Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 114
Filtrar
1.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398540

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Improved outcome has been shown in patients with synchronous oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (sOM-NSCLC) when treated with radical intent. As a uniform definition of sOM-NSCLC is lacking, we developed a definition and diagnostic criteria by a consensus process. METHODS: A pan-European multidisciplinary consensus group was established. Consensus questions were built based on current controversies, and definitions extracted from a survey, cases and a systematic review. This statement was formulated during a consensus meeting. RESULTS: Defining sOM-NSCLC Definition of sOM-NSCLC is relevant when a radical treatment is technically feasible for all tumor sites with acceptable toxicity, that may modify the disease course leading to long-term disease control. Based on the review, a maximum of 5 metastasesand 3 organs is proposed. Mediastinal lymph node involvement is not counted as a metastatic site. Staging of sOM-NSCLC A 18fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET-CT) and brain imaging were considered mandatory. A dedicated liver MRI is advised for a solitary liver metastasis, and thoracoscopy and biopsies of distant ipsilateral pleural sites for a solitary pleural metastasis. For mediastinal staging, a 18FDG-PET-CT is the minimum requirement, with pathological confirmation recommended if this influences the treatment strategy. Biopsy of a solitary metastatic location is mandated unless the multidisciplinary team is of the opinion that the risks outweigh the benefits. CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary consensus statement on the definition and staging of sOM-NSCLC has been formulated. This statement will help to standardise inclusion criteria in future clinical trials.

2.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273316

RESUMO

The percentage of sarcomatoid component has an impact on prognosis in patients with biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma. Recent study showed that the transitional pattern similar to sarcomatoid component of malignant mesothelioma has negative prognostic significance. Practice guidelines recommend quantification of sarcomatoid component despite poor diagnostic reproducibility of biphasic mesothelioma among thoracic pathologists. The aim of this study was to determine the interobserver agreement in the quantification of sarcomatoid component, and in the diagnosis of a transitional component in the biphasic malignant mesothelioma. Thirteen experts in thoracic pathology reviewed the representative H&E and cytokeratin whole-slide images of the 54 biphasic mesotheliomas, without knowledge of BAP1 or p16 deletion status, and completed the survey of 25 questions. The overall interobserver agreement in the assessment of the percentage of the sarcomatoid component in 25% increments was good (wK = 0.62). Excellent agreement was present in 14 of 54 cases (26%), and 3 cases were unanimously scored. Excellent agreement was reached for the cases with 0-24% and > 75% of the sarcomatoid component.The most commonly used criteria for the diagnosis of sarcomatoid component were malignant spindle cells, frank sarcomatoid features and high N/C ratio. The overall interobserver agreement for transitional pattern was fair (wK = 0.40). Unanimous opinion about the absence of transitional pattern was observed in only one case. At least 70% agreement regarding the presence of transitional pattern was observed in 12 cases, with the rest of the cases showing a wide range of disagreement. Morphologic characteristics that favor transitional pattern over non-transitional include sheet-like growth of cohesive, plump, elongated epithelioid cells with well-defined cell borders and a tendency to transition into spindle cells. Our study defined precise morphologic criteria that may be used in the differential diagnosis between transitional pattern and other mesothelioma subtypes including sarcomatoid and epithelioid.

