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1.
Heart Fail Rev ; 27(1): 119-134, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500365

RESUMO

Therapeutic intervention for prostate cancer mostly relies on eliminating circulating androgen or antagonizing its effect at the cellular level. As the use of endocrine therapies grows, an under-reported incidence of cardiovascular toxicities occurs in prostate cancer patients. In this review, we summarize data of clinical studies, investigating the cardiovascular and metabolic alterations associated with the use of old and new endocrine drugs (gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH] agonists and antagonists, androgen receptor inhibitors, 17α-hydroxylase/c-17,20-lyase [CYP17] inhibitor) in prostate cancer. To date, studies looking for links between cardiovascular complications and hormone-mediated therapies in prostate cancer have reached conflicting results. Several confounding factors, such as age of patients and related cardiovascular liability, other comorbidities, and use of concomitant drugs, have to be carefully evaluated in future clinical trials. Further research is needed given the continuous advancements being made in prostate cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias da Próstata , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico
2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(12)2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949695

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immunotherapy has shown activity in patients with brain metastases (BM) and leptomeningeal disease (LMD). We have evaluated LMD and intraparenchymal control rates for patients with resected BM receiving postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and immunotherapy or postoperative SRS alone. We hypothesize that postoperative SRS and immunotherapy will result in a lower rate of LMD with acceptable toxicity compared with postoperative SRS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and melanoma BM who received postoperative fractionated SRS (fSRS; 3×9 Gy) in combination with immunotherapy or postoperative fSRS alone for completely resected BM were retrospectively evaluated. The primary endpoint of the study was the rate of LMD after treatments. The secondary endpoints were local failure, distant brain parenchymal failure (DBF), overall survival (OS), and treatment-related toxicity. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients received postoperative SRS and immunotherapy, either nivolumab or pembrolizumab, and 66 patients received postoperative SRS alone to the resection cavity. With a median follow-up of 15 months, LMD occurred in 19 patients: fSRS group, 14; fSRS and immunotherapy, 5. The 12-month LMD cumulative rates were 22% (95% CI 14% to 37%) in the fSRS group and 6% (95% CI 2% to 17%) in the combined treatment group (p=0.007). Resection cavity control was similar between the groups, whereas DBF and OS were significantly different; the 1-year DBF rates were 31% (95% CI 20% to 46%) in the fSRS and immunotherapy group and 52% (95% CI 39% to 68%) in the fSRS group; respective OS rates were 78% (95% CI 67% to 88%) and 58.7% (95% CI 47% to 70%). Twenty-two patients undergoing postoperative fSRS and immunotherapy and nine subjected to postoperative fSRS experienced treatment-related imaging changes suggestive of radiation-induced brain necrosis (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative fSRS in combination with immunotherapy decreases the incidence of LMD and DBF in patients with resected BM from NSCLC and melanoma as compared with fSRS alone, reducing the rate of neurological death and prolonging survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Meníngeas/complicações , Neoplasias Meníngeas/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 160: 103282, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675905

