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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(10): 107002, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transportation noise is increasingly acknowledged as a cardiovascular risk factor, but the evidence base for an association with stroke is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between transportation noise and stroke incidence in a large Scandinavian population. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled data from nine Scandinavian cohorts (seven Swedish, two Danish), totaling 135,951 participants. We identified residential address history and estimated road, railway, and aircraft noise for all addresses. Information on stroke incidence was acquired through linkage to national patient and mortality registries. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models, including socioeconomic and lifestyle confounders, and air pollution. RESULTS: During follow-up (median=19.5y), 11,056 stroke cases were identified. Road traffic noise (Lden) was associated with risk of stroke, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.08] per 10-dB higher 5-y mean time-weighted exposure in analyses adjusted for individual- and area-level socioeconomic covariates. The association was approximately linear and persisted after adjustment for air pollution [particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) and NO2]. Stroke was associated with moderate levels of 5-y aircraft noise exposure (40-50 vs. ≤40 dB) (HR=1.12; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.27), but not with higher exposure (≥50 dB, HR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.11). Railway noise was not associated with stroke. DISCUSSION: In this pooled study, road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk of stroke. This finding supports road traffic noise as an important cardiovascular risk factor that should be included when estimating the burden of disease due to traffic noise. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8949.

2.
Environ Res ; 201: 111503, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heatwaves are known to increase mortality. However, there is a need for more quantitative information on factors affecting sensitivity to the adverse health effects, particularly in countries with cool summer temperatures. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated mortality risk related to heatwave days in Finland. Risk was examined by age, sex, cause of death, and place of death, including health and social care facilities and homes. Mortality was also analysed for different patient subgroups in healthcare facilities. METHODS: Heatwaves were defined as periods when the daily average temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of that from May to August in 2000-2014 for ≥4 days. In addition to all heatwave days, risk was analysed for short (4-5 days) and long (≥10 days) heatwaves. Mortality analyses were based on linking registry data on i) daily non-accidental and cause-specific mortality and ii) admissions to a health or social care facility. Statistical analyses were conducted using generalised estimating equations for longitudinal data analysis, assuming a Poisson distribution for the daily mortality count. RESULTS: During all heatwave days, mortality increased among those aged 65-74 years (6.7%, 95% confidence interval 2.9-10.8%) and ≥75 years (12.8%, 95% CI 9.8-15.9%). Mortality increased in both sexes, but the risk was higher in women. Positive associations were observed for deaths due to respiratory diseases, renal diseases, mental and behavioural disorders, diseases of the nervous system, and cardiovascular diseases. Overall, effects were stronger for long than short heatwaves. During all heatwave days, mortality increased in healthcare facilities in outpatients (26.9%, 95% CI 17.3-37.2%) and inpatients. Among inpatients, the risk was higher in long-term inpatients (stay in ward > 30 days, 13.1%, 95% CI 8.6-17.7%) than others (5.8%, 95% CI 2.7-9.0%). At homes, mortality increased by 8.1% (95% CI 1.9-14.6%). Elevated risk estimates were also detected for social care facilities. CONCLUSIONS: In Finland, a cold-climate Northern country, heatwaves increase mortality risk significantly among the elderly. Women are more susceptible than men, and many chronic diseases are important risk factors. To reduce heatwave-related deaths, preparedness should be improved particularly in hospital and healthcare centre wards, where the most vulnerable are long-term inpatients. However, measures are also needed to protect the elderly at home and in social care facilities, especially during prolonged hot periods.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Temperatura Alta , Idoso , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
3.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 75(11): 1111-1116, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985992

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Air pollution has been suggested to be associated with depression. However, current evidence is conflicting, and no study has considered different sources of ambient particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 µm (PM2.5). We evaluated the associations of long-term exposure to PM2.5 from road traffic and residential wood combustion with the prevalence of depression in the Helsinki region, Finland. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis based on the Helsinki Capital Region Environmental Health Survey 2015-2016 (N=5895). Modelled long-term outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 were evaluated using high-resolution emission and dispersion modelling on an urban scale and linked to the home addresses of study participants. The outcome was self-reported doctor-diagnosed or treated depression. We applied logistic regression and calculated the OR for 1 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, with 95% CI. Models were adjusted for potential confounders, including traffic noise and urban green space. RESULTS: Of the participants, 377 reported to have been diagnosed or treated for depression by a doctor. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 from road traffic (OR=1.23, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.73; n=5895) or residential wood combustion (OR=0.78, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.41; n=5895) was not associated with the prevalence of depression. The estimates for PM2.5 from road traffic were elevated, but statistically non-significant, for non-smokers (OR=1.38, 95% CI 0.94 to 2.01; n=4716). CONCLUSIONS: We found no convincing evidence of an effect of long-term exposure to PM2.5 from road traffic or residential wood combustion on depression.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Prevalência , Madeira/química
4.
Environ Int ; 151: 106419, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706126