3.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 20(5): e564-e575, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anticancer immune responses are negatively regulated by programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) T-cell membrane protein interaction with its ligand, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), on cancer cells. We sought to assess the prognostic role of PD-L1 expression in tumor samples from patients enrolled onto the IFCT-0701 MAPS randomized phase 3 trial (NCT00651456). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for percentages of PD-L1 membrane-stained tumor cells using the E1L3N clone, and data were correlated to survival by multivariate Cox models including stratification variables. RESULTS: PD-L1 staining was assessed in 214 (47.75%) of 448 patients. Epithelioid subtype represented 83.7% (179/214). Absence of PD-L1 staining occurred in 137 (64.1%) of 214 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) samples, while 77 (35.9%) of 214 were PD-L1 positive, with 50 (64.9%) of 77 showing < 50% PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. Sarcomatoid/biphasic subtypes were more commonly PD-L1 positive than epithelioid subtype (P < .001). In patients with 1% or more PD-L1-stained tumor cells, median overall survival (OS) was 12.3 months versus 22.2 months for other patients (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-1.67; P = .14). OS did not differ according to PD-L1 positivity in multivariate analyses (adjusted HR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.81-1.49; P = .55). With a 50% cutoff, PD-L1-positive patients displayed a 10.5 months median OS versus 19.3 months for patients with lower PD-L1 expression (HR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.27-2.93; P = .002). OS did not significantly differ in adjusted Cox models (adjusted HR = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.74-1.94; P = .47). In the 179 epithelioid MPM patients, high PD-L1 staining (≥ 50% of tumor cells) negatively affected OS, although not significantly, showing a 12.3-month median OS (95% CI, 4.3-21.6) versus 23-month (95% CI, 18.5-25.2) for patients with tumor PD-L1 staining in < 50% cells (P = .071). The progression-free survival (PFS) differences were statistically significant, with a longer 9.9-month median PFS in patients with low PD-L1 staining (< 50% cells) compared to 6.7 months of median PFS in patients with high PD-L1 expression (≥ 50% cells) (P = .0047). CONCLUSION: Although high PD-L1 tumor cell expression was associated with poorer OS in MPM patients from the MAPS trial, its prognostic influence was lost in multivariate analyses in the whole cohort, while PD-L1 expression was strongly associated with the sarcomatoid/biphasic subtypes. In the epithelioid MPM subset of patients, high PD-L1 tumor expression (≥ 50%) negatively affected OS and PFS, with this prognostic influence remaining statistically significant for PFS after adjustment in multivariate Cox model.

4.
Future Oncol ; 15(18): 2139-2149, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185741

RESUMO

Aim: We performed a clinical audit of the management of patients with EGFR mutations, 1 year after the introduction of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) in first-line treatment. Methods: Compliance was defined by tumor molecular profiling for stage IIIB and IV non-small-cell lung cancer and first-line treatment as recommended by the French guidelines. Results: Among the 169 EGFR-mutated patients, compliance was 76.4%. The most common noncompliance criterion was chemotherapy given in first-line treatment instead of EGFR-TKI. No dedicated multidisciplinary meeting and type of institutions were independent unfavorable predictors for compliance. Compliance to guidelines was significantly correlated with time-to-first subsequent treatment improvement (2.5 vs 9.1 months; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Implementation of new standards of care is challenging. Our results reinforce the role of multidisciplinary meetings to provide a better access to innovating therapeutics.