RESUMO

Oncological patients increasingly require second medical opinions to feel more likely confident with their oncologists and treatments, although this could lead to wrong opinions and delay in the start of treatments. Second opinions can be required also by physicians to obtain advices, especially in case of rare tumors. The request of new opinions is documented in radiology and pathology settings too, with not negligible discrepancy rate. Conversely, the role in general medical/surgical conditions has not been well established. Literature is poor of studies relative to second opinions or they are more focused on patient's motivations. For these reasons, AIOM (Italian Association of Medical Oncology) and AIOM Foundation faced this topic during the 7th Annual Meeting on Ethics in Oncology (Ragusa, 4-5 t h May 2018). In this position paper we report reasons, limits, advantages and outcomes of second medical opinion and the respective Decalogue in the oncological setting.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Médicos , Humanos , Itália , Encaminhamento e Consulta
4.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 119, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The response to immunotherapy can be impaired by several factors including external intervention such as drug interactions with immune system. We aimed to examine the immunomodulatory action of opioids, since immune cells express opioid receptors able to negatively influence their activities. METHODS: This observational, multicenter, retrospective study, recruited patients with different metastatic solid tumors, who have received immunotherapy between September 2014 and September 2019. Immunotherapy was administered according to the standard schedule approved for each primary tumor and line of treatment. The concomitant intake of antibiotics, antifungals, corticosteroids and opioids were evaluated in all included patients. The relationship between tumor response to immunotherapy and the oncological outcomes were evaluated. A multivariate Cox-proportional hazard model was used to identify independent prognostic factors for survival. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-three patients were recruited. Overall, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly shorter in those patients taking opioids than in those who didn't (median PFS, 3 months vs. 19 months, HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.37-2.09, p < 0.0001; median OS, 4 months vs. 35 months, HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.26-2.02, p < 0.0001). In addition, PFS and OS were significantly impaired in those patients taking corticosteroids, antibiotics or antifungals, in those patients with an ECOG PS ≥ 1 and in patients with a high tumor burden. Using the multivariate analyses, opioids and ECOG PS were independent prognostic factors for PFS, whereas only ECOG PS resulted to be an independent prognostic factor for OS, with trend toward significance for opioids as well as tumor burden. DISCUSSION: Our study suggests that the concomitant administration of drugs as well as some clinical features could negatively predict the outcomes of cancer patients receiving immunotherapy. In particular, opioids use during immunotherapy is associated with early progression, potentially representing a predictive factor for PFS and negatively influencing OS as well. CONCLUSIONS: A possible negative drug interaction able to impair the immune response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents has been highlighted. Our findings suggest the need to further explore the impact of opioids on immune system modulation and their role in restoring the response to immunotherapy treatment, thereby improving patients' outcomes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
J Neurol ; 268(8): 2866-2875, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant gliomas (MG) are aggressive brain tumours in adults. The standard of care is concurrent radiation plus temozolomide (TMZ) [chemo-radiotherapy (CRT)] followed by TMZ maintenance up to 6 months. TMZ is considered to have a low toxicity profile, but several studies reported occurrence of severe myelosuppression, especially during the concomitant phase. Toxicity may be prolonged, thus treatment should be discontinued. PURPOSE: To evaluate the risk of recurrente myelotoxicity during adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) in patients who recovered from severe myelotoxicity during CRT. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on patients with MG who developed and recovered from severe myelotoxicity during CRT from eight Italian neuro-oncology centers. RESULTS: We included 87 patients. Histology was Glioblastoma (GBM) in 78 patients (89.7%); 60% of patients were female. After myelotoxicity recovery, 54 (62%) received treatment. The majority of them (82%, n = 44) received adjuvant TMZ and 18% (n = 10) others treatments. Out of 44 patients who received adjuvant TMZ, 34% experienced the re-occurrence of grade 3-4 myelotoxicity which required permanent CT discontinuation in 6 (13%) cases. Patients who received TMZ or other treatments had longer overall (OS) (adjusted HR 0.46, p = 0.008) and progression free survival (PFS) (adjusted HR 0.57, p = 0.034) than those who remained untreated. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that after severe myelotoxicity the majority of patients received treatment, particularly with TMZ. Only a fraction of patients experienced toxicity recurrence, suggesting that TMZ is well tolerated and had an impact on PFS and OS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Quimiorradioterapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Dacarbazina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Itália , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Bone Oncol ; 26: 100341, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33425672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone remodeling is disrupted in metastatic disease, which affects > 70% of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. As a result, abnormal levels of specific bone turnover biomarkers (BTMs) are released. In this prospective ancillary analysis of the Italian real-world study ABITUDE, four markers were measured during abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (AAP) treatment in chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC men failing androgen-deprivation therapy. METHODS: Patients were enrolled if a blood sample was obtained before the first administration of abiraterone (baseline); ad-hoc blood samples were withdrawn during routine tests after 3, 6, and 12 months. A centralized lab measured bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP, osteoblast activity marker), type-I collagen-C-telopeptide (CTX-1, bone resorption marker), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D (vitD). At each time point, intra-patient variations vs baseline were compared by the signed-rank test (statistical significance: P-value < 0.05). RESULTS: Of 481 patients enrolled in ABITUDE, 186 (median age: 76 [range: 53-93] years) met the substudy criteria: 74.7% had bone metastases, 11.8% were on bone-targeted therapies (BTT) and 14.0% on vitD supplementation. BALP decreased significantly at month 6 (P = 0.0010) and 12 (P < 0.0001) and CTX-1 at month 6 (P = 0.0028); PTH increased at month 3 (P < 0.0001); no significant difference in vitD levels was observed. Similar findings were observed in BTT-untreated patients. The reduction in BALP and CTX-1 levels was more pronounced in patients with than without bone metastases; in the latter group, no significant variation in BALP and CTX-1 levels was observed. CONCLUSIONS: AAP seems to exert an effect on the microenvironment of metastatic but not of normal bone, which likely contributes to its antitumoral activity.