RESUMO

In many countries, some people living in the vicinity of wind power production areas report having symptoms that they intuitively associate with wind turbines. Recently public discussions have focused especially on wind turbine infrasound. However, scientific evidence supporting an association is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the association between exposure to wind turbines and the prevalence of self-reported symptoms, diseases and medications. A cross-sectional questionnaire study (n = 2,828) was conducted in the vicinity of five wind power production areas in Finland in 2015-2016. Each area had 3-16 turbines with a nominal power of 2.4-3.3 MW. The response rate was 50% (n = 1,411). Continuous and categorised (≤ 2.5, > 2.5-5, > 5-10 km) distance between the respondents' home and the closest wind turbine was used to represent exposure to wind turbines. Wind turbine sound pressure level outdoors could be reliably modelled only for the closest distance zone where the yearly average was 34 dB and maximum 43 dB. The data on symptoms (headache, nausea, dizziness, tinnitus, ear fullness, arrhythmia, fatigue, difficulties in falling asleep, waking up too early, anxiety, stress), diseases (hypertension, heart insufficiency, diabetes), and medications (analgesics for headache, joint/muscle pain and other pain, and medication for sleep disturbance, anxiety and depression, and hypertension) was obtained from the questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, marital status, education, work situation, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index, and hearing problems. Annoyance and sleep disturbance due to wind turbine noise were inversely associated with the distance to the closest wind turbine. The prevalence of symptoms, diseases and medications was essentially the same in all distance categories. In multivariate regression modelling, the odds ratio estimates were generally close to unity and statistically non-significant. Beyond annoyance and sleep disturbance, there were no consistent associations between exposure to wind turbines and self-reported health problems. The results do not support the hypothesis that broadband sound or infrasound from wind turbines could cause the proposed health problems.


Assuntos
Ruído , Centrais Elétricas , Estudos Transversais , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572804

RESUMO

Urban dwellers are simultaneously exposed to several environmental health risk factors. This study aimed to examine the relationship between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5, diameter < 2.5 µm) of residential-wood-burning and road-traffic origin, road-traffic noise, green space around participants' homes, and hypertension. In 2015 and 2016, we conducted a survey of residents of the Helsinki Capital Region to determine their perceptions of environmental quality and safety, lifestyles, and health statuses. Recent antihypertensive medication was used as an indicator of current hypertensive illness. Individual-level exposure was estimated by linking residential coordinates with modelled outdoor levels of wood-smoke- and traffic-related PM2.5, road-traffic noise, and coverage of natural spaces. Relationships between exposure and hypertension were modelled using multi-exposure and single-exposure binary logistic regression while taking smooth functions into account. Twenty-eight percent of the participants were current users of antihypertensive medication. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for antihypertensive use were 1.12 (0.78-1.57); 0.97 (0.76-1.26); 0.98 (0.93-1.04) and 0.99 (0.94-1.04) for wood-smoke PM2.5, road-traffic PM2.5, road-traffic noise, and coverage of green space, respectively. We found no evidence of an effect of the investigated urban exposures on prevalent hypertension in the Helsinki Capital Region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Hipertensão , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Material Particulado/análise
6.
Environ Res ; 193: 110600, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307082

RESUMO

In 2015, the Rockefeller Foundation-Lancet Commission launched a report introducing a novel approach called Planetary Health and proposed a concept, a strategy and a course of action. To discuss the concept of Planetary Health in the context of Europe, a conference entitled: "Europe That Protects: Safeguarding Our Planet, Safeguarding Our Health" was held in Helsinki in December 2019. The conference participants concluded with a need for action to support Planetary Health during the 2020s. The Helsinki Declaration emphasizes the urgency to act as scientific evidence shows that human activities are causing climate change, biodiversity loss, land degradation, overuse of natural resources and pollution. They threaten the health and safety of human kind. Global, regional, national, local and individual initiatives are called for and multidisciplinary and multisectorial actions and measures are needed. A framework for an action plan is suggested that can be modified for local needs. Accordingly, a shift from fragmented approaches to policy and practice towards systematic actions will promote human health and health of the planet. Systems thinking will feed into conserving nature and biodiversity, and into halting climate change. The Planetary Health paradigm ‒ the health of human civilization and the state of natural systems on which it depends ‒ must become the driver for all policies.


