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1.
Transfusion ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reemergence of yellow fever virus (YFV) in Africa and Brazil, and massive vaccine campaigns triggered to contain the outbreaks, have raised concerns over blood transfusion safety and availability with increased risk of YFV transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) by native and vaccine-acquired YFV. Blood donor deferral for 2 to 4 weeks following live attenuated YFV vaccination, and deferral for travel to endemic/epidemic areas, may result in blood donor loss and impact platelet component (PC) stocks. This study investigated the efficacy of INTERCEPT Blood System pathogen reduction (PR) with use of amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) light to inactivate high levels of YFV in PCs. MATERIALS: Four units of apheresis platelets prepared in 35% plasma/65% platelet additive solution (PC-PAS) and 4 units of PC in 100% human plasma (PC-Plasma) were spiked with high infectious titers of YFV (YFV-17D vaccine strain). YFV-17D infectious titers were measured by plaque assay and expressed as plaque-forming units (PFU) before and after amotosalen/UVA treatment to determine log reduction. RESULTS: The mean YFV-17D infectious titers in PC before inactivation were 5.5 ± 0.1 log PFU/mL in PC-PAS and 5.3 ± 0.1 log PFU/mL in PC-Plasma. No infectivity was detected immediately after amotosalen/UVA treatment. CONCLUSION: The amotosalen/UVA PR system inactivated high titers of infectious YFV-17D in PC. This PR technology could reduce the risk of YFV TTI and help secure PC supplies in areas experiencing YFV outbreaks where massive vaccination campaigns are required.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17172, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748599

RESUMO

Infections with dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) usually present similar mild symptoms at early stages, and most infections (~80%) are asymptomatic. However, these infections may progress to severe disease with different clinical manifestations. In this study we attempted to identify unique characteristics for each infection at the presymptomatic/asymptomatic stage of infection and compared levels of soluble immune markers that have been shown to be altered during clinical course of these viral infections. Levels of soluble markers were determined by Luminex-based assays or by ELISA in plasma samples from asymptomatic blood donors who were reactive for RNA from DENV (n = 71), WNV (n = 52) or ZIKV (n = 44), and a control or non-infected (NI) group (n = 22). Results showed that even in the absence of symptoms, increased interleukin (IL) levels of IL-12, IL-17, IL-10, IL-5, CXCL9, E-Selectin and ST2/IL-1R4; and decreased levels of IL-13 and CD40 were found in all flavivirus group samples, compared to those from NI donors. DENV-infected donors demonstrated variation in expression of IL-1ra and IL-2; WNV-infected donors demonstrated variation in expression of IL-1ra, P-Selectin, IL-4 and IL-5; ZIKV-infected donors demonstrated variation in expression of IL-1ra, P-Selectin, IL-4, RANK-L, CD40L and C3a. The findings suggest that, even in the presymptomatic/asymptomatic phase of the infection, different immunomodulation profiles were associated with DENV, WNV and ZIKV infections.

