Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 9 de 9
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Water Res ; 127: 139-149, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29035767

RESUMO

In recent years, cities in some water stressed regions have explored alternative water sources such as seawater desalination and potable water recycling in spite of concerns over increasing energy consumption. In this study, we evaluate the current and future life-cycle energy impacts of four alternative water supply strategies introduced during a decade-long drought in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. These strategies were: seawater desalination, indirect potable water recycling, network integration, and rainwater tanks. Our work highlights the energy burden of alternative water supply strategies which added approximately 24% life-cycle energy use to the existing supply system (with surface water sources) in SEQ even for a current post-drought low utilisation status. Over half of this additional life-cycle energy use was from the centralised alternative supply strategies. Rainwater tanks contributed an estimated 3% to regional water supply, but added over 10% life-cycle energy use to the existing system. In the future scenario analysis, we compare the life-cycle energy use between "Normal", "Dry", "High water demand" and "Design capacity" scenarios. In the "Normal" scenario, a long-term low utilisation of the desalination system and the water recycling system has greatly reduced the energy burden of these centralised strategies to only 13%. In contrast, higher utilisation in the unlikely "Dry" and "Design capacity" scenarios add 86% and 140% to life-cycle energy use of the existing system respectively. In the "High water demand" scenario, a 20% increase in per capita water use over 20 years "consumes" more energy than is used by the four alternative strategies in the "Normal" scenario. This research provides insight for developing more realistic long-term scenarios to evaluate and compare life-cycle energy impacts of drought-adaptation infrastructure and regional decentralised water sources. Scenario building for life-cycle assessments of water supply systems should consider i) climate variability and, therefore, infrastructure utilisation rate, ii) potential under-utilisation for both installed centralised and decentralised sources, and iii) the potential energy penalty for operating infrastructure well below its design capacity (e.g., the operational energy intensity of the desalination system is three times higher at low utilisation rates). This study illustrates that evaluating the life-cycle energy use and intensity of these type of supply sources without considering their realistic long-term operating scenario(s) can potentially distort and overemphasise their energy implications. To other water stressed regions, this work shows that managing long-term water demand is also important, in addition to acknowledging the energy-intensive nature of some alternative water sources.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Abastecimento de Água , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Água Potável , Secas , Queensland , Reciclagem , Água do Mar/química , Purificação da Água/métodos
2.
Water Res ; 109: 287-298, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27914259

RESUMO

Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia. In the studied scenario, the cost-effective energy saving potential from a city perspective (292 GWh/year) is far more significant than that from a utility perspective (65 GWh/year). In some cases, for similar capital cost, if regional water planners invested in end use options instead of utility options, a greater energy saving potential at a greater cost-effectiveness could be achieved in urban water systems. For example, upgrading a wastewater treatment plant for biogas recovery at a capital cost of $27.2 million would save 31 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $63/MWh, while solar hot water system rebates at a cost of $28.6 million would save 67 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $111/MWh. Options related to hot water use such as water-efficient shower heads, water-efficient clothes washers and solar hot water system rebates are among the most cost-effective city-scale opportunities. This study demonstrates the use of cost curves to compare both utility and end use options in a consistent framework. It also illustrates that focusing solely on managing the energy use within the utility would miss substantial non-utility water-related energy saving opportunities. There is a need to broaden the conventional scope of cost curve analysis to include water-related energy and greenhouse gas at the water end use, and to value their management from a city perspective. This would create opportunities where the same capital investment could achieve far greater energy savings and greenhouse gas emissions abatement.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Água , Água , Austrália , Cidades , Águas Residuárias
3.
J Environ Manage ; 181: 403-412, 2016 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27395015