Assuntos
Declaração de Helsinki , Planetas , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
7.
Environ Res ; 192: 110360, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131679

RESUMO

In many countries, a certain proportion of individuals living in the vicinity of wind power areas have reported symptoms that they have intuitively associated with infrasound from wind turbines. While the reason for these symptoms remains under debate, this is the first study to describe the phenomenon by assessing the prevalence and severity of these wind turbine infrasound related symptoms as well as factors associated with being symptomatic. Four wind power areas in Finland assessed to have the most problems intuitively associated with wind turbine infrasound were selected for the study. The questionnaire was mailed to 4847 adults in four distance zones (≤ 2.5 km, > 2.5-5 km, > 5-10 km, > 10-20 km from the closest wind turbine), and 28% responded. In the closest distance zone, 15% of respondents reported having symptoms that they have intuitively associated with wind turbine infrasound. In the whole study area, the symptom prevalence was 5%. Many of the symptomatic respondents were annoyed by audible wind turbine sound and associated their symptoms also with vibration or electromagnetic field from wind turbines. One third of the symptomatic respondents rated their symptoms severe, and the symptom spectrum was very broad covering several organ systems. In multivariate models, many factors such as proximity to wind turbines, impaired health status, being annoyed by different aspects of wind turbines and considering wind turbines as a health risk were associated with having wind turbine infrasound related symptoms. Although causal relationships cannot be assessed based on a cross-sectional questionnaire study, it can be speculated that interpretations of symptoms are affected by many other factors in addition to actual exposure.


Assuntos
Ruído , Centrais Elétricas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Finlândia , Humanos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126485

RESUMO

Background: There is a lack of knowledge concerning the effects of ambient heat exposure on morbidity in Northern Europe. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relationships of daily summertime temperature and heatwaves with cardiorespiratory hospital admissions in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. Methods: Time series models adjusted for potential confounders, such as air pollution, were used to investigate the associations of daily temperature and heatwaves with cause-specific cardiorespiratory hospital admissions during summer months of 2001-2017. Daily number of hospitalizations was obtained from the national hospital discharge register and weather information from the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Results: Increased daily temperature was associated with a decreased risk of total respiratory hospital admissions and asthma. Heatwave days were associated with 20.5% (95% CI: 6.9, 35.9) increased risk of pneumonia admissions and during long or intense heatwaves also with total respiratory admissions in the oldest age group (≥75 years). There were also suggestive positive associations between heatwave days and admissions due to myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular diseases. In contrast, risk of arrhythmia admissions decreased 20.8% (95% CI: 8.0, 31.8) during heatwaves. Conclusions: Heatwaves, rather than single hot days, are a health threat affecting morbidity even in a Northern climate.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Temperatura Alta , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Europa (Continente) , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(158)2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115789

RESUMO

AIM: There is growing interest in the health effects following exposure to ambient particles with a diameter <100 nm defined as ultrafine particles (UFPs), although studies so far have reported inconsistent results. We have undertaken a systematic review and meta-analysis for respiratory hospital admissions and emergency room visits following short-term exposure to UFPs. METHODS: We searched PubMed and the Web of Science for studies published up to March 2019 to update previous reviews. We applied fixed- and random-effects models, assessed heterogeneity between cities and explored possible effect modifiers. RESULTS: We identified nine publications, reporting effects from 15 cities, 11 of which were European. There was great variability in exposure assessment, outcome measures and the exposure lags considered. Our meta-analyses did not support UFP effects on respiratory morbidity across all ages. We found consistent statistically significant associations following lag 2 exposure during the warm period and in cities with mean daily UFP concentrations <6000 particles·cm‒3, which was approximately the median of the city-specific mean levels. Among children aged 0-14 years, a 10 000 particle·cm‒3 increase in UFPs 2 or 3 days before was associated with a relative risk of 1.01 (95% CI 1.00-1.02) in respiratory hospital admissions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates UFP effects on respiratory health among children, and during the warm season across all ages at longer lags. The limited evidence and the large heterogeneity of previous reports call for future exposure assessment harmonisation and expanded research.