4.
Transfusion ; 59(1): 67-78, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frequent whole blood donations increase the prevalence of iron depletion in blood donors, which may subsequently interfere with normal erythropoiesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between donation frequency and red blood cell (RBC) storage stability in a racially/ethnically diverse population of blood donors. STUDY DESIGN: Leukoreduced RBC concentrate-derived samples from 13,403 donors were stored for 39 to 42 days (1-6°C) and then evaluated for storage, osmotic, and oxidative hemolysis. Iron status was evaluated by plasma ferritin measurement and self-reported intake of iron supplements. Donation history in the prior 2 years was obtained for each subject. RESULTS: Frequent blood donors enrolled in this study were likely to be white, male, and of older age (56.1 ± 5.0 years). Prior donation intensity was negatively associated with oxidative hemolysis (p < 0.0001) in multivariate analyses correcting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Increased plasma ferritin concentration was associated with increased RBC susceptibility to each of the three measures of hemolysis (p < 0.0001 for all), whereas self-reported iron intake was associated with reduced susceptibility to osmotic and oxidative hemolysis (p < 0.0001 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Frequent blood donations may alter the quality of blood components by modulating RBC predisposition to hemolysis. RBCs collected from frequent donors with low ferritin have altered susceptibility to hemolysis. Thus, frequent donation and associated iron loss may alter the quality of stored RBC components collected from iron-deficient donors. Further investigation is necessary to assess posttransfusion safety and efficacy in patients receiving these RBC products.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/citologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doadores de Sangue , Preservação de Sangue , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemólise/fisiologia , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Ferro/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Adulto Jovem
5.
Transfusion ; 59(1): 79-88, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic determinants may underlie the susceptibility of red blood cells (RBCs) to hemolyze in vivo and during routine storage. This study characterized the reproducibility and dynamics of in vitro hemolysis variables from a subset of the 13,403 blood donors enrolled in the RBC-Omics study. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: RBC-Omics donors with either low or high hemolysis results on 4°C-stored leukoreduced (LR)-RBC samples from enrollment donations stored for 39 to 42 days were recalled 2 to 12 months later to donate LR-RBCs. Samples of stored LR-RBCs from the unit and from transfer bags were evaluated for spontaneous and stress-induced hemolysis at selected storage time points. Intradonor reproducibility of hemolysis variables was evaluated in transfer bags over two donations. Hemolysis data at serial storage time points were generated on LR-RBCs from parent bags and analyzed by site, sex, race/ethnicity, and donation frequency. RESULTS: A total of 664 donors were successfully recalled. Analysis of intradonor reproducibility revealed that osmotic and oxidative hemolysis demonstrated good and moderate reproducibility (Pearson's r = 0.85 and r = 0.53, respectively), while spontaneous hemolysis reproducibility was poor (r = 0.40). Longitudinal hemolysis in parent bags showed large increases over time in spontaneous (508.6%) and oxidative hemolysis (399.8%) and smaller increases in osmotic (9.4%) and mechanical fragility (3.4%; all p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Spontaneous hemolysis is poorly reproducible in donors over time and may depend on site processing methods, while oxidative and osmotic hemolysis were reproducible in donors and hence could reflect consistent heritable phenotypes attributable to genetic traits. Spontaneous and oxidative hemolysis increased over time of storage, whereas osmotic and mechanical hemolysis remained relatively stable.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/citologia , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Preservação de Sangue , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemólise/fisiologia , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Osmose/fisiologia , Oxirredução , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Transfusion ; 59(1): 57-66, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The major aims of the RBC-Omics study were to evaluate the genomic and metabolomic determinants of spontaneous and stress-induced hemolysis during RBC storage. This study was unique in scale and design to allow evaluation of RBC donations from a sufficient number of donors across the spectrum of race, ethnicity, sex, and donation intensity. Study procedures were carefully piloted, optimized, and controlled to enable high-quality data collection. METHODS: The enrollment goal of 14,000 RBC donors across four centers, with characterization of RBC hemolysis across two testing laboratories, required rigorous piloting and optimization and establishment of a quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) program. Optimization of WBC elution from leukoreduction (LR) filters, development and validation of small-volume transfer bags, impact of manufacturing and sample-handling procedures on hemolysis parameters, and testing consistency across laboratories and technicians and over time were part of this quality assurance/quality control program. RESULTS: LR filter elution procedures were optimized for obtaining DNA for analysis. Significant differences between standard and pediatric storage bags led to use of an alternative LR-RBC transfer bag. The impact of sample preparation and freezing methods on metabolomics analyses was evaluated. Proficiency testing monitored and documented testing consistency across laboratories and technicians. CONCLUSION: Piloting and optimization, and establishment of a robust quality assurance/quality control program documented process consistency throughout the study and was essential in executing this large-scale multicenter study. This program supports the validity of the RBC-Omics study results and a sample repository that can be used in future studies.


