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1.
Drugs Aging ; 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is relatively common among nursing home residents, and decisions regarding anticoagulant therapy in this setting may be complicated by resident frailty and other factors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine trends and correlates of oral anticoagulant use among newly admitted nursing home residents with AF following the approval of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all adults aged > 65 years with AF who were newly admitted to nursing homes in Ontario, Canada, between 2011 and 2018 (N = 36,466). Health administrative databases were linked with comprehensive clinical assessment data captured shortly after admission, to ascertain resident characteristics. Trends in prevalence of anticoagulant use (any, warfarin, DOAC) at admission were captured with prescription claims and examined by frailty and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Log-binomial regression models estimated crude percentage changes in use over time and modified Poisson regression models assessed factors associated with anticoagulant use and type. RESULTS: The prevalence of anticoagulant use at admission increased from 41.1% in 2011/2012 to 58.0% in 2017/2018 (percentage increase = 41.1%, p < 0.001). Warfarin use declined (- 67.7%, p < 0.001), while DOAC use increased. Anticoagulant use was less likely among residents with a prior hospitalization for hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.70) or gastrointestinal bleed (aRR 0.80, 95% CI 0.78-0.83), liver disease (aRR 0.78, 95% CI 0.69-0.89), severe cognitive impairment (aRR 0.89, 95% CI 0.85-0.94), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (aRR 0.76, 95% CI 0.71-0.81) or antiplatelet (aRR 0.25, 95% CI 0.23-0.27) use, but more likely for those with a prior hospitalization for ischemic stroke or thromboembolism (aRR 1.30, 95% CI 1.27-1.33). CKD was associated with a reduced likelihood of DOAC versus warfarin use in both the early (aRR 0.62, 95% CI 0.54-0.71) and later years (aRR 0.79, 95% CI 0.76-0.83) of our study period. Frail residents were significantly less likely to receive an anticoagulant at admission, although this association was modest (aRR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98). Frailty was not associated with anticoagulant type. CONCLUSIONS: While the proportion of residents with AF receiving oral anticoagulants at admission increased following the approval of DOACs, over 40% remained untreated. Among those treated, use of a DOAC increased, while warfarin use declined. The impact of these recent treatment patterns on the balance between benefit and harm among residents warrant further investigation.

2.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887723

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In older US nursing home (NH) residents, there is limited research on the prevalence of physical frailty, its potential dynamic changes, and its association with cognitive impairment in older adults' first 6 months of NH stay. METHODS: Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0 is the national database on residents in US Medicare-/Medicaid-certified NHs. MDS 3.0 was used to identify older adults aged ≥65 years, newly admitted to NHs during January 1, 2014, and June 30, 2016, with life expectancy ≥6 months at admission and NH length of stay ≥6 months (N = 571,139). MDS 3.0 assessments at admission, 3 months, and 6 months were used. In each assessment, physical frailty was measured by FRAIL-NH (robust, prefrail, and frail) and cognitive impairment by Brief Interview for Mental Status and Cognitive Performance Scale (none/mild, moderate, and severe). Demographic characteristics and diagnosed conditions were measured at admission, while presence of pain and receipt of psychotropic medications were at each assessment. Distribution of physical frailty and its change over time by cognitive impairment were described. A nonproportional odds model was fitted with a generalized estimation equation to longitudinally examine the association between physical frailty and cognitive impairment, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Around 60% of older residents were physically frail in the first 6 months. Improvement and worsening across physical frailty levels were observed. Particularly, in those who were prefrail at admission, 23% improved to robust by 3 months. At admission, 3 months, and 6 months, over 37% of older residents had severe cognitive impairment and about 70% of those with cognitive impairment were physically frail. At admission, older residents with moderate cognitive impairment were 35% more likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-1.37) and those with severe impairment were 74% more likely (aOR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.72-1.77) to be frail than prefrail/robust, compared to those with none/mild impairment. The association between the 2 conditions remained positive and consistently increased over time. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Physical frailty was prevalent in NHs with potential to improve and was strongly associated with cognitive impairment. Physical frailty could be a modifiable target, and interventions may include efforts to address cognitive impairment.