11.
Sante Publique ; S1(HS): 249-256, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210484

RESUMO

The role of forests in enhancing human health and well-being has been studied in Finland for more than a decade, and these benefits are increasingly recognized by the Finnish society. The national research has studied the associations of use and availability of nature with health using different research methods such as population surveys, on-site field experiments, and combining GIS-based data describing the provision of nature areas with use of the areas and health status of people. This article sums up research results from multidisciplinary research work in Finland. One of the main study areas has been restorative effects of nature areas using various psychological measures. These studies demonstrate that forests and other nature areas are important in reducing stress and add recovery from work. Moreover, field experiments have confirmed that visiting forests have beneficial psychological and physiological effects on human health. These effects can be explained by psychological stress relief with contribution from reduced air pollution and noise exposure during the visits. In addition, studies looking at long-term effects of nature exposure suggest that physical activity has a mediating role in perceived health benefits, particularly among suburban residents. Recent efforts include national policy-science discussions on how the research knowledge can be implemented within various sectors such as public health and land-use planning and forest management. This work has resulted a suggestion for a national program called Nature for Health and Well-Being in Finland consisting of an action plan and a multidisciplinary research program. More comprehensive research knowledge has contributed to and triggered series of practical experiments and pilots that are briefly discussed in the article.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Florestas , Saúde Mental , Terapia Recreacional , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Finlândia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa
12.
Indoor Air ; 29(3): 413-422, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790356

RESUMO

A six-month winter-spring study was conducted in a suburb of the northern European city of Kuopio, Finland, to identify and quantify factors determining daily personal exposure and home indoor levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 , diameter <2.5 µm) and its light absorption coefficient (PM2.5abs ), a proxy for combustion-derived black carbon. Moreover, determinants of home indoor ozone (O3 ) concentration were examined. Local central site outdoor, home indoor, and personal daily levels of pollutants were monitored in this suburb among 37 elderly residents. Outdoor concentrations of the pollutants were significant determinants of their levels in home indoor air and personal exposures. Natural ventilation in the detached and row houses increased personal exposure to PM2.5 , but not to PM2.5abs , when compared with mechanical ventilation. Only cooking out of the recorded household activities increased indoor PM2.5 . The use of a wood stove room heater or wood-fired sauna stove was associated with elevated concentrations of personal PM2.5 and PM2.5abs , and indoor PM2.5abs . Candle burning increased daily indoor and personal PM2.5abs , and it was also a determinant of indoor ozone level. In conclusion, relatively short-lasting wood and candle burning of a few hours increased residents' daily exposure to potentially hazardous, combustion-derived carbonaceous particulate matter.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Utensílios Domésticos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Culinária/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Finlândia , Calefação/métodos , Habitação , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Ventilação , Madeira
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 651(Pt 2): 2118-2129, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321733

RESUMO

Urbanization is a global trend, and consequently the quality of urban environments is increasingly important for human health and wellbeing. Urban life-style is typically associated with low physical activity and sometimes with high mental stress, both contributing to an increasing burden of diseases. Nature-based solutions that make effective use of ecosystem services, particularly of cultural ecosystem services (CES), can provide vital building blocks to address these challenges. This paper argues that, the salutogenic, i.e. health-promoting effects of CES have so far not been adequately recognised and deserve more explicit attention in order to enhance decision making around health and wellbeing in urban areas. However, a number of research challenges will need to be addressed to reveal the mechanisms, which underpin delivery of urban CES. These include: causal chains of supply and demand, equity, and equality of public health benefits promoted. Methodological challenges in quantifying these are discussed. The paper is highly relevant for policy makers within and beyond Europe, and also serves as a review for current researchers and as a roadmap to future short- and long-term research opportunities.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Saúde Pública , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pesquisa
14.
Health Place ; 55: 20-28, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459052

RESUMO

In this study, we mainly aimed to explore the associations of personal and socio-demographic factors, and the supply of green areas and built sports facilities with green exercise (GE). We also compared the residents of the core urban area and suburban areas according to the level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) they had. A population-based sample of 3730 adults (aged 25-101 y) from Finland, filled out a questionnaire in 2015. Variables describing the supply of green areas and built sports facilities were objectively calculated. The green areas were classified into small (<25 ha), middle-sized (25-150 ha) and large (>150 ha) areas to reflect their qualities for GE. The data analysis methods included multinomial logistic regression, t-, and Chi Square tests. Our results indicate that having a short distance to at least a middle-sized green area and high nature relatedness are important for participation in GE, both in core urban and suburban areas. More factors were found to be related to GE in the suburban areas compared to core urban areas and among the low LTPA compared to the high LTPA group.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Exercício Físico , Atividades de Lazer , Parques Recreativos/provisão & distribuição , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Suburbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Health Place ; 55: 59-70, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502229