5.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(2): 239-253, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no recommended therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma that has progressed after first-line pemetrexed and platinum-based chemotherapy. Disease control has been less than 30% in all previous studies of second-line drugs. Preliminary results have suggested that anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody could be efficacious in these patients. We thus aimed to prospectively assess the anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody alone or in combination with anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 (CTLA-4) antibody in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: This multicentre randomised, non-comparative, open-label, phase 2 trial was done at 21 hospitals in France. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, histologically proven malignant pleural mesothelioma progressing after first-line or second-line pemetrexed and platinum-based treatments, measurable disease by CT, and life expectancy greater than 12 weeks. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive intravenous nivolumab (3 mg/kg bodyweight) every 2 weeks, or intravenous nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks) plus intravenous ipilimumab (1 mg/kg every 6 weeks), given until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Central randomisation was stratified by histology (epithelioid vs non-epithelioid), treatment line (second line vs third line), and chemosensitivity to previous treatment (progression ≥3 months vs <3 months after pemetrexed treatment) and used a minimisation method with a 0·8 random factor. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who achieved 12-week disease control, assessed by masked independent central review; the primary endpoint would be met if disease control was achieved in at least 40% of patients. The primary endpoint was assessed in the first 108 eligible patients. Efficacy analyses were also done in the intention-to-treat population and safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least one dose of their assigned treatment. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02716272. FINDINGS: Between March 24 and August 25, 2016, 125 eligible patients were recruited and assigned to either nivolumab (n=63) or nivolumab plus ipilimumab (n=62). In the first 108 eligible patients, 12-week disease control was achieved by 24 (44%; 95% CI 31-58) of 54 patients in the nivolumab group and 27 (50%; 37-63) of 54 patients in the nivolumab plus ipilimumab group. In the intention-to-treat population, 12-week disease control was achieved by 25 (40%; 28-52) of 63 patients in the nivolumab group and 32 (52%; 39-64) of 62 patients in the combination group. Nine (14%) of 63 patients in the nivolumab group and 16 (26%) of 61 patients in the combination group had grade 3-4 toxicities. The most frequent grade 3 adverse events were asthenia (one [2%] in the nivolumab group vs three [5%] in the combination group), asymptomatic increase in aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase (none vs four [7%] of each), and asymptomatic lipase increase (two [3%] vs one [2%]). No patients had toxicities leading to death in the nivolumab group, whereas three (5%) of 62 in the combination group did (one fulminant hepatitis, one encephalitis, and one acute kidney failure). INTERPRETATION: Anti-PD-1 nivolumab monotherapy or nivolumab plus anti-CTLA-4 ipilimumab combination therapy both showed promising activity in relapsed patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma, without unexpected toxicity. These regimens require confirmation in larger clinical trials. FUNDING: French Cooperative Thoracic Intergroup.

6.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(3): 377-407, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572031

RESUMO

Since the 2015 WHO classification was introduced into clinical practice, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has figured prominently in lung cancer diagnosis. In addition to distinction of small cell versus non-small cell carcinoma, patients' treatment of choice is directly linked to histologic subtypes of non-small cell carcinoma, which pertains to IHC results, particularly for poorly differentiated tumors. The use of IHC has improved diagnostic accuracy in the classification of lung carcinoma, but the interpretation of IHC results remains challenging in some instances. Also, pathologists must be aware of many interpretation pitfalls, and the use of IHC should be efficient to spare the tissue for molecular testing. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Pathology Committee received questions on practical application and interpretation of IHC in lung cancer diagnosis. After discussions in several International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Pathology Committee meetings, the issues and caveats were summarized in terms of 11 key questions covering common and important diagnostic situations in a daily clinical practice with some relevant challenging queries. The questions cover topics such as the best IHC markers for distinguishing NSCLC subtypes, differences in thyroid transcription factor 1 clones, and the utility of IHC in diagnosing uncommon subtypes of lung cancer and distinguishing primary from metastatic tumors. This article provides answers and explanations for the key questions about the use of IHC in diagnosis of lung carcinoma, representing viewpoints of experts in thoracic pathology that should assist the community in the appropriate use of IHC in diagnostic pathology.