3.
Drugs Aging ; 38(5): 427-439, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about trends in statin use in United States (US) nursing homes. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe national trends in statin use in nursing homes and evaluate the impact of the introduction of generic statins, safety warnings, and guideline recommendations on statin use. METHODS: This study employed a repeated cross-sectional prevalence design to evaluate monthly statin use in long-stay US nursing home residents enrolled in Medicare fee-for-service using the Minimum Data Set 3.0 and Medicare Part D claims between April 2011 and December 2016. Stratified by age (65-75 years, ≥ 76 years), analyses estimated trends and level changes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) following statin-related events (the availability of generic statins, American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guideline updates, and US FDA safety warnings) through segmented regression models corrected for autocorrelation. RESULTS: Statin use increased from April 2011 to December 2016 (65-75 years: 38.6-43.3%; ≥ 76 years: 26.5% to 30.0%), as did high-intensity statin use (65-75 years: 4.8-9.5%; ≥ 76 years: 2.3-4.5%). The introduction of generic statins yielded little impact on the prevalence of statins in nursing home residents. Positive trend changes in high-intensity statin use occurred following national guideline updates in December 2011 (65-75 years: ß = 0.16, 95% CI 0.09-0.22; ≥ 76 years: ß = 0.09, 95% CI 0.06-0.12) and November 2013 (65-75 years: ß = 0.11, 95% CI 0.09-0.13; ≥ 76 years: ß = 0.04, 95% CI 0.03-0.05). There were negative trend changes for any statin use concurrent with FDA statin safety warnings in March 2012 among both age groups (65-75 years: ß trend change = - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.10 to - 0.02; ≥ 76 years: ß trend change = - 0.05, 95% CI - 0.08 to - 0.01). The publication of the results of a statin deprescribing trial yielded a decrease in any statin use among the ≥ 76 years age group (ß level change = - 0.25, 95% CI - 0.48 to - 0.09; ß trend change = - 0.03, 95% CI - 0.04 to - 0.01), with both age groups observing a positive trend change with high-intensity statins (65-75 years: ß = 0.11, 95% CI 0.02-0.21; ≥ 76 years: ß = 0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.09). CONCLUSION: Overall, statin use in US nursing homes increased from 2011 to 2016. Guidelines and statin-related events appeared to impact use in the nursing home setting. As such, statin guidelines and messaging should provide special consideration for nursing home populations, who may have more risk than benefit from statin pharmacotherapy.

4.
Drugs Aging ; 38(4): 327-340, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence to guide clinical decision making for pain management in nursing home residents is scant. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore the extent of consensus among expert stakeholders regarding what analgesic issues should be prioritized for comparative-effectiveness studies of beneficial and adverse effects of analgesic regimens in nursing home residents. METHODS: Two stakeholder panels (nurses only and a mix of clinicians/researchers) were engaged (n = 83). During a three-round online modified Delphi process, participants rated and commented on the need for new evidence on nonopioid analgesic regimens and opioid regimens, short-term adverse effects, long-term adverse effects, comorbid conditions, and other factors in the nursing home setting (9-point scale; 1 = not essential to 9 = very essential to obtain new evidence). The quantitative data were analyzed to determine the existence of consensus using an approach from the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method User's Manual. The qualitative data, consisting of participant explanations of their numeric ratings, were thematically analyzed by an experienced qualitative researcher. RESULTS: For nursing home residents, evidence generation was deemed essential for opioids, gabapentin (alone or with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]), and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs with SNRIs. Experts prioritized the following outcomes as essential: long-term adverse effects, including delirium, cognitive decline, and decline in activities of daily living (ADLs). Kidney disease and depression were deemed essential conditions to consider in studies of pain medications. Coprescribing analgesic regimens with benzodiazepines, sedating medications, serotonergic medications, and non-SNRI antidepressants were considered essential areas of study. Experts noted that additional study was essential in residents with moderate/severe cognitive impairment and limitations in ADLs. CONCLUSIONS: Stakeholder priorities for more evidence reflect concerns related to treating medically complex residents with complex drug regimens and included long-term adverse effects, coprescribing, and sedating medications. Carefully conducted observational studies are needed to address the vast evidence gap for nursing home residents.