RESUMO

Water shortage, increased demand and rising energy costs are major challenges for the water sector worldwide. Here we use a comparative case study to explore the long-term changes in the system-wide water and associated energy use in two different regions that encountered water shortage. In Australia, South East Queensland (SEQ) encountered a drought from 2001 to 2009, while Perth has experienced a decline in rainfall since the 1970s. This novel longitudinal study quantifies and compares the urban water consumption and the energy use of the water supply systems in SEQ and Perth during the period 2002 to 2014. Unlike hypothetical and long-term scenario studies, this comparative study quantifies actual changes in regional water consumption and associated energy, and explores the lessons learned from the two regions. In 2002, Perth had a similar per capita water consumption rate to SEQ and 48% higher per capita energy use in the water supply system. From 2002 to 2014, a strong effort of water conservation can be seen in SEQ during the drought, while Perth has been increasingly relying on seawater desalination. By 2014, even though the drought in SEQ had ended and the drying climate in Perth was continuing, the per capita water consumption in SEQ (266 L/p/d) was still 28% lower than that of Perth (368 L/p/d), while the per capita energy use in Perth (247 kWh/p/yr) had increased to almost five times that of SEQ (53 kWh/p/yr). This comparative study shows that within one decade, major changes in water and associated energy use occurred in regions that were similar historically. The very different "water-energy" trajectories in the two regions arose partly due to the type of water management options implemented, particularly the different emphasis on supply versus demand side management. This study also highlights the significant energy saving benefit of water conservation strategies (i.e. in SEQ, the energy saving was sufficient to offset the total energy use for seawater desalination and water recycling during the period.). The water-energy trajectory diagram provides a new way to illustrate and compare longitudinal water consumption and associated energy use within and between cities.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Abastecimento de Água , Cidades , Clima , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Custos e Análise de Custo , Secas , Estudos Longitudinais , Queensland , Reciclagem , Água do Mar
4.
Sci Rep ; 5: 8706, 2015 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25732131

RESUMO

This study investigates interactions between recently identified denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) processes in controlled anoxic laboratory reactors. Two reactors were seeded with the same inocula containing DAMO organisms Candidatus Methanoperedens nitroreducens and Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera, and anammox organism Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. Both were fed with ammonium and methane, but one was also fed with nitrate and the other with nitrite, providing anoxic environments with different electron acceptors. After steady state reached in several months, the DAMO process became solely/primarily responsible for nitrate reduction while the anammox process became solely responsible for nitrite reduction in both reactors. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that the nitrate-driven DAMO organism M. nitroreducens dominated both the nitrate-fed (~70%) and the nitrite-fed (~26%) reactors, while the nitrite-driven DAMO organism M. oxyfera disappeared in both communities. The elimination of M. oxyfera from both reactors was likely the results of this organism being outcompeted by anammox bacteria for nitrite. K. stuttgartiensis was detected at relatively low levels (1-3%) in both reactors.


Assuntos
Metano/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Fermentação , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo
5.
N Biotechnol ; 31(4): 345-56, 2014 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23707689

RESUMO

Poly[R-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R-3-hydroxyvalerate)] (PHBV) copolymers were produced from mixed cultures of biomass (activated sludge) fed with acetic acid (HAc) and propionic acid (HPr). Feeding was performed in such a way as to produce materials with a wide range of monomer compositions and microstructures. Solvent-cast thin films of these materials have recently been shown to exhibit a narrow range of mechanical properties similar to those of the homopolymer poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) [1]. In this work, more detailed analyses of the thermal and crystallisation properties of these mixed-culture polyesters have revealed that they like comprise complex blends with broad compositional distribution of random and/or blocky copolymers of very different 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) contents and melting temperatures and thus have very different respective crystallisation kinetics. This blend complexity was confirmed by solvent fractionation of selected samples. The findings support the hypothesis that overall mechanical properties of these complex copolymer blend materials will be strongly influenced by the more rapidly crystallising components that form the matrix within which the slower crystallising components exist as microdomains. New opportunities in the material development of PHAs are likely to be found in establishing and exploiting such structure-function relationships.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/biossíntese , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/isolamento & purificação , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Fracionamento Químico , Cristalização , Microscopia , Solventes/química , Temperatura
6.
N Biotechnol ; 31(4): 357-63, 2014 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24161524

RESUMO

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymer processing is often challenged by low thermal stability, meaning that the temperatures and time for which these polymers can be processed is restrictive. Considering the sensitivity of PHA to processing conditions, there is a demand for in-line monitoring of the material behaviour in the melt. This paper investigates the application of Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for monitoring the thermal degradation of PHAs during melt-processing. Two types of materials were tested: two mixed culture PHAs extracted from biomass produced in laboratory and pilot scale after an acidic pre-treatment, and two commercially available materials derived from pure culture production systems. Thermal degradation studies were carried out in a laboratory scale extruder with conical twin screws connected to a NIR spectrometer by a fibre optic to allow in situ monitoring. Multivariate data analysis methods were applied for assessing thermal degradation kinetics and predicted the degree of degradation as measured by (1)H NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy). The pre-treated mixed culture PHAs were found to be more thermally stable when compared with the commercial pure culture PHAs as demonstrated by NIR, (1)H NMR and GPC (gel permeation chromatography).