7.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(3): e13703, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926579

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to compare patients' global impression (PGI) and the achievement of personalised symptom goal response (PSGR), after a comprehensive palliative care treatment in advanced cancer patients having high (HPSG) and low symptom goals (LPSG). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Advanced cancer patients admitted to palliative care units rated symptoms intensity by the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Score (ESAS) at admission and then after one week of comprehensive palliative care treatment. For each symptom, patients were divided into two groups, according to their patient symptom goal (PSG): ≥4 (HPSG), and 0-2 (LPSG). PGI and PSGR were evaluated after one week of palliative care. The Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) was assessed at admission. RESULTS: After one week of palliative care, changes in ESAS items were significantly larger in the HPSG group. HPSG patients had a better PGI and reached their target more frequently than LPSG patients for pain, weakness, and poor well-being. LPSG patients were more likely to obtain their target for appetite and insomnia. HPSG patients were more likely to have a lower Karnofsky, a lower educational level, older age, or higher MDAS values for the different ESAS items. CONCLUSION: Advanced cancer patients with low expectations (HPSG) were more likely to achieve their PSGR after a comprehensive palliative care treatment, reporting also a better PGI for some leading symptoms such as pain, weakness, and poor well-being. More fragile patients seem to have lower expectations and to be more likely to be satisfied.


Assuntos
Motivação , Neoplasias , Idoso , Hospitalização , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos , Avaliação de Sintomas
9.
Recenti Prog Med ; 110(7): 338-342, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379368

RESUMO

Until recently, conclusive data on clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapy of the opioid-induced constipation (OIC) were not available. Lately, some phase II and III prospective studies, evaluating the efficay of several old and new laxatives in cancer and non-cancer patients, make their mechanisms of action easier to understand and lead healthcare institutions to determine homogeneous guidelines for OIC, with the use of diagnostic and treatment algorithms. On May 2018, management recommendations from a panel of 7 European experts on OIC was published on United European Gastroenterology Journal. They discussed on different aspects of OIC: (a) definitions and diagnostic criteria; (b) pathophysiology; (c) clinical evaluation; (d) patient reported outcome measures; (e) initial standard laxatives; (f) specific treatments; (g) pragmatic recommendations. Later, a multi-disciplinary panel consisting of experts in neurogastroenterology, oncology and palliative medicine gave their external input. This statement will help clinicians to harmoniously treat OIC, according to clear guidelines, resulted from phase II and III prospective studies. Nevertheless, the constipation is rarely due to opioids consumption alone. More often, different factors contribute to induce constipation, including diet, immobility, other drugs, pain during evacuation, comorbidities, gastrointestinal obstacles, especially in advanced cancer patients. Therefore, management of OIC always needs to be tailored to the individual patient based on their overall clinical picture.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Laxantes/administração & dosagem , Constipação Induzida por Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Constipação Induzida por Opioides/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
10.
Lung Cancer ; 132: 119-125, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097084