5.
Med Care ; 59(5): 425-436, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medically compromised nursing home residents continue to be prescribed statins, despite questionable benefits. OBJECTIVE: To describe regional variation in statin use among residents with life-limiting illness. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using 2016 Minimum Data Set 3.0 assessments linked to Medicare administrative data and health service utilization area resource files. SETTING: Nursing homes (n=14,147) within hospital referral regions (n=306) across the United States. SUBJECTS: Long-stay residents (aged 65 y and older) with life-limiting illness (eg, serious illness, palliative care, or prognosis <6 mo to live) (n=361,170). MEASURES: Prevalent statin use was determined by Medicare Part D claims. Stratified by age (65-75, 76 y or older), multilevel logistic models provided odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Statin use was prevalent (age 65-75 y: 46.0%, 76 y or more: 31.6%). For both age groups, nearly all resident-level variables evaluated were associated with any and high-intensity statin use and 3 facility-level variables (ie, higher proportions of Black residents, skilled nursing care provided, and average number of medications per resident) were associated with increased odds of statin use. Although in residents aged 65-75 years, no associations were observed, residents aged 76 years or older located in hospital referral regions (HRRs) with the highest health care utilization had higher odds of statin use than those in nursing homes in HRRs with the lowest health care utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest extensive geographic variation in US statin prescribing across HRRs, especially for those aged 76 years or older. This variation may reflect clinical uncertainty given the largely absent guidelines for statin use in nursing home residents.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop a reliable and valid measure of social connectedness among nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) using items available in the Minimum Dataset 3.0 (MDS). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective scale development study using the 2016 MDS with two populations of nursing home residents with ADRD: (1) new admissions (not post-acute care) (n = 146,694); (2) residents with comprehensive annual assessments (n = 294,704). Twenty-nine items were included for consideration. Psychometric evaluation included content validity, item analysis, internal consistency reliability, criterion-related validity, and exploratory factor analysis. Analyses were stratified by self- or staff-assessed pain. RESULTS: The resulting five item Social Connectedness Index (SCI) has good content (Fleiss Kappa = 0.67), criterion-related and construct validity and adequate internal consistency reliability (Kuder Richardson-20: 0.63-0.74) in persons with ADRD. As anticipated, younger residents, men, and those with severe cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression were more likely to be categorized in the low social connectedness group. CONCLUSION: The SCI is a promising measure for estimating the amount of social connectedness present for nursing home residents with ADRD. Further work needs to be done to evaluate the usefulness of the SCI for evaluating health and well-being among this population over time.

7.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between restless sleep and knee symptoms among individuals with radiographically confirmed KOA. METHODS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were examined using Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) data. Participants with radiographic KOA (n = 2517) were asked how often sleep was restless in the past week over the 4 years, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) was used to measure knee symptoms. Adjusted ß coefficients (aß) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from generalized estimating equations (GEEs) models stratified by sex. RESULTS: One in 7 participants reported ≥ 3 nights with restless sleep. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that restless sleep 5-7 nights was associated with worse symptoms (Women: pain: aß 1.93, 95% CI 1.12-2.74, stiffness: aß 0.57, 95% CI 0.19-0.94, physical function: aß 5.68, 95% CI 3.09-8.27; Men: pain: aß = 1.85, 95% CI 0.85-2.86; stiffness: aß 0.63, 95% CI 0.15-1.12; physical function: aß 5.89, 95% CI 2.68-9.09) compared with < 1 night. Longitudinal analyses confirmed that more nights with restless sleep were associated with worse pain (P trend = 0.01) and function (P trend = 0.04) in women and physical function in men (P trend = 0.04), although estimates did not meet thresholds for minimal clinically meaningful differences. CONCLUSION: While the analysis of cross-sectional data supported the association between restless sleep and KOA symptoms, such relationships were not confirmed in more robust longitudinal analysis. Further research examining whether sleep quality, duration, or disorders is associated with worsening symptoms in persons with KOA is warranted. Key Points • The prevalence of frequent restless sleep among persons with knee OA is not uncommon. • There were linear trends between frequency of restless sleep and self-reported symptoms of the knee in cross-sectional analyses. • In the more robust longitudinal analysis, despite the statistically significant linear trends observed between frequency of restless sleep and symptoms (women: pain and physical function; men: function), none appeared to reach the a priori selected ranges for minimally clinically relevant differences.