Assuntos
Preservação de Sangue/métodos , Hemólise/fisiologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade
7.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 58(1): 87-93, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelet concentrates (PCs) treated by the pathogen inactivation technology (PI) using amotosalen and UVA illumination (PI-PCs) can be manufactured in additive solutions (PAS-III and PAS-IIIM) or in 100% Plasma. Quality control (QC) is an integral part of the production. We capitalized on our ongoing QC program to capture 8 years-worth of data on parameters related to the quality of 116,214 PI-PCs produced under different manufacturing methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Selected in vitro parameters of metabolism, activation, and storage were analyzed for the different manufacturing periods to compare PI-PCs versus conventional PCs (C-PCs) resuspended in different PAS. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: All BC-PCs met quality standards for pH and dose and residual leucocytes. As expected, storage time correlated with increased lactate, LDH, Annexin V, CD62, sCD40 L levels and decreased glucose and pH. With PAS-IIIM, higher levels of glucose were observed toward the end of shelf life (p < 0.0001) with lower platelet activation markers Annexin V (p = 0.038) and CD62 (p = 0.0006). Following PI implementation, a low expire rate of <0.5% was observed. While a 2.3% mean increase in the production of PCs occurred from 2011 to 2015, the distribution of red blood cell concentrates dropped by 4.4%. A mean incidence of 0.14% for transfusion-related adverse reaction was observed while PI-PCs were distributed, similar to the one observed with C-PCs. Overall, PI-PCs prepared in additive solutions consistently met quality standards. Those prepared in PAS-IIIM appeared to have better retention of in vitro characteristics compared to PAS-III though all demonstrated functionality and clinical effectiveness.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Humanos , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Transfusion ; 58(3): 748-757, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29322519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne arbovirus, often co-circulates with the Zika, dengue, and yellow fever viruses in Aedes mosquito-infested areas where cases of arbovirus transfusion-transmitted infections have been reported. Building on past experience to help maintain the availability of safe components during major outbreaks of chikungunya virus in La Reunion, Italy, and Thailand and of Zika virus in the Pacific, the Caribbean, and the Americas, pathogen inactivation is a mitigation strategy to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection. Inactivation of chikungunya virus was investigated for platelets in 100% plasma using amotosalen/ultraviolet A light, and in red blood cells using amustaline/glutathione. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Platelets in 100% plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) were spiked with chikungunya virus. Infectious chikungunya virus titers were measured in contaminated blood products before and after treatment with amotosalen/ultraviolet A light for platelets in 100% plasma and after treatment with amustaline/glutathione for RBCs. Viral infectivity was quantified by plaque assay. RESULTS: The mean chikungunya virus infectivity titers before inactivation were 6.50 log10 plaque-forming units/mL for platelets in 100% plasma and 7.60 log10 plaque-forming units/mL for RBCs. No infectivity was detected after amotosalen/ultraviolet A light or amustaline/glutathione treatment, corresponding to greater than 6.5 log10 plaque-forming units/mL and greater than 7.1 log10 plaque-forming units/mL of inactivation, respectively. CONCLUSION: Robust levels of chikungunya virus inactivation were achieved for platelets in 100% plasma and for RBC components. The licensed amotosalen/ultraviolet A light technology and the amustaline/glutathione pathogen-reduction system under development may provide an opportunity for comprehensive mitigation of the risk of chikungunya virus transfusion-transmitted infection by plasma, platelets, and RBCs.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/virologia , Segurança do Sangue/métodos , Vírus Chikungunya , Eritrócitos/virologia , Furocumarinas/farmacologia , Glutationa/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Inativação de Vírus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos da radiação
9.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 18(5): e172-e182, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29150310

RESUMO

The Zika virus crisis exemplified the risk associated with emerging pathogens and was a reminder that preparedness for the worst-case scenario, although challenging, is needed. Herein, we review all data reported during the unexpected emergence of Zika virus in French Polynesia in late 2013. We focus on the new findings reported during this outbreak, especially the first description of severe neurological complications in adults and the retrospective description of CNS malformations in neonates, the isolation of Zika virus in semen, the potential for blood-transfusion transmission, mother-to-child transmission, and the development of new diagnostic assays. We describe the effect of this outbreak on health systems, the implementation of vector-borne control strategies, and the line of communication used to alert the international community of the new risk associated with Zika virus. This outbreak highlighted the need for careful monitoring of all unexpected events that occur during an emergence, to implement surveillance and research programmes in parallel to management of cases, and to be prepared to the worst-case scenario.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Polinésia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Blood Adv ; 1(15): 1132-1141, 2017 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29034365