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to investigate clinical outcomes in patients with large brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received surgical resection and postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery or SRS alone. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-two patients with 241 large brain metastases (2-4 cm in size) who received surgery and multi-fraction SRS (mfSRS) to the resection cavity or mfSRS alone were analyzed. For all lesions the delivered dose was 3 x 9 Gy over three consecutive days. Primary endpoint of the study was local control (LC). Secondary endpoints included early improvement of neurological deficits, changes in performance status, treatment-related toxicity, radiation-induced brain necrosis (RN), distant brain failure (DBF), and overall survival (OS). Kaplan-Meier analysis and cumulative incidence function were used for comparing the probability of failure. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 13 months, median OS times and 1-year survival rates were comparable: 13.5 months and 59% for patients receiving surgery and postoperative mfSRS to the resection cavity and 15.2 months and 68% for those treated with mfSRS alone (p = 0.2). Median DBF did not differ significantly between groups (surgery and mfSRS,12 months; mfSRS,14 months). Eighteen patients receiving surgery and mfSRS and 17 patients treated with mfSRS alone recurred locally (p = 0.2); respective 6-month and 12-month LC rates were 87% and 83% and 96% and 91% (p = 0.15). The 1-year cumulative incidence rates of RN were 15% and 7% after postoperative mfSRS and mfSRS alone (p = 0.03), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, mfSRS is an effective treatment for patients with large brain metastases from NSCLC resulting in equivalent LC and lower RN and risk of leptomeningeal spread compared to surgery and mf-SRS to the resection cavity. Surgery is an effective treatment option for patients with large symptomatic brain metastases who require rapid relief of neurological symptoms caused by tumor mass effect.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Encéfalo/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/cirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Carcinomatose Meníngea , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Curr Probl Cancer ; 43(6): 100479, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126661

RESUMO

In recent years, we have witnessed a growing interest in the prevention of the loss of reproductive efficacy in young women as a result of cancer or its treatments. Indeed, recent studies have shown that loss of fertility impacts deeply on young women and sometimes may be even more stressful than the cancer diagnosis itself. In fact, the risk of treatment-associated infertility and premature menopause is a major concern for patients. Nevertheless, the approach to fertility preservation in women diagnosed with cancer is far from being standardized, and counseling strategies are poorly adopted in clinical practice. In Italy, the federal structure of public health makes it difficult to refer patients to local referral centers experienced in fertility preservation. In particular, a need exists to identify oncologists in the Lazio region specialized in fertility preservation and those facilities who are able to counsel patients regarding their sexuality. For these reasons, the Lazio section of Italian Association of Medical Oncology has led an oncofertility and oncosexuality survey to assess deficiencies in the path to start fertility preservation procedures and to help patients with cancer-related sexual problems. In total, 273 healthcare providers participated in the survey. Overall, the participants had a low interest in their patients' infertility problems, which led to a poor referral of patients to fertility preservation centers. This behavior demonstrated by healthcare providers is attributed to the necessity to rapidly start oncological treatments, the lack of knowledge of referral centers, and the little experience in tackling the subject with the patients. The interviewees also recognize communication difficulties related to lack of information on issues, absence of rehabilitations paths, and embarrassment.


Assuntos
Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Infertilidade Feminina/prevenção & controle , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Especialização , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Tumori ; 105(2): 103-112, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157701

RESUMO

A consensus document on early palliative care was produced by a committed Working Group of the Italian Society of Medical Oncology and the Italian Society of Palliative Care to improve the early integration of palliative care in medical oncology and to stimulate and guide the choices of those who daily face the problems of advanced stage cancer patients. The simultaneous administration of antineoplastic treatments and early palliative care was shown to be beneficial in metastatic cancer pathway outcomes. Patients who could benefit from early palliative care are those with an advanced cancer at presentation, a compromised PS for cancer, and/or morbidities, and who are too frail to receive treatment. According to the Bruera practice models, in which the combination of cancer management with early palliative care can be offered, three groups of patients needing simultaneous care were identified and three different models of the delivery of palliative care were proposed. In patients with good prognosis and low need of simultaneous care, the solo practice model and the request for consultations were suggested, while in patients with poor prognosis disease with high need of simultaneous care and in conditions with high need of simultaneous care, regardless of cancer prognosis, the integrated care approach should be offered. Palliative care consultation services are seldom accessible in the majority of Italian hospitals; thus the application of various practice models depends on available resources, and a shared care model with the structures of palliative care operating in the area is often required.