8.
Med Care ; 59(4): 312-318, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care satisfaction is a key component of patient-centered care. Prior research on transgender populations has been based on convenience samples, and/or grouped all gender minorities into a single category. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantify differences in health care satisfaction among transgender men, transgender women, gender nonconforming, and cisgender adults in a diverse multistate sample. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of 2014-2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 20 states, using multivariable logistic models. SUBJECTS: We identified 167,468 transgender men, transgender women, gender-nonconforming people, cisgender women, and cisgender men and compared past year health care satisfaction across these groups. RESULTS: Transgender men and women had the highest prevalence of being "not at all satisfied" with the health care they received (14.6% and 8.6%, respectively), and gender-nonconforming people had the lowest prevalence of being "very satisfied" with their health care (55.7%). After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, transgender men were more likely to report being "not at all satisfied" with health care than cisgender men (odds ratio: 4.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.72-11.5) and cisgender women (odds ratio: 3.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.31-8.80). CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that transgender and gender-nonconforming adults report considerably less health care satisfaction relative to their cisgender peers. Interventions to address factors driving these differences are needed.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450162

RESUMO

Objectives: We described the burden of illness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with spondyloarthritis (SpA) using a nationally representative sample. Materials and Methods: We identified participants with SpA using the Amor classification criteria (probable: score 5 or definite: ≥6) and complete data on HRQoL from the 2009 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 231). HRQoL was measured using the Healthy Days Measures including self-rated health status (excellent/very good, good, fair/poor), number of activity-restricted days, and number of unhealthy mental and physical health days in the past month (range: 0-30). Other domains including clinical assessments, comorbidities, physical functioning, and medication use were also explored. Results: Only 39% of the sample met the Amor criteria for definite SpA. Although 58% of those with definite SpA had seen a doctor >3 times in the past year, 2.5% women and 4.1% men had ever been told by a physician that they have ankylosing spondylitis. Among those with definite SpA, racial/ethnic diversity was observed in women (13.6% non-Hispanic Black, 23.2% Hispanic) and men (11.6% non-Hispanic Black, 11.2% Hispanic). Overall, 41.6% women and 49.7% men rated their health as fair/poor. For other HRQoL measures, 25.4% women and 20.4% men reported ≥15 activity-restricted days and 39.7% women and 41.4% men reported ≥15 physically unhealthy days. Conclusion: Both men and women rank health as poor with indications that it affects QoL. Although our small sample size limits definitive statements, we observed trends that warrant further confirmation in larger population-based samples.

10.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(1): 164-172.e9, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantify geographic variation in anticoagulant use and explore what resident, nursing home, and county characteristics were associated with anticoagulant use in a clinically complex population. DESIGN: A repeated cross-sectional design was used to estimate current oral anticoagulant use on December 31, 2014, 2015, and 2016. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Secondary data for United States nursing home residents during the period 2014-2016 were drawn from the Minimum Data Set 3.0 and Medicare Parts A and D. Nursing home residents (≥65 years) with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation and ≥6 months of Medicare fee-for-service enrollment were eligible for inclusion. Residents in a coma or on hospice were excluded. METHODS: Multilevel logistic models evaluated the extent to which variation in anticoagulant use between counties could be explained by resident, nursing home, and county characteristics and state of residence. Proportional changes in cluster variation (PCVs), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were estimated. RESULTS: Among 86,736 nursing home residents from 11,860 nursing homes and 1694 counties, 45% used oral anticoagulants. The odds of oral anticoagulant use were 18% higher in 2016 than 2014 (aOR: 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.14-1.22). Most states had counties in the highest (51.3-58.9%) and lowest (31.1%-41.4%) deciles of anticoagulant use. Compared with the null model, adjustment for resident characteristics explained one-third of the variation between counties (PCV: 34.8%). The full model explained 65.5% of between-county variation. Within-county correlation was a small proportion (ICC < 2.2%) of total variation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In this older adult population at high risk for ischemic stroke, less than half of the residents received treatment with anticoagulants. Variation in treatment across counties was partially attributable to the characteristics of residents, nursing homes, and counties. Comparative evidence and refinement of predictive algorithms specific to the nursing home setting may be warranted.

