMPASS (Consortium of Minority Population Genome-Wide Association Studies of Stroke) has conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of stroke in >22 000 individuals of African ancestry (3734 cases, 18 317 controls) from 13 cohorts. RESULTS: In meta-analyses, we identified one single nucleotide polymorphism (rs55931441) near the HNF1A gene that reached genome-wide significance (P=4.62×10-8) and an additional 29 variants with suggestive evidence of association (P<1×10-6), representing 24 unique loci. For validation, a look-up analysis for a 100 kb region flanking the COMPASS single nucleotide polymorphism was performed in SiGN (Stroke Genetics Network) Europeans, SiGN Hispanics, and METASTROKE (Europeans). Using a stringent Bonferroni correction P value of 2.08×10-3 (0.05/24 unique loci), we were able to validate associations at the HNF1A locus in both SiGN (P=8.18×10-4) and METASTROKE (P=1.72×10-3) European populations. Overall, 16 of 24 loci showed evidence for validation across multiple populations. Previous studies have reported associations between variants in the HNF1A gene and lipids, C-reactive protein, and risk of coronary artery disease and stroke. Suggestive associations with variants in the SFXN4 and TMEM108 genes represent potential novel ischemic stroke loci. CONCLUSIONS: These findings represent the most thorough investigation of genetic determinants of stroke in individuals of African descent, to date.

10.
Nature ; 582(7813): 577-581, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499649

RESUMO

Many common illnesses, for reasons that have not been identified, differentially affect men and women. For instance, the autoimmune diseases systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren's syndrome affect nine times more women than men1, whereas schizophrenia affects men with greater frequency and severity relative to women2. All three illnesses have their strongest common genetic associations in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, an association that in SLE and Sjögren's syndrome has long been thought to arise from alleles of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes at that locus3-6. Here we show that variation of the complement component 4 (C4) genes C4A and C4B, which are also at the MHC locus and have been linked to increased risk for schizophrenia7, generates 7-fold variation in risk for SLE and 16-fold variation in risk for Sjögren's syndrome among individuals with common C4 genotypes, with C4A protecting more strongly than C4B in both illnesses. The same alleles that increase risk for schizophrenia greatly reduce risk for SLE and Sjögren's syndrome. In all three illnesses, C4 alleles act more strongly in men than in women: common combinations of C4A and C4B generated 14-fold variation in risk for SLE, 31-fold variation in risk for Sjögren's syndrome, and 1.7-fold variation in schizophrenia risk among men (versus 6-fold, 15-fold and 1.26-fold variation in risk among women, respectively). At a protein level, both C4 and its effector C3 were present at higher levels in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma8,9 in men than in women among adults aged between 20 and 50 years, corresponding to the ages of differential disease vulnerability. Sex differences in complement protein levels may help to explain the more potent effects of C4 alleles in men, women's greater risk of SLE and Sjögren's syndrome and men's greater vulnerability to schizophrenia. These results implicate the complement system as a source of sexual dimorphism in vulnerability to diverse illnesses.