Assuntos
Oncologia/métodos , Oncologia/normas , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Humanos , Itália
14.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 57(1): 79-85, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical response after comprehensive symptom management is difficult to determine in terms of a clinically important difference. Moreover, therapies should try to reach the threshold perceived by the individual patient for the determination of a favorable response to a treatment. MEASURES: The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Score (ESAS) was measured at admission (T0), and seven days after starting palliative care (T7). Patient Global Impression and Goal Response after one week of palliative care and its relation with the Personalized Dyspnea Goal were measured at T7. INTERVENTION: Patients admitted to palliative care units underwent a comprehensive symptom assessment by a specialist palliative care team. At T0, patients were asked about their Personalized Dyspnea Intensity Goal on ESAS. One week later (T7), after a comprehensive palliative care treatment, Personalized Dyspnea Intensity Goals were measured again. Patients were considered to have achieved a Patient Dyspnea Goal Response if dyspnea intensity (measured at T7) was equal or less than their expected Personalized Dyspnea Intensity Goal. At the same interval (T7), Patient Global Impression (improvement or deterioration) was measured. OUTCOMES: 279 patients were analyzed in this study. The mean Personalized Dyspnea Intensity Goal at T0 and T7 were 0.97 (SD 1.3), and 0.71 (SD 2.1), respectively. 263 patients (94.2%) indicated a Personalized Dyspnea Intensity Goal of ≤3 as a target at T0. Patients perceived a bit better, a better improvement, and a much better improvement with a mean decrease in dyspnea intensity of -2.1, -3.5, and -4.3 points on the dyspnea intensity scale, respectively. In 60 patients (21.5%), dyspnea intensity did not change, and in 4.7%, dyspnea intensity worsened. Patients perceived a Minimal Clinically Important Difference (little worse) with a mean increase in dyspnea intensity of 0.10, and they perceived a worse with a mean increase of 1.7 points. Higher dyspnea intensity at T0 and lower dyspnea intensity at T7 were independently related to Patient Global Impression. At T7, 93 (33.3%) patients achieved their Personalized Goal Response, based on Personalized Dyspnea Intensity. Patient Dyspnea Goal Response was associated with Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale score and Personalized Dyspnea Intensity Goal at T0, and inversely associated with dyspnea intensity at T0 and T7, and lower Karnofsky level. For Patient Dyspnea Goal Response, no significant differences among categories of dyspnea intensity were found (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Patient Dyspnea Goal Response and Patient Global Impression seem to be relevant for evaluating the effects of a comprehensive management of symptoms, including dyspnea, assisting decision making process. Some factors may be implicated in determining the individual target and clinical response. A personalized symptom goal may translate in terms of therapeutic intervention, according to the achievement of the patients' expectations. High values of dyspnea intensity, a lower Karnofsky level, as well as high level of Dyspnea Intensity Goal (that is less patients' expectations) favor the achievement of the target.


Assuntos
Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/terapia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos , Medicina de Precisão , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antecipação Psicológica , Tomada de Decisões , Gerenciamento Clínico , Dispneia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Medicina de Precisão/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Oncologist ; 24(2): 239-246, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the patients' global impression (PGI) after symptom management, as well as the achievement of personalized symptom goals (PSG). The secondary outcome was to assess related factors. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: Advanced cancer patients admitted to palliative care units rated symptom intensity by using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Score (ESAS) at admission and then after 1 week. For each symptom, patient-reported PGI and PSG, as well as the rate of PSG response, were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred seventy-six patients were taken into consideration for this study. A mean of 1.71-2.16 points was necessary to perceive a bit better improvement of symptom intensity. Most patients had a PSG of ≤3. A statistically significant number of patients achieved their PSG after starting palliative care. Patients with high intensity of ESAS items at admission achieved a more favorable PGI response. In the multivariate analysis, symptom intensity and PSG were the most frequent factors independently associated to a best PGI, whereas high levels of Karnofsky had a lower odd ratio. CONCLUSION: PSG and PGI seem to be relevant for patients' assessment and decision-making process, translating in terms of therapeutic intervention. Some factors may be implicated in determining the individual target and clinical response. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Personalized symptom goals and global impression of change are relevant for patients' assessment and decision-making process, translating in terms of therapeutic intervention. Some factors may be implicated in determining the individual target and clinical response.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Sintomas
16.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 119: 66-74, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28893462

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cancer-related bone pain is a frequent and important key problem for metastatic patients that may reduce quality of life, with related limitations in daily activities and morbidity. Often traditional approach to pain may fail given the complex pathophysiology of this phenomenon. METHODS: The aim of this review is to describe promising therapies for cancer-related bone pain, from the pathophysiology to the clinical trials currently ongoing. Moreover, any new evidence for better approach to cancer-related bone pain with the traditional drugs is also considered. CONCLUSIONS: In clinical practice opioids remain the most important pharmacologic treatment for severe pain related to bone cancer. Regard developing drugs, anti-NGF and anti-TrkA are the most investigated new drug in this setting, but a future role in clinical practice is still uncertain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
J Neurooncol ; 132(3): 455-462, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28260130