7.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451731

RESUMO

SMARCA4-deficient thoracic sarcoma (SMARCA4-DTS) is a recently described entity with an aggressive clinical course and specific genetic alterations of the BAF chromatin remodeling complex. In the present study, we reviewed the clinical and pathologic features of 30 cases of SMARCA4-DTS, discussed its main differential diagnoses and the challenging diagnostic scenarios that the average pathologist may face. In addition, we tested the specificity of the "SMARCA4-DTS immunohistochemical signature" (co-loss of SMARCA4 and SMARCA2 with overexpression of SOX2) in a large cohort of intrathoracic malignancies. Patients ranged from 28 to 90 years of age (median: 48 y), with a marked male predominance (male:female=9:1) and they were usually smokers. Tumors were generally large compressive masses located in the mediastinum (n=13), pleura (n=5), lung (n=2) or in 2 or more of these topographies (n=10). Treatment strategies were varied, including 1 case treated with EZH2 inhibitors. Median overall survival was 6 months. Histologically, tumors were poorly differentiated frequently showing rhabdoid features. A subset of cases showed a focal myxoid stroma (7%, n=2/30) and rare cases displayed a previously unreported pattern simulating desmoplastic small round cell tumors (7%, n=2/30). Making a diagnosis was challenging when dealing with biopsy material from massively necrotic tumors and in this setting the expression of SOX2, CD34, and SALL4 proved useful. All tested cases displayed concomitant loss of SMARCA4 and SMARCA2 and most tumors expressed epithelial markers (Pan-keratin or EMA) (n=29/30), SOX2 (n=26/27), and CD34 (n=17/27). SMARCB1 expression was retained in all cases (23/23). SALL4 and Claudin-4 were expressed in a subset of cases (n=7/21 and 2/19, respectively). TTF-1 and P63 were focally expressed in 1 case each. P40 and NUT were not expressed (0/23 and 0/20, respectively) The SMARCA4-DTS immunohistochemical signature was both sensitive and specific, with only a subset of small cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcemic type showing overlapping phenotypes. Our study confirms and expands the specific features of SMARCA4-DTS, emphasizing the fact that they can be straightforwardly identified by pathologists.

8.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(9): 874, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158588

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mediates innate immune responses by sensing viral dsRNA, but also induces apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. Our analysis by immunohistochemistry revealed that TLR3 is frequently overexpressed in 130 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients' samples compared with normal bronchial epithelium (P < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney test), supporting the therapeutic potential of TLR3 ligand for this type of cancer. However, a proportion of TLR3-expressing cancer cell lines, including NSCLC, remain resistant to TLR3-mediated apoptosis, and the underlying mechanism of resistance remains unclear. We here investigated the molecular basis conferring resistance to non-transformed vs. transformed cells against TLR3-mediated cell death. In non-transformed epithelial cells cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) and cellular Inhibitor of APoptosis (cIAPs) ubiquitin ligases exerted an efficient double brake on apoptosis signaling. In contrast, releasing only one of these two brakes was sufficient to overcome the resistance of 8/8 cancer cell lines tested. Remarkably, the release of the c-FLIP, but not cIAPs, brake only results in the sensitization of all human cancer cells to TLR3-mediated apoptosis. Taking advantage of the difference between transformed and non-transformed cells, we developed a rational strategy by combining the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel, which decreases c-FLIP expression, with TLR3 ligand. This combination was highly synergistic for triggering apoptosis in cancer cells but not in non-transformed cells. In vivo, the combination of paclitaxel with dsRNA delayed tumor growth and prolonged survival in a mouse xenograft lung tumor model. In conclusion, combining the release of the c-FLIP brake with TLR3 ligand synergizes to selectively kill cancer cells, and could represent an efficient and safe therapy against TLR3-expressing cancers such as NSCLC.

9.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(12): 1962-1967, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149144

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: MNNG HOS transforming gene (MET) abnormalities such as amplification and exon 14 mutations may be responsive to targeted therapies. They are prevalent in lung sarcomatoid carcinomas (LSCs) and must be diagnosed as efficiently as possible. Hypothetically, c-MET overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) may prove effective as a screening test for MET abnormalities. METHODS: Tissue samples were obtained from consecutive patients with a resected LSC in four oncologic centers. IHC was performed using the SP44 antibody (Ventana, Tucson, Arizona) and evaluated using the MetMab score and H-score. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied with the dual color probe set from Zytovision (Clinisciences, Nanterre, France). True MET amplification was diagnosed when MET gene copy number was 5 or greater and the ratio between MET gene copy number and chromosome 7 number was greater than 2. All MET exon 14 alterations including those affecting splice sites occurring within splice donor and acceptor sites were detected in the routine molecular testing on genetic platforms. RESULTS: A total of 81 LSCs were included. Fourteen (17%) exhibited positive IHC using the MetMab score and 15 (18.5%) using the H-score. MET amplification was detected in six tumors (8.5%) and MET exon 14 mutation in five (6%). A weak positive correlation between IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization was found (r = 0.27, p = 0.0001). IHC sensitivity for MET amplification was 50%, with a specificity of 83%, positive predictive value of 21.4%, and negative predictive value of 94.7%. IHC sensitivity for MET exon 14 mutations was 20%, with a specificity of 83%, positive predictive value of 7%, and negative predictive value of 94%. CONCLUSION: IHC is not a relevant screening tool for MET abnormalities in LSC.