Assuntos
Complemento C3/genética , Complemento C4/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Síndrome de Sjogren/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Complemento C3/análise , Complemento C3/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Complemento C4/análise , Complemento C4/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Sjogren/sangue , Síndrome de Sjogren/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Adulto Jovem
11.
Stroke ; 51(7): 2153-2160, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: For survivors of oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT)-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (OAT-ICH) who are at high risk for thromboembolism, the benefits of OAT resumption must be weighed against increased risk of recurrent hemorrhagic stroke. The ε2/ε4 alleles of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, MRI-defined cortical superficial siderosis, and cerebral microbleeds are the most potent risk factors for recurrent ICH. We sought to determine whether combining MRI markers and APOE genotype could have clinical impact by identifying ICH survivors in whom the risks of OAT resumption are highest. METHODS: Joint analysis of data from 2 longitudinal cohort studies of OAT-ICH survivors: (1) MGH-ICH study (Massachusetts General Hospital ICH) and (2) longitudinal component of the ERICH study (Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage). We evaluated whether MRI markers and APOE genotype predict ICH recurrence. We then developed and validated a combined APOE-MRI classification scheme to predict ICH recurrence, using Classification and Regression Tree analysis. RESULTS: Cortical superficial siderosis, cerebral microbleed, and APOE ε2/ε4 variants were independently associated with ICH recurrence after OAT-ICH (all P<0.05). Combining APOE genotype and MRI data resulted in improved prediction of ICH recurrence (Harrell C: 0.79 versus 0.55 for clinical data alone, P=0.033). In the MGH (training) data set, CSS, cerebral microbleed, and APOE ε2/ε4 stratified likelihood of ICH recurrence into high-, medium-, and low-risk categories. In the ERICH (validation) data set, yearly ICH recurrence rates for high-, medium-, and low-risk individuals were 6.6%, 2.5%, and 0.9%, respectively, with overall area under the curve of 0.91 for prediction of recurrent ICH. CONCLUSIONS: Combining MRI and APOE genotype stratifies likelihood of ICH recurrence into high, medium, and low risk. If confirmed in prospective studies, this combined APOE-MRI classification scheme may prove useful for selecting individuals for OAT resumption after ICH.

12.
J Neurotrauma ; 37(17): 1880-1891, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253986

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in persons under age 45. The hallmark secondary injury profile after TBI involves dynamic interactions between inflammatory and metabolic pathways including fatty acids. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been shown to provide neuroprotective benefits by minimizing neuroinflammation in rodents. These effects have been less conclusive in humans, however. We postulate genetic variants influencing PUFA metabolism in humans could contribute to these disparate findings. Therefore, we sought to (1) characterize the circulating PUFA response and (2) evaluate the impact of rs174537 on inflammation after TBI. A prospective, single-center, observational pilot study was conducted to collect blood samples from Level-1 trauma patients (N = 130) on admission and 24 h post-admission. Plasma was used to quantify PUFA levels and inflammatory cytokines. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted and genotyped at rs174537. Associations between PUFAs and inflammatory cytokines were analyzed for all trauma cases and stratified by race (Caucasians only), TBI (TBI: N = 47; non-TBI = 83) and rs174537 genotype (GG: N = 33, GT/TT: N = 44). Patients with TBI had higher plasma DHA levels compared with non-TBI at 24 h post-injury (p = 0.013). The SNP rs174537 was associated with both PUFA levels and inflammatory cytokines (p < 0.05). Specifically, TBI patients with GG genotype exhibited the highest plasma levels of DHA (1.33%) and interleukin-8 (121.5 ± 43.3 pg/mL), which were in turn associated with poorer outcomes. These data illustrate the impact of rs174537 on the post-TBI response. Further work is needed to ascertain how this genetic variant directly influences inflammation after trauma.

13.
Ann Neurol ; 88(1): 56-66, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Observational studies point to an inverse correlation between low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but it remains unclear whether this association is causal. We tested the hypothesis that genetically elevated LDL is associated with reduced risk of ICH. METHODS: We constructed one polygenic risk score (PRS) per lipid trait (total cholesterol, LDL, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], and triglycerides) using independent genomewide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each trait. We used data from 316,428 individuals enrolled in the UK Biobank to estimate the effect of each PRS on its corresponding trait, and data from 1,286 ICH cases and 1,261 matched controls to estimate the effect of each PRS on ICH risk. We used these estimates to conduct Mendelian Randomization (MR) analyses. RESULTS: We identified 410, 339, 393, and 317 lipid-related SNPs for total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides, respectively. All four PRSs were strongly associated with their corresponding trait (all p < 1.00 × 10-100 ). While one SD increase in the PRSs for total cholesterol (odds ratio [OR] = 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85-0.99; p = 0.03) and LDL cholesterol (OR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.81-0.95; p = 0.002) were inversely associated with ICH risk, no significant associations were found for HDL and triglycerides (both p > 0.05). MR analyses indicated that 1mmol/L (38.67mg/dL) increase of genetically instrumented total and LDL cholesterol were associated with 23% (OR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.65-0.98; p = 0.03) and 41% lower risks of ICH (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.42-0.82; p = 0.002), respectively. INTERPRETATION: Genetically elevated LDL levels were associated with lower risk of ICH, providing support for a potential causal role of LDL cholesterol in ICH. ANN NEUROL 2020 ANN NEUROL 2020;88:56-66.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/genética
14.
ACR Open Rheumatol ; 1(1): 58-62, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777781