RESUMO

To investigate local control and radiation-induced brain necrosis in patients with melanoma brain metastases who received complete resection plus fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (fSRS, 3 × 9 Gy) or fSRS alone. Factors associated with the clinical outcomes and the development of brain necrosis have been assessed. One hundred and twenty consecutive patients with 137 melanoma brain metastases who received surgery plus fSRS (S + fSRS) or fSRS alone were analyzed. All lesions evaluated in the study were treated with a dose of 27 Gy given in 3 fractions over three consecutive days. Cumulative incidence analysis was used to compare local failure (LF), distant brain failure (DBF), and radiation-induced brain necrosis (RN) between groups from the time of SRS. At a median follow-up of 13 months, median OS times and 1-year survival rates were comparable: S + fSRS, 14 months and 85%; fSRS, 12 months and 85% (p = 0.2). Median DBF did not differ significantly by group, being 14 months for both groups. Nine patients who received S + fSRS and 20 patients treated with fSRS recurred locally (p = 0.03). Six-month and 1-year LF rates were 5 and 12% in S + fSRS group and 17 and 28% in fSRS group (p = 0.02). RN occurred in 21 patients (S + fSRS, n = 14; fSRS, n = 7; p = 0.1). The cumulative 1-year incidence of RN was 13% after S + fSRS and 8% after fSRS (p = 0.15). In conclusion, postoperative SRS (3 × 9 Gy) to the resection cavity is an effective treatment modality for melanoma brain metastases associated with better local control as compared with fSRS alone.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Melanoma/secundário , Melanoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Radiocirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Tumori ; 103(1): 9-14, 2017 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28009422

RESUMO

One of the priorities of personalized medicine regards the role of early integration of palliative care with cancer-directed treatments, called simultaneous care. This article, written by the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) Simultaneous and Continuous Care Task Force, represents the position of Italian medical oncologists about simultaneous care, and is the result of a 2-step project: a Web-based survey among medical oncologists and a consensus conference. We present the opinion of more than 600 oncologists who helped formulate these recommendations. This document covers 4 main aspects of simultaneous care: 1) ethical, cultural, and relational aspects of cancer and implications for patient communication; 2) training of medical oncologists in palliative medicine; 3) research on the integration between cancer treatments and palliative care; and 4) organizational and management models for the realization of simultaneous care. The resulting recommendations highlight the role of skills and competence in palliative care along with implementation of adequate organizational models to accomplish simultaneous care, which is considered a high priority of AIOM in order to grant the best quality of life for cancer patients and their families.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Cuidados Paliativos , Sociedades Médicas , Humanos , Itália
19.
J Cancer ; 7(14): 1968-1978, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27877212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early integration of palliative care in oncology practice ("simultaneous care", SC) has been shown to provide better care resulting in improved quality-of-life and also survival. We evaluated the opinions of Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) members. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 37-item questionnaire was delivered to 1119 AIOM members. Main areas covered were: social, ethical, relational aspects of disease and communication, training, research, organizational and management models in SC. Three open questions explored the definition of Quality of Life, Medical Oncologist and Palliative Care. RESULTS: Four hundred and forty-nine (40.1%) medical oncologists returned the questionnaires. Forty-nine percent stated they address non-curability when giving a diagnosis of metastatic tumor, and 43% give the information only to patients who clearly ask for it. Fifty-five percent say the main formative activity in palliative medicine came from attending meetings and 90% agree that specific palliative care training should be part of the core curriculum in oncology. Twenty-two percent stated they consulted guidelines for symptom management, 45% relied upon personal experience and 26% make a referral to a palliative care specialist. Seventy-four percent were in favor of more research in palliative medicine. An integration between Units of Oncology and Palliative Care Services early in the course of advanced disease was advocated by 86%. Diverse and multifaceted definitions were given for the concepts of Quality of Life, Palliative Care and Medical Oncologist. CONCLUSION: SC is felt as an important task, as well as training of medical oncologists in symptom management and research in this field.

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