RESUMO

In this experiment we investigated how individual differences in orientation towards built vs. nature environment as well as noise sensitivity affect psychological and physiological restoration in a constructed urban park, urban woodland and city centre of Helsinki, Finland. The participants, 30-61-year-old healthy women (N = 83), visited each study site once. The experiment consisted of a 15-min viewing session, followed by a 30-min walking session in each environment. We measured restorative effects: perceived restorative outcomes, vitality, and blood pressure in these three environments. The data were analysed in SAS with a linear mixed model. We found significant differences between environments in psychological restorative effects, but not in blood pressure. The urban-nature orientedness, and to a lesser extent noise sensitivity, modified the effect of environment on restoration. In conclusion, individual characteristics affect psychological restoration provided by various urban environments. Varying needs of individuals should be taken into account in city planning.


Assuntos
Florestas , Ruído , Parques Recreativos , Estresse Psicológico/reabilitação , Caminhada/psicologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caminhada/fisiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30154318

RESUMO

We studied the potential synergy between air pollution and meteorology and their impact on mortality in nine European cities with data from 2004 to 2010. We used daily series of Apparent Temperature (AT), measurements of particulate matter (PM10), ozone (O3), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths. We applied Poisson regression for city-specific analysis and random effects meta-analysis to combine city-specific results, separately for the warm and cold seasons. In the warm season, the percentage increase in all deaths from natural causes per °C increase in AT tended to be greater during high ozone days, although this was only significant for all ages when all causes were considered. On low ozone days, the increase in the total daily number of deaths was 1.84% (95% CI 0.87, 2.82), whilst it was 2.20% (95% CI 1.28, 3.13) in the high ozone days per 1 °C increase in AT. Interaction with PM10 was significant for cardiovascular (CVD) causes of death for all ages (2.24% on low PM10 days (95% CI 1.01, 3.47) whilst it is 2.63% (95% CI 1.57, 3.71) on high PM10 days) and for ages 75+. In days with heat waves, no consistent pattern of interaction was observed. For the cold period, no evidence for synergy was found. In conclusion, some evidence of interactive effects between hot temperature and the levels of ozone and PM10 was found, but no consistent synergy could be identified during the cold season.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Temperatura Alta , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 66, 2018 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between heat and daily mortality and its temporal variation are well known. However, few studies have analyzed the inter-annual variations in both the risk estimates and impacts of heat. The aim is to estimate inter-annual variations in the effect of heat for a fixed temperature range, on mortality in 9 European cities included in the PHASE (Public Health Adaptation Strategies to Extreme weather events) project for the period 1990-2010. The second aim is to evaluate overall summer effects and heat-attributable deaths for each year included in the study period, considering the entire air temperature range (both mild and extreme temperatures). METHODS: A city-specific daily time-series analysis was performed, using a generalized additive Poisson regression model, restricted to the warm season (April-September). To study the temporal variation for a fixed air temperature range, a Bayesian Change Point analysis was applied to the relative risks of mortality for a 2 °C increase over the 90th percentile of the city-specific distribution. The number of heat attributable deaths in each summer were also calculated for mild (reference to 95th percentile) and extreme heat (95th percentile to maximum value). RESULTS: A decline in the effects of heat over time was observed in Athens and Rome when considering a fixed interval, while an increase in effects was observed in Helsinki. The greatest impact of heat in terms of attributable deaths was observed in the Mediterranean cities (Athens, Barcelona and Rome) for extreme air temperatures. In the other cities the impact was mostly related to extreme years with 2003 as a record breaking year in Paris (+ 1900 deaths) and London (+ 1200 deaths). CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring the impact of heat over time is important to identify changes in population vulnerability and evaluate adaptation measures.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade , Teorema de Bayes , Cidades/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Risco , Estações do Ano
18.
Environ Int ; 119: 287-294, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29990948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road-traffic noise can induce stress, which may contribute to mental health disorders. Mental health problems have not received much attention in noise research. People perceive noise differently, which may affect the extent to which noise contributes to poor mental health at the individual level. This paper aims to assess the relationships between outdoor traffic noise and noise annoyance and the use of psychotropic medication. METHODS: We conducted a survey to assess noise annoyance and psychotropic medication among residents of the Helsinki Capital Region of Finland. We also assessed the associations of annoyance and road-traffic noise with sleep disorders, anxiety and depression. Respondents were randomly sampled from the Finnish Population registry, and data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Outdoor traffic noise was modelled using the Nordic prediction model. Associations between annoyance and modelled façade-noise levels with mental health outcome indicators were assessed using a binary logistic regression while controlling for socioeconomic, lifestyle and exposure-related factors. RESULTS: A total of 7321 respondents returned completed questionnaires. Among the study respondents, 15%, 7% and 7% used sleep medication, anxiolytic and antidepressant medications, respectively, in the year preceding the study. Noise annoyance was associated with anxiolytic drug use, OR = 1.41 (95% CI: 1.02-1.95), but not with sedative or antidepressant use. There was suggestive association between modelled noise at levels higher than 60 dB and anxiolytic or antidepressant use. In respondents whose bedroom windows faced the street, modelled noise was definitively associated with antidepressant use. Noise sensitivity did not modify the effect of noise but was associated with an increased use of psychotropic medication. CONCLUSION: We observed suggestive associations between high levels of road-traffic noise and psychotropic medication use. Noise sensitivity was associated with psychotropic medication use.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Depressão , Exposição Ambiental , Ruído dos Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Finlândia , Humanos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28829351