RESUMO

Objective: Variants in the SLCO1B1 gene, encoding a hepatic methotrexate (MTX) transporter, affect clearance of high-dose MTX. We tested whether in the *14 and *15 alleles of SLCO1B1 influenced the response to low-dose MTX in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Methods: The study included 310 JIA patients genotyped for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, rs2306283, and rs11045819). A patient's SLCO1B1 diplotype was determined by combining the SNPs into the *1a, *1b, *4, *5, *14, and *15 alleles. Number of active joints at follow-up (visit closest to 6 months of treatment and prior to starting a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor) was used as the dependent variable in a negative binomial regression model that included active joint count at baseline as a covariate. Results: The SLCO1B1*14 allele was associated with less response to MTX (P = 0.024) and the *15 allele was not associated with response to MTX (P = 0.392). Conclusion: SLCO1B1 alleles may be associated with poor response to MTX in JIA patients. The *14 allele has been associated with fast clearance (low exposure) after high-dose MTX in patients with leukemia. Thus, the SLCO1B1 gene may be informative for precision dosing of MTX in JIA patients. Patients carrying the *14 allele may require a higher dose than noncarriers to achieve a similar response to MTX.

15.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 renal risk alleles (RRA) are associated with endstage renal disease in blacks with lupus nephritis (LN). The present study determined frequencies of APOL1 RRA in nonwhite Brazilian patients with LN and controls to assess association with renal outcomes. METHODS: APOL1 RRA were genotyped in 222 healthy blood donors (controls) and 201 cases with LN from 3 outpatient clinics. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the G1 (rs73885319 and rs60910145) and an indel for the G2 (rs71785313) variant were genotyped. RESULTS: The frequency of APOL1 RRA in nonwhite Brazilian LN cases did not differ significantly from healthy controls, and few participants had 2 RRA. In the sample, 84.6% of LN cases and 84.2% of controls had 0 RRA, 13.4% and 15.3% had 1 RRA, and 2.0% and 0.4% had 2 RRA, respectively. LN cases with ≥ 1 APOL1 RRA had similar baseline characteristics and renal responses to treatment, yet faced higher risk for progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) to an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 compared to those with 0 RRA (11.2% with 0, 29.6% with 1; 50% with 2 RRA, p = 0.005). Although glomerular lesions and activity scores on initial kidney biopsy did not differ significantly between individuals based on APOL1 genotype, chronicity scores, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis were more severe in those with ≥ 1 RRA (p = 0.011, p = 0.002, p = 0.018, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although initial kidney lesions and treatment responses were similar, a single APOL1 RRA in nonwhite Brazilians with LN was associated with increased risk of advanced CKD and possibly more tubulointerstitial damage.

16.
Brain ; 142(10): 3176-3189, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430377

RESUMO

Intracerebral haemorrhage and small vessel ischaemic stroke (SVS) are the most acute manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease, with no established preventive approaches beyond hypertension management. Combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of these two correlated diseases may improve statistical power to detect novel genetic factors for cerebral small vessel disease, elucidating underlying disease mechanisms that may form the basis for future treatments. Because intracerebral haemorrhage location is an adequate surrogate for distinct histopathological variants of cerebral small vessel disease (lobar for cerebral amyloid angiopathy and non-lobar for arteriolosclerosis), we performed GWAS of intracerebral haemorrhage by location in 1813 subjects (755 lobar and 1005 non-lobar) and 1711 stroke-free control subjects. Intracerebral haemorrhage GWAS results by location were meta-analysed with GWAS results for SVS from MEGASTROKE, using 'Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS' (MTAG) to integrate summary data across traits and generate combined effect estimates. After combining intracerebral haemorrhage and SVS datasets, our sample size included 241 024 participants (6255 intracerebral haemorrhage or SVS cases and 233 058 control subjects). Genome-wide significant associations were observed for non-lobar intracerebral haemorrhage enhanced by SVS with rs2758605 [MTAG P-value (P) = 2.6 × 10-8] at 1q22; rs72932727 (P = 1.7 × 10-8) at 2q33; and rs9515201 (P = 5.3 × 10-10) at 13q34. In the GTEx gene expression library, rs2758605 (1q22), rs72932727 (2q33) and rs9515201 (13q34) are significant cis-eQTLs for PMF1 (P = 1 × 10-4 in tibial nerve), NBEAL1, FAM117B and CARF (P < 2.1 × 10-7 in arteries) and COL4A2 and COL4A1 (P < 0.01 in brain putamen), respectively. Leveraging S-PrediXcan for gene-based association testing with the predicted expression models in tissues related with nerve, artery, and non-lobar brain, we found that experiment-wide significant (P < 8.5 × 10-7) associations at three genes at 2q33 including NBEAL1, FAM117B and WDR12 and genome-wide significant associations at two genes including ICA1L at 2q33 and ZCCHC14 at 16q24. Brain cell-type specific expression profiling libraries reveal that SEMA4A, SLC25A44 and PMF1 at 1q22 and COL4A1 and COL4A2 at 13q34 were mainly expressed in endothelial cells, while the genes at 2q33 (FAM117B, CARF and NBEAL1) were expressed in various cell types including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. Our cross-phenotype genetic study of intracerebral haemorrhage and SVS demonstrates novel genome-wide associations for non-lobar intracerebral haemorrhage at 2q33 and 13q34. Our replication of the 1q22 locus previous seen in traditional GWAS of intracerebral haemorrhage, as well as the rediscovery of 13q34, which had previously been reported in candidate gene studies with other cerebral small vessel disease-related traits strengthens the credibility of applying this novel genome-wide approach across intracerebral haemorrhage and SVS.

17.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(10): 2027-2036, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two coding variants in the apo L1 gene (APOL1) are strongly associated with kidney disease in blacks. Kidney disease itself increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but whether these variants have an independent direct effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease is unclear. Previous studies have had inconsistent results. METHODS: We conducted a two-stage individual participant data meta-analysis to assess the association of APOL1 kidney-risk variants with adjudicated cardiovascular disease events and death, independent of kidney measures. The analysis included 21,305 blacks from eight large cohorts. RESULTS: Over 8.9±5.0 years of follow-up, 2076 incident cardiovascular disease events occurred in the 16,216 participants who did not have cardiovascular disease at study enrollment. In fully-adjusted analyses, individuals possessing two APOL1 kidney-risk variants had similar risk of incident cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure; hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.28) compared to individuals with zero or one kidney-risk variant. The risk of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure considered individually was also comparable by APOL1 genotype. APOL1 genotype was also not associated with death. There was no difference in adjusted associations by level of kidney function, age, diabetes status, or body-mass index. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, two-stage individual participant data meta-analysis, APOL1 kidney-risk variants were not associated with incident cardiovascular disease or death independent of kidney measures.