10.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(9): 1302-1311, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Blueprint (BP) Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Immunohistochemistry Comparability Project is a pivotal academic/professional society and industrial collaboration to assess the feasibility of harmonizing the clinical use of five independently developed commercial PD-L1 immunohistochemistry assays. The goal of BP phase 2 (BP2) was to validate the results obtained in BP phase 1 by using real-world clinical lung cancer samples. METHODS: BP2 were conducted using 81 lung cancer specimens of various histological and sample types, stained with all five trial-validated PD-L1 assays (22C3, 28-8, SP142, SP263, and 73-10); the slides were evaluated by an international panel of pathologists. BP2 also assessed the reliability of PD-L1 scoring by using digital images, and samples prepared for cytological examination. PD-L1 expression was assessed for percentage (tumor proportional score) of tumor cell (TC) and immune cell areas showing PD-L1 staining, with TCs scored continuously or categorically with the cutoffs used in checkpoint inhibitor trials. RESULTS: The BP2 results showed highly comparable staining by the 22C3, 28-8 and SP263 assays; less sensitivity with the SP142 assay; and higher sensitivity with the 73-10 assay to detect PD-L1 expression on TCs. Glass slide and digital image scorings were highly concordant (Pearson correlation >0.96). There was very strong reliability among pathologists in TC PD-L1 scoring with all assays (overall intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.86-0.93), poor reliability in IC PD-L1 scoring (overall ICC = 0.18-0.19), and good agreement in assessing PD-L1 status on cytological cell block materials (ICC = 0.78-0.85). CONCLUSION: BP2 consolidates the analytical evidence for interchangeability of the 22C3, 28-8, and SP263 assays and lower sensitivity of the SP142 assay for determining tumor proportion score on TCs and demonstrates greater sensitivity of the 73-10 assay compared with that of the other assays.

11.
Ann Pathol ; 38(2): 110-125, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571563

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in France with low response rates to conventional chemotherapy. Nevertheless, new therapies have emerged recently, among which PD1 immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), such as nivolumab (OPDIVO®, Bristol-Myers Squibb) and pembrolizumab (KEYTRUDA®, Merck & Co), or PD-L1 ICI, such as atezolizumab (TECENTRIQ®, Genentech), durvalumab (IMFINZI®, Astra-Zeneca), and avelumab (BAVENCIO®, EMD Serono). The prescription of pembrolizumab for advanced stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients requires the demonstration of PD-L1 expression by tumor cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC) (minimum of 50% of positive tumor cells is required for first-line setting, and of 1% for second-line and beyond) and PD-L1 assay is now considered as a companion diagnostic tool for this drug. Numerous standardized PD-L1 assays performed on dedicated platforms have been validated in clinical trials, each antibody being associated to one specific PD1 or PD-L1 inhibitor. However, not all pathologists have access to the dedicated platforms and the high cost of these assays is still a limitation to their implementation; in addition, the small size of the NSCLC tumor samples does not allow to perform at the same time multiple assays for multiple drugs. The use of laboratory-developed tests seems feasible but their validation must guarantee the same sensitivities and specificities as standardized tests. In this context, the French group of thoracic pathologists PATTERN has teamed up with thoracic oncologists to provide recommendations on the indication, the critical technical steps and the interpretation of the PD-L1 IHC test to help pathologists to implement quickly and in the best conditions this new theranostic test.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1048, 2018 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535388