11.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270223

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate 30-day statin discontinuation among newly admitted nursing home residents overall and within categories of life-limiting illness. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort using Minimum Data Set 3.0 nursing home admission assessments from 2015 to 2016 merged to Medicare administrative data files. SETTING: U.S. Medicare- and Medicaid-certified nursing home facilities (n = 13,092). PARTICIPANTS: Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, aged 65 years and older, newly admitted to nursing homes for non-skilled nursing facility stays on statin pharmacotherapy at the time of admission (n = 73,247). MEASUREMENTS: Residents were categorized using evidence-based criteria to identify progressive, terminal conditions or limited prognoses (<6 months). Discontinuation was defined as the absence of a new Medicare Part D claim for statin pharmacotherapy in the 30 days following nursing home admission. RESULTS: Overall, 19.9% discontinued statins within 30 days of nursing home admission, with rates that varied by life-limiting illness classification (no life-limiting illness: 20.5%; serious illness: 18.6%; receipt of palliative care consult: 34.5%; clinician designated as end-of-life: 45.0%). Relative to those with no life-limiting illness, risk of 30-day statin discontinuation increased with life-limiting illness severity (serious illness: adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.10; palliative care index diagnosis: aRR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.10-1.21; palliative care consultation: aRR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.43-1.74; clinician designated as end of life: aRR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.42-1.79). Nevertheless, most remained on statins after entering the nursing home regardless of life-limiting illness status. CONCLUSION: Statin use continues in a large proportion of Medicare beneficiaries after admission to a nursing home. Additional deprescribing research, which identifies how to engage nursing home residents and healthcare providers in a process to safely and effectively discontinue medications with questionable benefits, is warranted.

12.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337579

RESUMO

In the Spring of 2020, we launched a rigor and reproducibility curriculum for medical students in research training programs. This required class consisted of eight, 2-h sessions, which transitioned to remote learning in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. The class was graded as pass/fail. Flipped classroom techniques, with multiple hands-on exercises, were developed for first-year medical students (MD/PhD [n = 9], Clinical and Translational Research Pathway (CTRP) students [n = 9]). Four focus groups (n = 13 students) and individual interviews with the two instructors were conducted in May 2020. From individual interviews with instructors and focus groups with medical students, the course and its components were favorably reviewed. Students thought the course was novel, important, relevant, and practical-and teaching strategies were effective (e.g., short lectures, interactive small group exercises, and projects). Most students expressed concerns about lack of time for course preparation. Sharper focus and streamlining of preparation work may be required. Pre- and post-student self-assessments of rigor and reproducibility competencies showed average post-scores ranging from high/moderate to strong understanding (n = 11). We conclude that rigor and reproducibility can be taught to first-year medical students in research pathways programs in a highly interactive and remote format.

13.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-10, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To longitudinally examine the latent statuses of depressive symptoms and their association with cognitive impairment in older U.S. nursing home (NH) residents. METHOD: Using Minimum Data Set 3.0, newly-admitted, long-stay, older NH residents with depression in 2014 were identified (n = 88,532). Depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and cognitive impairment (Brief Interview of Mental Status) were measured at admission and 90 days. Latent transition analysis was used to examine the prevalence of and the transition between latent statuses of depressive symptoms from admission to 90 days, and the association of cognitive impairment with the statuses at admission. RESULTS: Four latent statuses of depressive symptoms were identified: 'Multiple Symptoms' (prevalence at admission: 17.3%; 90 days: 13.6%), 'Depressed mood' (20.0%; 19.5%), 'Fatigue' (27.4%; 25.7%), and 'Minimal Symptoms' (35.3%; 41.2%). Most residents remained in the same status from admission to 90 days. Compared to residents who were cognitively intact, those with moderate impairment were more likely to be in 'Multiple Symptoms' and 'Fatigue' statuses; those with severe impairment had lower odds of belonging to 'Multiple Symptoms', 'Depressed Mood', and 'Fatigue' statuses. CONCLUSION: By addressing the longitudinal changes in the heterogeneous depressive symptoms and the role of cognitive impairment, findings have implications for depression management in older NH residents.

14.
SAGE Open Med ; 8: 2050312120962995, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101680

RESUMO

Objectives: This study sought to provide population-based estimates of complete tooth loss and recent dental visits among older adults in the United States by English language proficiency. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the 2017 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey among participants ⩾50 years of age (n = 10,452, weighted to represent 111,895,290 persons). Five categories of language proficiency were created based on self-reported English language ability and language spoken at home (Spanish, Other). Results: The prevalence of complete tooth loss was higher among those with limited English proficiency (Spanish speaking: 13.7%; Other languages: 16.9%) than those proficient in English (Spanish speaking: 5.0%; Other languages: 6.0%, English only: 12.0%). Complete tooth loss was less common among participants for whom Spanish was their primary language, with limited English proficiency relative to English only (adjusted odds ratio: 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.42-0.76). Among those without complete tooth loss, dental visits in the past year were less common among participants with primary language other than English as compared to those who only speak English. Conclusions: Complete tooth loss varied by English language proficiency among adults aged ⩾50 years in the United States. Suboptimal adherence to annual dental visits was common, more so in those with complete tooth loss, and varied by English language proficiency.