RESUMO

Genetic polymorphisms in blood donors may contribute to donor-specific differences in the survival of red blood cells (RBCs) during cold storage and after transfusion. Genetic variability is anticipated to be high in donors with racial admixture from malaria endemic regions such as Africa and Asia. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that donor genetic background, reflected by sex and self-reported ethnicity, significantly modulates RBC phenotypes in storage. High throughput hemolysis assays were developed and used to evaluate stored RBC samples from 11 115 African American, Asian, white, and Hispanic blood donors from 4 geographically diverse regions in the United States. Leukocyte-reduced RBC concentrate-derived samples were stored for 39 to 42 days (1-6°C) and then evaluated for storage, osmotic, and oxidative hemolysis. Male sex was strongly associated with increased susceptibility to all 3 hemolysis measures (P < .0001). African American background was associated with resistance to osmotic hemolysis compared with other racial groups (adjusted P < .0001). Donor race/ethnicity was also associated with extreme (>1%) levels of storage hemolysis exceeding US Food and Drug Administration regulations for transfusion (hemolysis >1% was observed in 3.51% of Asian and 2.47% of African American donors vs 1.67% of white donors). These findings highlight the impact of donor genetic traits on measures of RBC hemolysis during routine cold storage, and they support current plans for genome-wide association studies, which may help identify hereditable variants with substantive effects on RBC storage stability and possibly posttransfusion outcomes.

11.
Transfusion ; 57(12): 2888-2896, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28921542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus primarily transmitted through mosquito bite; however, DENV transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) have been reported and asymptomatic DENV RNA-positive blood donors have been identified in endemic countries. DENV is considered a high-risk pathogen for blood safety. One of the mitigation strategies to prevent arbovirus TTIs is pathogen inactivation. In this study we demonstrate that the amustaline and glutathione (S-303/GSH) treatment previously found effective against Zika virus in red blood cells (RBCs) is also effective in inactivating DENV. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Red blood cells were spiked with high levels of DENV. Viral RNA loads and infectious titers were measured in the untreated control and before and after pathogen inactivation treatment of RBC samples. DENV infectivity was also assessed over five successive cell culture passages to detect any potential residual replicative virus. RESULTS: The mean ± SD DENV titer in RBCs before inactivation was 6.61 ± 0.19 log 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 )/mL and the mean viral RNA load was 8.42 log genome equivalents/mL. No replicative DENV was detected either immediately after completion of treatment using S-303/GSH or after cell culture passages. CONCLUSION: Treatment using S-303/GSH inactivated high levels of DENV in RBCs to the limit of detection. In combination with previous studies showing the effective inactivation of DENV in plasma and platelets using the licensed amotosalen/UVA system, this study demonstrates that high levels of DENV can be inactivated in all blood components.