RESUMO

Pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs) have similarities with other lung cancers, but their precise relationship has remained unclear. Here we perform a comprehensive genomic (n = 60) and transcriptomic (n = 69) analysis of 75 LCNECs and identify two molecular subgroups: "type I LCNECs" with bi-allelic TP53 and STK11/KEAP1 alterations (37%), and "type II LCNECs" enriched for bi-allelic inactivation of TP53 and RB1 (42%). Despite sharing genomic alterations with adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, no transcriptional relationship was found; instead LCNECs form distinct transcriptional subgroups with closest similarity to SCLC. While type I LCNECs and SCLCs exhibit a neuroendocrine profile with ASCL1high/DLL3high/NOTCHlow, type II LCNECs bear TP53 and RB1 alterations and differ from most SCLC tumors with reduced neuroendocrine markers, a pattern of ASCL1low/DLL3low/NOTCHhigh, and an upregulation of immune-related pathways. In conclusion, LCNECs comprise two molecularly defined subgroups, and distinguishing them from SCLC may allow stratified targeted treatment of high-grade neuroendocrine lung tumors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Técnicas In Vitro , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética
13.
Cancer Lett ; 420: 146-155, 2018 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421153

RESUMO

Many Receptor Tyrosine Kinases translocate from the cell surface to the nucleus in normal and pathological conditions, including cancer. Here we report the nuclear expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) in primary human lung tumours. Using lung cancer cell lines and lung tumour xenografts, we demonstrate that the epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) gefitinib induces the nuclear accumulation of IGF1R in mucinous lung adenocarcinoma by a mechanism involving the intracellular re-localization of the growth factor amphiregulin. Amphiregulin allows the binding of IGF1R to importin-ß1 and promotes its nuclear transport. The nuclear accumulation of IGF1R by amphiregulin induces cell cycle arrest through p21WAF1/CIP1 upregulation, and prevents the induction of apoptosis in response to gefitinib. These results identify amphiregulin as the first nuclear localization signal-containing protein that interacts with IGF1R and allows its nuclear translocation. Furthermore they indicate that nuclear expression of IGF1R contributes to EGFR-TKI resistance in lung cancer.

14.
Lung Cancer ; 116: 15-24, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29413046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was firstly to assess in a clinical setting the yields of an amplicon-based parallel RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) assay for ALK fusion transcript variants detection in comparison with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) in a selected population of ALK-positive and ALK-negative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, and secondly to evaluate the impact of the ALK variant on crizotinib efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cohort used for the assessment of the RNA-seq assay comprised 53 samples initially diagnosed as being ALK-positive based on the results obtained by IHC and/or FISH, and 23 ALK-negative samples. A distinction was made between 'truly' IHC/FISH positive or 'truly' IHC/FISH negative samples, and those for which the IHC and/or FISH were equivocal (IHC) or borderline-positive (FISH). RESULTS: On the overall population, RNA-seq sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Spe) were of 80% and 100%, respectively when IHC and FISH were combined. For the 31 'truly positive' samples, Se and Spe of 100% were reached. An ALK status could be assigned by RNA-seq in 10/10 of the equivocal and/or borderline-positive IHC/FISH cases, 2/7 IHC/FISH discordant cases. When crizotinib efficacy was evaluated according to the type of ALK variant, better clinical outcomes were observed in crizotinib-treated patients with EML4-ALK v1/v2/others variants compared to v3a/b variants. CONCLUSION: RNA-seq detects ALK rearrangements with a high sensitivity and specificity using only 10 ng of RNA. It appears to be a promising rescue technique for non-clear-cut IHC/FISH cases and also offers a unique opportunity to identify ALK fusion variants and evaluate their predictive value for ALK inhibitors efficacy.