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Temperatura , Calibragem , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Peso Molecular , Fibras Ópticas , Análise de Componente Principal
7.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 110(9): 2405-11, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23532833

RESUMO

The development of an Electrochemical System for Oxygen Control (ESOC) for examining algal photosynthetic activity as a function of dissolved oxygen (DO) is outlined. The main innovation of the tool is coulombic titration in order to balance the electrochemical reduction of oxygen with the oxygen input to achieve a steady DO set-point. ESOC allows quantification of algal oxygen production whilst simultaneously maintaining a desired DO concentration. The tool was validated abiotically by comparison with a mass transfer approach for quantifying oxygenation. It was then applied to quantify oxygen inhibition of algal activity. Five experiments, using an enriched culture of Scenedesmus sp. as the inoculum, are presented. For each experiment, ESOC was used to quantify algal activity at a series of DO set-points. In all experiments substantial oxygen inhibition was observed at DO >30 mgO2 L-1. Inhibition was shown to fit a Hill inhibition model, with a common Hill coefficient of 0.22±0.07 L mg-1 and common log10 CI50 of 27.2±0.7 mg L-1. This is the first time that the oxygen inhibition kinetic parameters have been quantified under controlled DO conditions.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Microalgas/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Scenedesmus/metabolismo , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Cinética , Microalgas/fisiologia , Oxigênio/análise , Fotobiorreatores , Fotossíntese , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Scenedesmus/fisiologia
8.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 3(3): 315-9, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23761277

RESUMO

Two cultures were inoculated with sludges taken from a parent culture containing archaea distantly related to anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and bacteria related to Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera, both of which have previously been found in cultures performing denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation process. The cultures were fed with nitrate and nitrite, respectively, along with methane. The nitrate-fed culture, Culture B, showed a stable microbial community composition and denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation activity. In contrast, the nitrite-fed culture, Culture A, achieved a substantial increase in the nitrite consumption rate, from 1.1 to 7.3 mmol NO2 (-) -N (g VSS)(-1) day(-1) in 90 days. Concurrent with this activity increase, the archaeal population in Culture A decreased with time, and became undetectable after 100 days, while bacteria related to M. oxyfera increasingly dominated the culture. This observation suggests that the bacteria related to M. oxyfera are more competitive for nitrite reduction compared with the archaea related to ANME. This study showed that nitrate or nitrite feeding has a significant impact on the ecology and activities of microorganisms in the denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation process. This study also revealed that nitrite overloading may have a toxic effect on the bacteria related to M. oxyfera.

9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 44(9): 3629-37, 2010 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20356090

RESUMO

Existing wastewater treatment options are generally perceived as energy intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Much attention has been focused on two new approaches in the past years, (i) microbial fuel cells and (ii) microbial electrolysis cells, which directly generate electrical current or chemical products, respectively, during wastewater treatment. These systems are commonly denominated as bioelectrochemical systems, and a multitude of claims have been made in the past regarding the environmental impact of these treatment options. However, an in-depth study backing these claims has not been performed. Here, we have conducted a life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare the environmental impact of three industrial wastewater treatment options, (i) anaerobic treatment with biogas generation, (ii) a microbial fuel cell treatment, with direct electricity generation, and (iii) a microbial electrolysis cell, with hydrogen peroxide production. Our analysis showed that a microbial fuel cell does not provide a significant environmental benefit relative to the "conventional" anaerobic treatment option. However, a microbial electrolysis cell provides significant environmental benefits through the displacement of chemical production by conventional means. Provided that the target conversion level of 1000 A.m(-3) can be met, the decrease in greenhouse gas emissions and other environmentally harmful emissions (e.g., aromatic hydrocarbons) of the microbial electrolysis cell will be a key driver for the development of an industrial standard for this technology. Evidently, this assessment is highly dependent on the underlying assumptions, such as the used reactor materials and target performance. This provides a challenge and an opportunity for researchers in the field to select and develop appropriate and environmentally benign materials of construction, as well as demonstrate the required 1000 A.m(-3) performance at pilot and full scale.


Assuntos
Bactérias/citologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Biotecnologia , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...