15.
J Rheumatol ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate physical activity and attitudes towards exercise among people with axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis (SpA). METHODS: Using baseline information from an on-going, longitudinal, prospective SpA cohort study (n=264), self-reported attitudes and beliefs towards exercise were assessed using questionnaires. Total metabolic equivalent (MET) hours of self-reported physical activity per week, time spent in activities, and activity levels were calculated from the Nurses' Health Study Physical Activity Questionnaire II (NHSPAQ II). Adjusted multivariable linear models estimated the relationship between physical activity and disease status (axial versus peripheral). RESULTS: Regardless of predominant anatomic distribution of disease, most participants were well-educated, non-Hispanic white men. Approximately 40% met the United States Department of Health and Human Services physical activity recommendations. Positive attitudes, beliefs, and perceived benefits towards exercise were similar by anatomic distribution of disease. Despite similar MET-hours per week, participants with axial disease had greater concerns regarding discomfort and joint injuries than those with peripheral disease. Compared to those with peripheral SpA (n=201), participants with axial SpA (n=63) spent less time engaging in light and moderate activities (adjusted ß in light activity: -1.94 minutes/week, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): -2.96 to -0.93; adjusted ß in moderate activity: -1.05 minutes/week, 95% CI: -2.12 to 0.02). CONCLUSION: Participants with axial SpA had greater concerns regarding discomfort and injuries from exercise than those with peripheral SpA. Although no differences in time spent in vigorous activities were observed, participants with axial SpA spent less time than those with peripheral SpA in light to moderate activities.

16.
J Pain Res ; 13: 2663-2672, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116808

RESUMO

Purpose: To provide contemporary estimates of pain by level of cognitive impairment among US nursing home residents without cancer. Methods: Newly admitted US nursing home residents without cancer assessed with the Minimum Data Set 3.0 at admission (2010-2016) were eligible (n=8,613,080). The Cognitive Function Scale was used to categorize level of cognitive impairment. Self-report or staff-assessed pain was used based on a 5-day look-back period. Estimates of adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were derived from modified Poisson models. Results: Documented prevalence of pain decreased with increased levels of cognitive impairment in those who self-reported pain (68.9% no/mild, 32.9% severe) and those with staff-assessed pain (50.6% no/mild, 37.2% severe staff-assessed pain). Relative to residents with no/mild cognitive impairment, pharmacologic pain management was less prevalent in those with severe cognitive impairment (self-reported: 51.3% severe vs 76.9% in those with no/mild; staff assessed: 52.0% severe vs 67.7% no/mild). Conclusion: Pain was less frequently documented in those with severe cognitive impairment relative to those with no/mild impairments. Failure to identify pain may result in untreated or undertreated pain. Interventions to improve evaluation of pain in nursing home residents with cognitive impairment are needed.

17.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 204, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The average delay in diagnosis for patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is 7 to 10 years. Factors that contribute to this delay are multifactorial and include the lack of diagnostic criteria (although classification criteria exist) for axSpA and the difficulty in distinguishing inflammatory back pain, a key symptom of axSpA, from other highly prevalent forms of low back pain. We sought to describe reasons for diagnostic delay for axSpA provided by primary care physicians. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative research study which included 18 US primary care physicians, balanced by gender. Physicians provided informed consent to participate in an in-depth interview (< 60 min), conducted in person (n = 3) or over the phone (n = 15), in 2019. The analysis focuses on thoughts about factors contributing to diagnostic delay in axSpA. RESULTS: Physicians noted that the disease characteristics contributing to diagnostic delay include: back pain is common and axSpA is less prevalent, slow progression of axSpA, intermittent nature of axSpA pain, and in the absence of abnormal radiographs of the spine or sacroiliac joints, there is no definitive test for axSpA. Patient characteristics believed to contribute to diagnostic delay included having multiple conditions in need of attention, infrequent interactions with the health care system, and "doctor shopping." Doctors noted that patients wait until the last moments of the clinical encounter to discuss back pain. Problematic physician characteristics included lack of rapport with patients, lack of setting appropriate expectations, and attribution of back pain to other factors. Structural/system issues included short appointments, lack of continuity of care, insufficient insurance coverage for tests, lack of back pain clinics, and a shortage of rheumatologists. CONCLUSION: Primary care physicians agreed that lengthy axSpA diagnosis delays are challenging to address owing to the multifactorial causes (e.g., disease characteristics, patient characteristics, lack of definitive tests, system factors).