15.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(6): 752-766, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454048

RESUMO

Carcinoids and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs) are rare neuroendocrine lung tumors. Here we provide an overview of the most updated data on the molecular characteristics of these diseases. Recent genomic studies showed that carcinoids generally contain a low mutational burden and few recurrently mutated genes. Most of the reported mutations occur in chromatin-remodeling genes (e.g., menin 1 gene [MEN1]), and few affect genes of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mechanistic target of rapamycin gene pathway. Aggressive disease has been related to chromothripsis, DNA-repair gene mutations, loss of orthopedia homeobox/CD44, and upregulation of ret proto-oncogene gene (RET) gene expression. In the case of LCNECs, which present with a high mutation burden, two major molecular subtypes have been identified: one with biallelic inactivation of tumor protein p53 gene (TP53) and retinoblastoma gene (RB1), a hallmark of SCLC; and the other one with biallelic inactivation of TP53 and serine/threonine kinase 11 gene (STK11)/kelch like ECH associated protein 1 gene (KEAP1), genes that are frequently mutated in NSCLC. These data, together with the identification of common mutations in the different components of combined LCNEC tumors, provide further evidence of the close molecular relation of LCNEC with other lung tumor types. In terms of therapeutic options, future studies should explore the association between mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway mutations and response to mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors in carcinoids. For LCNEC, preliminary data suggest that the two molecular subtypes might have a predictive value for chemotherapy response, but this observation needs to be validated in randomized prospective clinical trials. Finally, delta like Notch canonical ligand 3 inhibitors and immunotherapy may provide alternative options for patient-tailored therapy in LCNEC.

16.
Eur J Cancer ; 93: 37-46, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain metastases (BM) are frequent in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but there is a lack of evidence-based management of this patient group. We aimed to capture a snapshot of routine BM management in Europe to identify relevant research questions for future clinical trials. METHODS: An EORTC Lung Cancer Group (LCG) online survey containing questions on NSCLC BM screening and treatment was distributed between 16/02/17 and 15/06/17 to worldwide EORTC LCG members, and through several European scientific societies in the thoracic oncology field. RESULTS: A total of 462 European physician responses (394 institutions) were analysed (radiation oncologist: 53% [n = 247], pulmonologist: 26% [n = 119], medical oncologist: 18% [n = 84]; 84% with >5 years' experience in NSCLC). Italy (18%, n = 85), Netherlands (15%, n = 68), UK (14%, n = 66), and France (12%, n = 55) contributed most. 393 physicians (85%) screened neurologically asymptomatic patients for BM at diagnosis (52% using magnetic resonance imaging). Most often screened patients were those with a driver mutation (MUT+; 51%, n = 234), stage III (63%, n = 289), and IV (43%, n = 199). 158 physicians (34%) used a prognostic classification to guide initial treatment decisions, and in 50%, lowest prognostic-score threshold to receive treatment differed between MUT+ and non-driver mutation (MUT-) patients. MUT+ patients with >4 BM were more likely to receive stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) compared with MUT- (27% versus. 21%; p < 0.01). Most physicians (90%) had access to SRS. After single BM surgery, 50% systematically prescribed SRS or WBRT, and 45% only in case of incomplete resection. The preferred treatment in neurologically asymptomatic treatment-naive patients diagnosed with >5 BM was systemic treatment (79%). Of all, 45%/49% physicians stated that all tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockers were discontinued (timing varied) during SRS/WBRT, respectively. Drugs most often continued during SRS/WBRT were erlotinib (44%/40%), gefitinib (39%/34%), afatinib (29%/25%), crizotinib (33%/26%) and anti-PD-(L)-1 (28%/22%). CONCLUSION: BM management is highly variable in Europe: screening is not uniform, prognostic classifications are not often used and MUT+ NSCLC patients generally receive more intensive local treatment. Prospective assessment of BM management in MUT+ NSCLC patients is required.