Assuntos
Acridinas/farmacologia , Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Eritrócitos/virologia , Glutationa/farmacologia , Compostos de Mostarda Nitrogenada/farmacologia , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/transmissão , Vírus da Dengue/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , RNA Viral/sangue
12.
Transfusion ; 57(8): 2016-2025, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28671343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concerned over the risk of Zika virus (ZIKV) transfusion transmission, public health agencies recommended the implementation of mitigation strategies for its prevention. Those strategies included the use of pathogen inactivation for the treatment of plasma and platelets. The efficacy of amotosalen/ultraviolet A to inactivate ZIKV in plasma had been previously demonstrated, and the efficacy of inactivation in platelets with the same technology was assumed. These studies quantify ZIKV inactivation in platelet components using amotosalen/ultraviolet A. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Platelet components were spiked with ZIKV, and ZIKV infectious titers and RNA loads were measured by cell culture-based assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction in spiked platelet components before and after photochemical treatment using amotosalen/ultraviolet A. RESULTS: The mean ZIKV infectivity titers and RNA loads in platelet components before inactivation were either 4.9 log10 plaque forming units per milliliter, or 4.4 log10 50% tissue culture infective dose per milliliter and 7.5 log10 genome equivalents per milliliter, respectively. No infectivity was detected immediately after amotosalen/ultraviolet A treatment. No replicative virus remained after treatment, as demonstrated by multiple passages on Vero cell cultures; and ZIKV RNA was not detected from the first passage after inactivation. Additional experiments in this study demonstrated efficient inactivation to the limit of detection in platelets manufactured in 65% platelet additive solution, 35% plasma, or 100% plasma. CONCLUSION: As previously demonstrated for plasma, robust levels of ZIKV inactivation were achieved in platelet components. With inactivation of higher levels of ZIKV than those reported in asymptomatic, RNA-reactive blood donors, the pathogen-inactivation system using amotosalen/ultraviolet A offers the potential to mitigate the risk of ZIKV transmission by plasma and platelet transfusion.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/virologia , Furocumarinas/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Inativação de Vírus , Zika virus , Animais , Humanos , Transfusão de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , RNA Viral , Células Vero , Carga Viral , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos da radiação , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Zika virus/efeitos da radiação , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
13.
Lancet ; 390(10107): 2099-2109, 2017 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28647173

RESUMO

The epidemic history of Zika virus began in 2007, with its emergence in Yap Island in the western Pacific, followed in 2013-14 by a larger epidemic in French Polynesia, south Pacific, where the first severe complications and non-vector-borne transmission of the virus were reported. Zika virus emerged in Brazil in 2015 and was declared a national public health emergency after local researchers and physicians reported an increase in microcephaly cases. In 2016, WHO declared the recent cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders reported in Brazil a global public health emergency. Similar clusters of microcephaly cases were also observed retrospectively in French Polynesia in 2014. In 2015-16, Zika virus continued its spread to cause outbreaks in the Americas and the Pacific, and the first outbreaks were reported in continental USA, Africa, and southeast Asia. Non-vector-borne transmission was confirmed and Zika virus was established as a cause of severe neurological complications in fetuses, neonates, and adults. This Review focuses on important updates and gaps in the knowledge of Zika virus as of early 2017.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Surtos de Doenças , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico
16.
Transfusion ; 57(3pt2): 779-789, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28164306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential for Zika virus (ZIKV) transfusion-transmission (TT) has been demonstrated in French Polynesia and Brazil. Pathogen inactivation (PI) of blood products is a proactive strategy to inactivate TT pathogens including arboviruses. Inactivation of West Nile, dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses was previously demonstrated by photochemical treatment with amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination. In this study, we evaluated ZIKV inactivation in red blood cell (RBC) components by a chemical approach that uses amustaline (S-303) and glutathione (GSH). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: RBC components were spiked with a high titer of ZIKV. Viral titers (infectivity) and ZIKV RNA loads (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) were measured in spiked RBCs before and after S-303 and GSH treatment and confirmed using repetitive passages in cell culture. A mock-treated arm validated the approach by demonstrating stability of the virus (infectivity and RNA load) during the process. RESULTS: The mean ZIKV infectivity titer and RNA load in RBCs were 5.99 ± 0.2 log 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 )/mL and 7.75 ± 0.16 log genomic equivalents/mL before inactivation. No infectivity was detected immediately after S-303 and GSH treatment and after five serial passages in cell culture. CONCLUSION: Complete ZIKV inactivation of more than 5.99 log TCID50 /mL in RBCs was achieved using S-303 and GSH at levels higher than those found in asymptomatic ZIKV-infected blood donors. Therefore, the S-303 and GSH PI system is promising for mitigating the risk of ZIKV TT.