RESUMO

Climate change is expected to increase heat-related and decrease cold-related mortality. The extent of acclimatization of the population to gradually-changing thermal conditions is not well understood. We aimed to define the relationship between mortality and temperature extremes in different age groups in the Helsinki-Uusimaa hospital district in Southern Finland, and changes in sensitivity of the population to temperature extremes over the period of 1972-2014. Time series of mortality were made stationary with a method that utilizes 365-day Gaussian smoothing, removes trends and seasonality, and gives relative mortality as the result. We used generalized additive models to examine the association of relative mortality to physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and to air temperature in the 43-year study period and in two 21-year long sub-periods (1972-1992 and 1994-2014). We calculated the mean values of relative mortality in percentile-based categories of thermal indices. Relative mortality increases more in the hot than in the cold tail of the thermal distribution. The increase is strongest among those aged 75 years and older, but is somewhat elevated even among those younger than 65 years. Above the 99th percentile of the PET distribution, the all-aged relative mortality decreased in time from 18.3 to 8.6%. Among those ≥75 years old, the decrease in relative mortality between the sub-periods were found to be above the 90th percentile. The dependence of relative mortality on cold extremes was negligible, except among those ≥75 years old, in the latter period. Thus, heat-related mortality is also remarkable in Finland, but the sensitivity to heat stress has decreased over the decades.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Mudança Climática , Tempo Frio Extremo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/mortalidade , Temperatura , Idoso , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Meteorologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Environ Res ; 159: 176-185, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28802208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between the amount of green space in the living environment and mental and cardiovascular human health. In a search for effect mechanisms, field studies have found short-term visits to green environments to be associated with psychological stress relief. Less evidence is available on the effect of visits on cardiovascular physiology. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether visits to urban green environments, in comparison to visits to a built-up environment, lead to beneficial short-term changes in indicators of cardiovascular health. METHODS: Thirty-six adult female volunteers visited three different types of urban environments: an urban forest, an urban park, and a built-up city centre, in Helsinki, Finland. The visits consisted of 15min of sedentary viewing, and 30min of walking. During the visits, blood pressure and heart rate were measured, and electrocardiogram recorded for the determination of indicators of heart rate variability. In addition, levels of respirable ambient particles and environmental noise were monitored. RESULTS: Visits to the green environments were associated with lower blood pressure (viewing period only), lower heart rate, and higher indices of heart rate variability [standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), high frequency power] than visits to the city centre. In the green environments, heart rate decreased and SDNN increased during the visit. Associations between environment and indicators of cardiovascular health weakened slightly after inclusion of particulate air pollution and noise in the models. CONCLUSIONS: Visits to urban green environments are associated with beneficial short-term changes in cardiovascular risk factors. This can be explained by psychological stress relief with contribution from reduced air pollution and noise exposure during the visits. Future research should evaluate the amount of exposure to green environments needed for longer-term benefits for cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Meio Ambiente , Frequência Cardíaca , Parques Recreativos , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído , Material Particulado/análise
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