17.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(2): 205-217, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127023

RESUMO

Multiple tumor nodules are seen with increasing frequency in clinical practice. On the basis of the 2015 WHO classification of lung tumors, we assessed the reproducibility of the comprehensive histologic assessment to distinguish second primary lung cancers (SPLCs) from intrapulmonary metastases (IPMs), looking for the most distinctive histologic features. An international panel of lung pathologists reviewed a scanned sequential cohort of 126 tumors from 48 patients and recorded an agreed set of histologic features, including tumor typing and predominant pattern of adenocarcinoma, thereby opining whether the case was SPLC, IPM, or a combination thereof. Cohen κ statistics of 0.60 on overall assessment of SPLC or IPM indicated a good agreement. Likewise, there was good agreement (κ score 0.64, p < 0.0001) between WHO histologic pattern in individual cases and SPLC or IPM status, but the proportions diversified for histologic pattern and SPLC or IPM status (McNemar test, p < 0.0001). The strongest associations for distinguishing between SPLC and IPM were observed for nuclear pleomorphism, cell size, acinus formation, nucleolar size, mitotic rate, nuclear inclusions, intraalveolar clusters, and necrosis. Conversely, the associations for lymphocytosis, mucin content, lepidic growth, vascular invasion, macrophage response, clear cell change, acute inflammation keratinization, and emperipolesis did not reach significance with tumor extent. Comprehensive histologic assessment is recommended for distinguishing SPLC from IPM with good reproducibility among lung pathologists. In addition to main histologic type and predominant patterns of histologic subtypes, nuclear pleomorphism, cell size, acinus formation, nucleolar size, and mitotic rate strongly correlate with pathologic staging status.

18.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 142(2): 253-262, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28639854

RESUMO

CONTEXT: - Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has emerged as a very useful tool in the field of diagnostic respiratory cytology. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of EBUS-TBNA not only has the potential to improve diagnostic yield of the procedure but also to triage samples for predictive molecular testing to guide personalized treatments for lung cancer. OBJECTIVE: - To provide an overview of the current status of the literature regarding ROSE of EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of lung cancer. DATA SOURCES: - An electronic literature search in PubMed and Google databases was performed using the following key words: cytology, lung cancer, on-site evaluation, rapid on-site evaluation, and ROSE EBUS-TBNA. Only articles published in English were included in this review. CONCLUSIONS: - Rapid on-site evaluation can ensure that the targeted lesion is being sampled and can enable appropriate specimen triage. If available, it should be used with EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of lung cancer because it can minimize repeat procedures for additional desired testing (ie, molecular studies). Some studies have shown that ROSE does not adversely affect the number of aspirations, total procedure time of EBUS-TBNA, or the rate of postprocedure complications; it is also helpful in providing a preliminary diagnosis that can reduce the number of additional invasive procedures, such as mediastinoscopy. As EBUS technology continues to evolve, our knowledge of the role of ROSE in EBUS-TBNA for the diagnosis of lung cancer will also continue to grow and evolve.

19.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 142(3): 408-419, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28686497

RESUMO

The use of immunohistochemistry for the determination of pulmonary carcinoma biomarkers is a well-established and powerful technique. Immunohistochemisty is readily available in pathology laboratories, is relatively easy to perform and assess, can provide clinically meaningful results very quickly, and is relatively inexpensive. Pulmonary predictive biomarkers provide results essential for timely and accurate therapeutic decision making; for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, predictive immunohistochemistry includes ALK and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) (ROS1, EGFR in Europe) testing. Handling along proper methodologic lines is needed to ensure patients receive the most accurate and representative test outcomes.

20.
Eur Respir Rev ; 26(144)2017 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28659503

RESUMO

The pathological and molecular classification of lung cancer has become substantially more complex over the past decade. For diagnostic purposes on small samples, additional stains are frequently required to distinguish between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Subsequently, for advanced nonsquamous cell nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients, predictive analyses on epidermal growth factor receptor, anaplastic lymphoma kinase and ROS1 are required. In NSCLCs negative for these biomarkers, programmed death ligand-1 immunohistochemistry is performed. Small samples (biopsy and cytology) require "tissue" management, which is best achieved by the interaction of all physicians involved.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico , Antígeno B7-H1/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biópsia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/química , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA