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1.
Fetal Diagn Ther ; : 1-6, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in leukocyte counts at birth between donors and recipients with twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) or twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in monochorionic twin pairs with TTTS or TAPS. TTTS and TAPS cases treated with fetoscopic laser surgery were excluded. Primary outcome was the difference in leukocyte levels at birth between donor and recipient twins and the presence of leukopenia (defined as leukocyte count <4 × 109/L). Secondary outcomes included early-onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, use of antibiotics during admission, and neonatal mortality. RESULTS: We included 99 twins pairs, of which 61 twin pairs were affected by TAPS and 38 twin pairs by TTTS. The mean leukocyte count at birth in donors and recipients was 7.5 × 109/L versus 7.4 × 109/L (p = 0.936), respectively. Leukopenia was significantly more common in donor twins compared to recipient twins (7.1% [7/99] vs. 0% [0/99], p = 0.016). Of the 7 donors with leukopenia, 6 were affected by TAPS and 1 by TTTS. Overall, donors were more often affected by early-onset sepsis than recipients, 23.7% (23/97) versus 13% (13.7/95) (p = 0.049), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Leukocyte counts at birth in twins with TTTS or TAPS are similar between donors and recipients, but TAPS donors are at an increased risk of leukopenia. Overall, TTTS and TAPS donors seem to be at an increased risk of early-onset neonatal sepsis compared to recipient twins.

2.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 58(12): 1609-1620, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Alemtuzumab (Campath®) is used to prevent graft-versus-host disease and graft failure following pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The main toxicity includes delayed immune reconstitution, subsequent viral reactivations, and leukemia relapse. Exposure to alemtuzumab is highly variable upon empirical milligram/kilogram dosing. METHODS: A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for alemtuzumab was developed based on a total of 1146 concentration samples from 206 patients, aged 0.2-19 years, receiving a cumulative intravenous dose of 0.2-1.5 mg/kg, and treated between 2003 and 2015 in two centers. RESULTS: Alemtuzumab PK were best described using a two-compartment model with a parallel saturable and linear elimination pathway. The linear clearance pathway, central volume of distribution, and intercompartmental distribution increased with body weight. Blood lymphocyte counts, a potential substrate for alemtuzumab, did not impact clearance. CONCLUSION: The current practice with uniform milligram/kilogram doses leads to highly variable exposures in children due to the non-linear relationship between body weight and alemtuzumab PK. This model may be used for individualized dosing of alemtuzumab.

3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 782, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031769

RESUMO

B cell reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is variable and influenced by different patient, donor, and treatment related factors. In this review we describe B cell reconstitution after pediatric allogeneic HST, including the kinetics of reconstitution of the different B cell subsets and the development of the B cell repertoire, and discuss the influencing factors. Observational studies show important roles for stem cell source, conditioning regimen, and graft vs. host disease in B cell reconstitution. In addition, B cell recovery can play an important role in post-transplant infections and vaccine responses to encapsulated bacteria, such as pneumococcus. A substantial number of patients experience impaired B cell function and/or dependency on Ig substitution after allogeneic HSCT. The underlying mechanisms are largely unresolved. The integrated aspects of B cell recovery after HSCT, especially BCR repertoire reconstitution, are awaiting further investigation using modern techniques in order to gain more insight into B cell reconstitution and to develop strategies to improve humoral immunity after allogeneic HSCT.

4.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(10): 1525-1552, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953028

RESUMO

This is the seventh special EBMT report on the indications for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders. Our aim is to provide general guidance on transplant indications according to prevailing clinical practice in EBMT countries and centres. In order to inform patient decisions, these recommendations must be considered together with the risk of the disease, the risk of the transplant procedure and the results of non-transplant strategies. In over two decades since the first report, the EBMT indications manuscripts have incorporated changes in transplant practice coming from scientific and technical developments in the field. In this same period, the establishment of JACIE accreditation has promoted high quality and led to improved outcomes of patient and donor care and laboratory performance in transplantation and cellular therapy. An updated report with operating definitions, revised indications and an additional set of data with overall survival at 1 year and non-relapse mortality at day 100 after transplant in the commonest standard-of-care indications is presented. Additional efforts are currently underway to enable EBMT member centres to benchmark their risk-adapted outcomes as part of the Registry upgrade Project 2020 against national and/or international outcome data.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 315, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894854

RESUMO

Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is a lymphocyte depleting agent applied in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to prevent rejection and Graft-vs.-Host Disease (GvHD). In this study, we compared two rabbit ATG products, ATG-Genzyme (ATG-GENZ), and ATG-Fresenius (ATG-FRES), with respect to dosing, clearance of the active lymphocyte binding component, post-HSCT immune reconstitution and clinical outcome. Fifty-eigth pediatric acute leukemia patients (n = 42 ATG-GENZ, n = 16 ATG-FRES), who received a non-depleted bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell graft from an unrelated donor were included. ATG-GENZ was given at a dosage of 6-10 mg/kg; ATG-FRES at 45-60 mg/kg. The active component of ATG from both products was cleared at different rates. Within the ATG-FRES dose range no differences were found in clearance of active ATG or T-cell re-appearance. However, the high dosage of ATG-GENZ (10 mg/kg), in contrast to the low dosage (6-8 mg/kg), correlated with prolonged persistence of active ATG and delayed T-cell reconstitution. Occurrence of serious acute GvHD (grade III-IV) was highest in the ATG-GENZ-low dosage group. These results imply that dosing of ATG-GENZ is more critical than dosing of ATG-FRES due to the difference in clearance of active ATG. This should be taken into account when designing clinical protocols.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5247, 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918307

RESUMO

During pregnancy, maternal T cells can enter the foetus, leading to maternal-foetal chimerism. This phenomenon may affect how leukaemia patients respond to transplantation therapy using stem cells from cord blood (CB). It has been proposed that maternal T cells, primed to inherited paternal HLAs, are present in CB transplants and help to suppress leukaemic relapse. Several studies have reported evidence for the presence of maternal T cells in most CBs at sufficiently high numbers to lend credence to this idea. We here aimed to functionally characterise maternal T cells from CB. To our surprise, we could not isolate viable maternal cells from CB even after using state-of-the-art enrichment techniques that allow detection of viable cells in heterologous populations at frequencies that were several orders of magnitude lower than reported frequencies of maternal T cells in CB. In support of these results, we could only detect maternal DNA in a minority of samples and at insufficient amounts for reliable quantification through a sensitive PCR-based assay to measure In/Del polymorphisms. We conclude that maternal microchimerism is far less prominent than reported, at least in our cohort of CBs, and discuss possible explanations and implications.

7.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(6): 1164-1171, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731251

RESUMO

Bloodstream infections and graft-versus-host disease are common complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) procedures, associated with the gut microbiota that acts as a reservoir for opportunistic pathogens. Selective gut decontamination (SGD) and total gut decontamination (TGD) during HSCT have been associated with a decreased risk of developing these complications after transplantation. However, because studies have shown conflicting results, the use of these treatments remains subject of debate. In addition, their impact on the gut microbiota is not well studied. The aim of this study was to elucidate the dynamics of the microbiota during and after TGD and to compare these with the dynamics of SGD. In this prospective, observational, single-center study fecal samples were longitudinally collected from 19 children eligible for allogenic HSCT (TGD, n=12; SGD, n=7), weekly during hospital admission and monthly after discharge. In addition, fecal samples were collected from 3 family stem cell donors. Fecal microbiota structure of patients and donors was determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Microbiota richness and diversity markedly decreased during SGD and TGD and gradually increased after cessation of decontamination treatment. During SGD, gut microbiota composition was relatively stable and dominated by Bacteroides, whereas it showed high inter- and intraindividual variation and low Bacteroides abundance during TGD. In some children TGD allowed the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus to thrive during treatment. A gut microbiota dominated by Bacteroides was associated with increased predicted activity of several metabolic processes. Comparing the microbiota of recipients and their donors indicated that receiving an SCT did not alter the patient's microbiota to become more similar to that of its donor. Overall, our findings indicate that SGD and TGD affect gut microbiota structure in a treatment-specific manner. Whether these treatments affect clinical outcomes via interference with the gut microbiota needs to be further elucidated.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2238-2253, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVE: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure. RESULTS: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.

9.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 21(1): 6, 2019 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. As HSCT survival has significantly improved, with a growing number of HSCT indications, tailored screening strategies for HSCT-related late effects are warranted. Little is known regarding the value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for early identification of high-risk patients after HSCT, before symptomatic cardiovascular disease manifests. This study aimed to assess CMR-derived left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, aortic stiffness and myocardial tissue characteristics in young adults who received HSCT during childhood. METHODS: Sixteen patients (22.1 ± 1.5 years) treated with HSCT during childhood and 16 healthy controls (22.1 ± 1.8 years) underwent 3 T CMR. LV systolic and diastolic function were measured as LV ejection fraction (LVEF), the ratio of transmitral early and late peak filling rate (E/A), the estimated LV filling pressure (E/Ea) and global longitudinal and circumferential systolic strain and diastolic strain rates, using balanced steady-state free precession cine CMR and 2D velocity-encoded CMR over the mitral valve. Aortic stiffness, myocardial fibrosis and steatosis were assessed with 2D velocity-encoded CMR, native T1 mapping and proton CMR spectroscopy (1H-CMRS), respectively. RESULTS: In the patient compared to the control group, E/Ea (9.92 ± 3.42 vs. 7.24 ± 2.29, P = 0.004) was higher, LVEF (54 ± 6% vs. 58 ± 5%, P = 0.055) and global longitudinal strain (GLS) ( -20.7 ± 3.5% vs. -22.9 ± 3.0%, P = 0.063) tended to be lower, while aortic pulse wave velocity (4.40 ± 0.26 vs. 4.29 ± 0.29 m/s, P = 0.29), native T1 (1211 ± 36 vs. 1227 ± 28 ms, P = 0.16) and myocardial triglyceride content (0.47 ± 0.18 vs. 0.50 ± 0.13%, P = 0.202) were comparable. There were no differences between patients and controls in E/A (2.76 ± 0.92 vs. 2.97 ± 0.91, P = 0.60) and diastolic strain rates. CONCLUSION: In young adults who received HSCT during childhood, LV diastolic function was decreased (higher estimated LV filling pressure) and LV systolic function (LVEF and GLS) tended to be reduced as compared to healthy controls, whereas no concomitant differences were found in aortic stiffness and myocardial tissue characteristics. When using CMR, assessment of LV diastolic function in particular is important for early detection of patients at risk of HSCT-related cardiovascular disease, which may warrant closer surveillance.

10.
Am J Transplant ; 19(6): 1798-1805, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586230

RESUMO

We report data obtained from a retrospective multicenter pediatric survey on behalf of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Information on solid organ transplantation (SOT) performed in pediatric recipients of either autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between 1984 and 2016 was collected in 20 pediatric EBMT Centers (25.6%). Overall, we evaluated data on 44 SOTs following HSCT including 20 liver (LTx), 12 lung (LuTx), 6 heart (HTx), and 6 kidney (KTx) transplantations. The indication for SOT was organ failure related to intractable graft-vs-host disease in 16 children (36.3%), acute or chronic HSCT-related toxicity in 18 (40.9%), and organ dysfunction related to the underlying disease in 10 (22.8%). The median follow-up was 10.9 years (95% confidence interval: 1.7-29.5). The overall survival rate at 1 and 5 years after SOT was 85.7% and 80.4%, respectively: it was 74% and 63.2% after LTx, 83.2% after HTx, and 100% equally after LuTx and KTx. This multicenter survey confirms that SOT represents a promising option in children with severe organ failure occurring after HSCT. Additional studies are needed to further establish the effectiveness of SOT after HSCT and to better understand the mechanism underlying this encouraging success.

11.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1829, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30186282

RESUMO

Human lymphoid tissues harbor, in addition to CD56bright and CD56dim natural killer (NK) cells, a third NK cell population: CD69+CXCR6+ lymphoid tissue (lt)NK cells. The function and development of ltNK cells remain poorly understood. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing on the three NK cell populations derived from bone marrow (BM) and blood. In ltNK cells, 1,353 genes were differentially expressed compared to circulating NK cells. Several molecules involved in migration were downregulated in ltNK cells: S1PR1, SELPLG and CD62L. By flow cytometry we confirmed that the expression profile of adhesion molecules (CD49e-, CD29low, CD81high, CD62L-, CD11c-) and transcription factors (Eomeshigh, Tbetlow) of ltNK cells differed from their circulating counterparts. LtNK cells were characterized by enhanced expression of inhibitory receptors TIGIT and CD96 and low expression of DNAM1 and cytolytic molecules (GZMB, GZMH, GNLY). Their proliferative capacity was reduced compared to the circulating NK cells. By performing gene set enrichment analysis, we identified DUSP6 and EGR2 as potential regulators of the ltNK cell transcriptome. Remarkably, comparison of the ltNK cell transcriptome to the published human spleen-resident memory CD8+ T (Trm) cell transcriptome revealed an overlapping gene signature. Moreover, the phenotypic profile of ltNK cells resembled that of CD8+ Trm cells in BM. Together, we provide transcriptional and phenotypic data that clearly distinguish ltNK cells from both the CD56bright and CD56dim NK cells and substantiate the view that ltNK cells are tissue-resident cells, which are functionally restrained in killing and have low proliferative activity.

12.
Eur J Haematol ; 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: No standard second-line treatment exists for acute graft-versus-host disease steroid-refractory (SR-aGvHD), and long-term outcomes remain poor. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been evaluated as treatment, but no disease model (DM) exists that integrates and extrapolates currently available evidence. The aim of this study was to develop such a DM to describe the natural history of SR-aGvHD and to predict long-term outcomes. METHOD: The DM was developed in collaboration with experts in haematology-oncology. Subsequently, a model simulation was run. Input parameters for transition and survival estimates were informed by published data of clinical trials on MSC treatment for SR-aGvHD. Parametric distributions were used to estimate long-term survival rates after MSCs. RESULTS: The newly developed DM is a cohort model that consists of eight health states. For the model simulation, we obtained data on 327 patients from 14 published phase II trials. Due to limited evidence, DM structure was simplified and several assumptions had to be made. Median overall survival was 3.2 years for complete response and 0.5 years for no complete response. CONCLUSION: The DM provides a comprehensive overview on the second-line treatment pathway for aGvHD and enables long-term predictions that can be used to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing any treatment for SR-aGvHD.

13.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1238, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915589

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) fragment crystallizable (Fc) N-glycosylation has a large influence on the affinity of the antibody for binding to Fcγ-receptors (FcγRs) and C1q protein, thereby influencing immune effector functions. IgG Fc glycosylation is known to be partly regulated by genetics and partly by stimuli in the microenvironment of the B cell. Following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and in the presence of (almost) complete donor chimerism, IgG is expected to be produced by, and glycosylated in, B cells of donor origin. We investigated to what extent IgG glycosylation in patients after transplantation is determined by factors of the donor (genetics) or the recipient (environment). Using an IgG subclass-specific liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method, we analyzed the plasma/serum IgG Fc glycosylation profiles of 34 pediatric patients pre-HSCT and at 6 and 12 months post-HSCT and compared these to the profiles of their donors and age-matched healthy controls. Patients treated for hematological malignancies as well as for non-malignant hematological diseases showed after transplantation a lower Fc galactosylation than their donors. Especially for the patients treated for leukemia, the post-HSCT Fc glycosylation profiles were more similar to the pre-HSCT recipient profiles than to profiles of the donors. Pre-HSCT, the leukemia patient group showed as distinctive feature a decrease in sialylation and in hybrid-type glycans as compared to healthy controls, which both normalized after transplantation. Our data suggest that IgG Fc glycosylation in children after HSCT does not directly mimic the donor profile, but is rather determined by persisting environmental factors of the host.

14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(3): 1060-1073.e3, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28629746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency (AD EDA-ID) is caused by heterozygous point mutations at or close to serine 32 and serine 36 or N-terminal truncations in IκBα that impair its phosphorylation and degradation and thus activation of the canonical nuclear factor κ light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathway. The outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is poor in patients with AD EDA-ID despite achievement of chimerism. Mice heterozygous for the serine 32I mutation in IκBα have impaired noncanonical NF-κB activity and defective lymphorganogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to establish genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with AD EDA-ID. METHODS: A disease severity scoring system was devised. Stability of IκBα mutants was examined in transfected cells. Immunologic, biochemical, and gene expression analyses were performed to evaluate canonical and noncanonical NF-κB signaling in skin-derived fibroblasts. RESULTS: Disease severity was greater in patients with IκBα point mutations than in those with truncation mutations. IκBα point mutants were expressed at significantly higher levels in transfectants compared with truncation mutants. Canonical NF-κB-dependent IL-6 secretion and upregulation of the NF-κB subunit 2/p100 and RELB proto-oncogene, NF-κB subunit (RelB) components of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway were diminished significantly more in patients with point mutations compared with those with truncations. Noncanonical NF-κB-driven generation of the transcriptionally active p100 cleavage product p52 and upregulation of CCL20, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), which are important for lymphorganogenesis, were diminished significantly more in LPS plus α-lymphotoxin ß receptor-stimulated fibroblasts from patients with point mutations compared with those with truncations. CONCLUSIONS: IκBα point mutants accumulate at higher levels compared with truncation mutants and are associated with more severe disease and greater impairment of canonical and noncanonical NF-κB activity in patients with AD EDA-ID.

15.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(4): 772-778, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29277513

RESUMO

Autoimmune or alloimmune cytopenia (AIC) is a known rare complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). AIC after SCT is considered difficult to treat and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this retrospective study in pediatric patients we evaluated incidence, outcome, potential risk factors, and current treatment strategies. A nested matched case-control study was performed to search for biomarkers associated with AIC. Of 531 consecutive SCTs at our center between 2000 and 2016, 26 were complicated by the development of AIC (cumulative incidence, 5.0%) after a median of 5 months post-SCT. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia was the most common AIC with 12 patients (46%). We identified nonmalignant disease, alemtuzumab serotherapy pre-SCT, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation as independently associated risk factors. The cytokine profile of patients at the time of AIC diagnosis appeared to skew toward a more pronounced Th 2 response compared with control subjects at the corresponding time point post-SCT. Corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin as first-line treatment or a wait-and-see approach led to resolution of AIC in 35% of cases. Addition of step-up therapies rituximab (n = 15), bortezomib (n = 7), or sirolimus (n = 3) was associated with AIC resolution in 40%, 57%, and 100% of cases, respectively. In summary, we identified CMV reactivation post-SCT as a new clinical risk factor for the development of AIC in children. The cytokine profile during AIC appears to favor a Th 2 response. Rituximab, bortezomib, and sirolimus are promising step-up treatment modalities.

16.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2912, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30619276

RESUMO

Patients with inborn errors of immunity or DNA repair defects are at significant risk of developing malignancy and this complication of their underlying condition represents a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality. Whilst this risk is increasingly well-recognized, our understanding of the causative mechanisms remains incomplete. Diagnosing cancer is challenging in the presence of underlying co-morbidities and frequently other inflammatory and lymphoproliferative processes. We lack a structured approach to management despite recognizing the competing challenges of poor response to therapy and increased risk of toxicity. Finally, clinicians need guidance on how to screen for malignancy in many of these predisposing immunodeficiencies. In order to begin to address these challenges, we brought together representatives of European Immunology and Pediatric Haemato-Oncology to define the current state of our knowledge and identify priorities for clinical and research development. We propose key developmental priorities which our two communities will need to work together to address, collaborating with colleagues around the world.


Assuntos
Distúrbios no Reparo do DNA/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Pesquisa , Alergia e Imunologia/tendências , Criança , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Oncologia/métodos , Oncologia/tendências , Neoplasias/complicações , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/tendências
17.
Br J Haematol ; 179(5): 772-780, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29048102

RESUMO

Treosulfan-based conditioning is increasingly employed in paediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Data on treosulfan pharmacokinetics in children are scarce, and the relationship between treosulfan exposure, toxicity and clinical outcome is unresolved. In this multicentre prospective observational study, we studied treosulfan pharmacokinetics and the drug's relationship with regimen-related toxicity and early clinical outcome in 77 paediatric patients. Treosulfan dose was 30 g/m2 , administered over 3 consecutive days in infants <1 year old (n = 12) and 42 g/m2 in children ≥1 year old (n = 65). Mean day 1 treosulfan exposure was 1744 ± 795 mg*h/l (10 g/m2 ) and 1561 ± 511 mg*h/l (14 g/m2 ), with an inter-individual variability of 56 and 33% in the respective groups. High treosulfan exposure (>1650 mg*h/l) was associated with an increased risk of mucosal [Odds ratio (OR) 4·40; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·19-16·28, P = 0·026] and skin toxicity (OR 4·51; 95% CI 1·07-18·93, P = 0·040). No correlation was found between treosulfan exposure and the early clinical outcome parameters: engraftment, acute graft-versus-host disease and donor chimerism. Our study provides the first evidence in a large cohort of paediatric patients of high variability in treosulfan pharmacokinetics and an association between treosulfan exposure and early toxicity. Ongoing studies will reveal whether treosulfan exposure is related to long-term disease-specific outcome and late treatment-related toxicity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Bussulfano/análogos & derivados , Doenças Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/sangue , Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Bussulfano/efeitos adversos , Bussulfano/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Erupção por Droga/etiologia , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/sangue , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mucosite/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Prospectivos , Quimeras de Transplante , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos
18.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 83(12): 2789-2797, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800385

RESUMO

AIMS: The palatability of a new paediatric formulation of valaciclovir was assessed in children and their parents: non-inferiority of the new paediatric formulation (test formulation) compared to the reference formulation was investigated. METHODS: In vivo palatability testing was performed in a randomized, two-period, multicentre, cross-over study. Children and their parents scored the liking of the new paediatric valaciclovir formulation and the reference formulation on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). To support formulation development and palatability testing, electronic tongue measurements were applied. RESULTS: The electronic tongue measurement indicated taste-masking capabilities for three different formulations in the developmental phase. A glycerol-based formulation was further tested and compared to the reference formulation prepared out of crushed and suspended tablets. The mean difference (95% CI) in VAS scores between both formulations, as indicated by the children (n = 20), was 2.4 (-8.5, 13) mm, in favour of the new paediatric valaciclovir formulation. The mean (95% CI) difference in VAS scores indicated by the parents (n = 20) was -0.9 (-12, 9.8) mm. CONCLUSION: The palatability of the new paediatric valaciclovir formulation was considered non-inferior to the reference formulation prepared out of crushed tablets. We were able to optimize the study design and number of children to be included in the palatability testing by using electronic tongue measurements.


Assuntos
Aciclovir/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Nariz Eletrônico , Paladar , Valina/análogos & derivados , Aciclovir/administração & dosagem , Aciclovir/efeitos adversos , Aciclovir/química , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/química , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Cross-Over , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Países Baixos , Satisfação do Paciente , Mascaramento Perceptivo , Soluções Farmacêuticas , Comprimidos , Percepção Gustatória , Valaciclovir , Valina/administração & dosagem , Valina/efeitos adversos , Valina/química
20.
Br J Haematol ; 178(2): 257-266, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28419441

RESUMO

Flow cytometric detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) in children with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) requires immunophenotypic discrimination between residual leukaemic cells and B-cell precursors (BCPs) which regenerate during therapy intervals. In this study, EuroFlow-based 8-colour flow cytometry and innovative analysis tools were used to first characterize the immunophenotypic maturation of normal BCPs in bone marrow (BM) from healthy children, resulting in a continuous multiparametric pathway including transition stages. This pathway was subsequently used as a reference to characterize the immunophenotypic maturation of regenerating BCPs in BM from children treated for BCP-ALL. We identified pre-B-I cells that expressed low or dim CD34 levels, in contrast to the classical CD34high pre-B-I cell immunophenotype. These CD34-dim pre-B-I cells were relatively abundant in regenerating BM (11-85% within pre-B-I subset), while hardly present in healthy control BM (9-13% within pre-B-I subset; P = 0·0037). Furthermore, we showed that some of the BCP-ALL diagnosis immunophenotypes (23%) overlapped with CD34-dim pre-B-I cells. Our results indicate that newly identified CD34-dim pre-B-I cells can be mistaken for residual BCP-ALL cells, potentially resulting in false-positive MRD outcomes. Therefore, regenerating BM, in which CD34-dim pre-B-I cells are relatively abundant, should be used as reference frame in flow cytometric MRD measurements.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/diagnóstico , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Adolescente , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Citometria de Fluxo , Rearranjo Gênico do Linfócito B/imunologia , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Masculino , Neoplasia Residual , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/imunologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/fisiopatologia , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/patologia , Regeneração
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