18.
Urology ; 132: 81-86, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of multiple (2 or more) bladder hydrodistentions (HODs) on anesthetic bladder capacity (BC) in a large cohort of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) patients. Urinary HOD under anesthesia is a third line therapeutic approach used to treat patients with IC/BPS. There is some concern that performing multiple therapeutic HODs may be contraindicated due to the potential for contributing to a diminished BC over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of IC/BPS patients from a single institution who had undergone 2 or more bladder HOD procedures. Patient demographic and clinical data, including BC under anesthesia, were retrieved from patient charts for analysis. Least squares regression slopes of BC under anesthesia were calculated and used to estimate within-patient BC changes over time. RESULTS: Data from 168 patients (637 HOD procedures) were included for analysis. The average change in BC, 0.52 ± 8.33 mL/mo, was not significantly different from 0 (P= .42). Linear regression analyses did not identify any significant correlation between BC over time with: (1) age, (2) number of HODs, (3) frequency of HODs, (4) average BC, (5) length of time with an IC/BPS diagnosis, or (6) length of time during which the patient's BC was evaluated. Moreover, there was no difference in BC change over time in patients with and without Hunner's lesion (P = .86). CONCLUSION: Multiple therapeutic HODs, over several years, do not result in a significant change in BC in IC/BPS patients.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Cistite Intersticial/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cistite Intersticial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Água , Adulto Jovem
19.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(7): e002338, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci associated with stroke. However, the specific stroke subtypes affected, and whether loci influence both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, remains unknown. For loci associated with stroke, we aimed to infer the combination of stroke subtypes likely to be affected, and in doing so assess the extent to which such loci have homogeneous effects across stroke subtypes. METHODS: We performed Bayesian multinomial regression in 16 664 stroke cases and 32 792 controls of European ancestry to determine the most likely combination of stroke subtypes affected for loci with published genome-wide stroke associations, using model selection. Cases were subtyped under 2 commonly used stroke classification systems, TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 Acute Stroke Treatment) and causative classification of stroke. All individuals had genotypes imputed to the Haplotype Reference Consortium 1.1 Panel. RESULTS: Sixteen loci were considered for analysis. Seven loci influenced both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, 3 of which influenced ischemic and hemorrhagic subtypes under both TOAST and causative classification of stroke. Under causative classification of stroke, 4 loci influenced both small vessel stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. An EDNRA locus demonstrated opposing effects on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. No loci were predicted to influence all stroke subtypes in the same direction, and only one locus (12q24) was predicted to influence all ischemic stroke subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity in the influence of stroke-associated loci on stroke subtypes is pervasive, reflecting differing causal pathways. However, overlap exists between hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, which may reflect shared pathobiology predisposing to small vessel arteriopathy. Stroke is a complex, heterogeneous disorder requiring tailored analytic strategies to decipher genetic mechanisms.

20.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(8): 1331-1337, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Populations of Mexican American ancestry are at an increased risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether loci in known and novel genes were associated with variation in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (n = 3,644), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (n = 3,595), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (n = 1,577) levels by conducting the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of liver enzymes, which commonly measure liver function, in individuals of Mexican American ancestry. METHODS: Levels of AST, ALT, and GGT were determined by enzymatic colorimetric assays. A multi-cohort GWAS of individuals of Mexican American ancestry was performed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were tested for association with liver outcomes by multivariable linear regression using an additive genetic model. Association analyses were conducted separately in each cohort, followed by a nonparametric meta-analysis. RESULTS: In the PNPLA3 gene, rs4823173 (P = 3.44 × 10-10 ), rs2896019 (P = 7.29 × 10-9 ), and rs2281135 (P = 8.73 × 10-9 ) were significantly associated with AST levels. Although not genome-wide significant, these same SNPs were the top hits for ALT (P = 7.12 × 10-8 , P = 1.98 × 10-7 , and P = 1.81 × 10-7 , respectively). The strong correlation (r2 = 1.0) for these SNPs indicated a single hit in the PNPLA3 gene. No genome-wide significant associations were found for GGT. CONCLUSIONS: PNPLA3, a locus previously identified with ALT, AST, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in European and Japanese GWAS, is also associated with liver enzymes in populations of Mexican American ancestry.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética , Lipase/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Americanos Mexicanos/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etnologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , gama-Glutamiltransferase/genética
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