Assuntos
Acridinas/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Eritrócitos/virologia , Compostos de Mostarda Nitrogenada/farmacologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Inativação de Vírus , Zika virus , Acridinas/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Compostos de Mostarda Nitrogenada/química
17.
Transfusion ; 57(3pt2): 734-747, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28194799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread rapidly in the Pacific and throughout the Americas and is associated with severe congenital and adult neurologic outcomes. Nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) assays were developed for diagnostic applications and for blood donor screening on high-throughput NAT systems. We distributed blinded panels to compare the analytical performance of blood screening relative to diagnostic NAT assays. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A 25-member, coded panel (11 half-log dilutions of a 2013 French Polynesia ZIKV isolate and 2015 Brazilian donor plasma implicated in transfusion transmission, and 3 negative controls) was sent to 11 laboratories that performed 17 assays with 2 to 12 replicates per panel member. Results were analyzed for the percentage reactivity at each dilution and by probit analysis to estimate the 50% and 95% limits of detection (LOD50 and LOD95 , respectively). RESULTS: Donor-screening NAT assays that process approximately 500 µL of plasma into amplification reactions were comparable in sensitivity (LOD50 and LOD95 , 2.5 and 15-18 copies/mL) and were approximately 10-fold to 100-fold more sensitive than research laboratory-developed and diagnostic reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction tests that process from 10 to 30 µL of plasma per amplification. Increasing sample input volume assayed with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays increased the LODs by 10-fold to 30-fold. CONCLUSIONS: Blood donor-screening ZIKV NAT assays demonstrate similar excellent sensitivities to assays currently used for screening for transfusion-transmitted viruses and are substantially more sensitive than most other laboratory-developed and diagnostic ZIKV reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays. Enhancing sensitivities of laboratory-developed and diagnostic assays may be achievable by increasing sample input.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Seleção do Doador/métodos , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infecção por Zika virus/sangue , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico
18.
J Med Virol ; 89(9): 1505-1510, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27859375

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) viremia is reported as low and transient; however, these estimates rely on limited data. We report RNA loads in sera collected from symptomatic patients during the 2013-2014 French Polynesian ZIKV outbreak. We performed molecular detection of ZIKV RNA in sera from 747 patients presenting with suspected acute phase ZIKV infection. Among patients with confirmed infection, we analyzed the duration of viremia, assessed viral RNA loads and recorded the main clinical symptoms. A total of 210/747 (28.1%) sera tested positive using a ZIKV-specific RT-PCR. Viral RNA loads in symptomatic patients that ranged from 5 to 3.7 × 106 copies/mL (mean 9.9 × 104 copies/mL) were not related to a particular clinical presentation, and were significantly lower than those previously obtained from asymptomatic ZIKV infected blood donors. The rate of detection of ZIKV RNA in sera from suspected cases of acute phase ZIKV infection was low. ZIKV RNA loads were lower in symptomatic patients compared to asymptomatic blood donors and were lower than RNA loads usually reported in dengue infections. As there is no abrupt onset of symptoms in ZIKV infections, we suggest that infected patients sought for medical attention when viremia was already decreasing or had resolved.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , RNA Viral/sangue , Carga Viral , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polinésia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/patologia
19.
J Infect Dis ; 215(3): 387-395, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28003350

RESUMO

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects 7 million people in Latin American areas of endemicity. About 30% of infected patients will develop chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), an inflammatory cardiomyopathy characterized by hypertrophy, fibrosis, and myocarditis. Further studies are necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms of disease progression. Transcriptome analysis has been increasingly used to identify molecular changes associated with disease outcomes. We thus assessed the whole-blood transcriptome of patients with Chagas disease. Microarray analysis was performed on blood samples from 150 subjects, of whom 30 were uninfected control patients and 120 had Chagas disease (1 group had asymptomatic disease, and 2 groups had CCC with either a preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]). Each Chagas disease group displayed distinct gene expression and functional pathway profiles. The most different expression patterns were between CCC groups with a preserved or reduced LVEF. A more stringent analysis indicated that 27 differentially expressed genes, particularly those related to natural killer (NK)/CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity, separated the 2 groups. NK/CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity could play a role in determining Chagas disease progression. Understanding genes associated with disease may lead to improved insight into CCC pathogenesis and the identification of prognostic factors for CCC progression.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/genética , Disfunção Ventricular/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/sangue , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/fisiopatologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Disfunção Ventricular/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular/parasitologia
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