18.
Drugs Aging ; 37(11): 817-827, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In nursing homes, residents with dementia frequently receive potentially inappropriate medications that are associated with an increased risk of adverse events. Despite known sex differences in clinical presentation and sociodemographic characteristics among persons with dementia, few studies have examined sex differences in patterns and predictors of potentially inappropriate medication use. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to examine sex differences in the patterns of antipsychotic and benzodiazepine use in the 180 days following admission to a nursing home, estimate clinical and sociodemographic predictors of antipsychotic and benzodiazepine use in male and female residents, and explore the effects of modification by sex on the predictors of using these drug therapies. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 35,169 adults aged 66 years and older with dementia who were newly admitted to nursing homes in Ontario, Canada between 2011 and 2014. Health administrative databases were linked to detailed clinical assessment data collected using the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI-MDS 2.0). Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for clinical and sociodemographic covariates to estimate the rate of antipsychotic and benzodiazepine initiation and discontinuation in the 180 days following nursing home admission in the total sample and stratified by sex. Sex-covariate interaction terms were used to assess whether sex modified the association between covariates and the rate of drug therapy initiation or discontinuation following nursing home entry. RESULTS: Across 638 nursing homes, our analytical sample included 22,847 females and 12,322 males. At admission, male residents were more likely to be prevalent antipsychotic users than female residents (33.8% vs 28.3%; p < 0.001), and female residents were more likely to be prevalent benzodiazepine users than male residents (17.2% vs 15.3%, p < 0.001). In adjusted models, female residents were less likely to initiate an antipsychotic after admission (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.86); however, no sex difference was observed in the rate of benzodiazepine initiation (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.12). Female residents were less likely than males to discontinue antipsychotics (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98) and benzodiazepines (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.75-0.89). Sex modified the association between some covariates and the rate of changes in drug use (e.g., widowed males exhibited an increased rate of antipsychotic discontinuation (p-interaction = 0.03) compared with married males), but these associations were not statistically significant among females. Sex did not modify the effect of frailty on the rates of initiation and discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: Males and females with dementia differed in their exposure to antipsychotics and benzodiazepines at nursing home admission and their patterns of use following admission. A greater understanding of factors driving sex differences in potentially inappropriate medication use may help tailor interventions to reduce exposure in this vulnerable population.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882357

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Nonverbal pain behaviors are effective indicators of pain among persons who have difficulty communicating. In nursing homes, racial/ethnic differences in self-reported pain and pain management have been documented. OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine racial/ethnic differences in nonverbal pain behaviors and pain management among residents with staff-assessed pain. METHODS: We used the U.S. national Minimum Data Set 3.0 and identified 994,510 newly admitted nursing home residents for whom staff evaluated pain behaviors and pain treatments between 2010 and 2016. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% CIs estimated using robust Poisson models compared pain behaviors and treatments across racial/ethnic groups. RESULTS: Vocal complaints were most commonly recorded (18.3% non-Hispanic black residents, 19.3% of Hispanic residents, and 30.3% of non-Hispanic white residents). Documentation of pain behaviors was less frequent among non-Hispanic black and Hispanic residents than non-Hispanic white residents (e.g., vocal complaints: aPRBlack: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.73-0.78; with similar estimates for other pain behaviors). Non-Hispanic blacks (47.3%) and Hispanics (48.6%) were less likely to receive any type of pharmacologic pain intervention compared with non-Hispanic white residents (59.3%) (aPRBlack: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.86-0.88; aPRHispanics: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.84-0.89). CONCLUSION: Among residents requiring staff assessment of pain because they are unable to self-report, nursing home staff documented pain and its treatment less often in Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics than in non-Hispanic white residents. Studies to understand the role of differences in expression of pain, explicit bias, and implicit bias are needed to inform interventions to reduce disparities in pain documentation and treatment.

20.
Med Care ; 58(12): 1069-1074, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding differences between patients referred to hospice from different care locations. OBJECTIVE: The objective this study was to describe the associations between hospice referral locations and hospice patient and admission characteristics. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of hospice administrative data. SUBJECTS: Adult (age older than 18 y) decedents of a national, for-profit, hospice chain across 19 US states who died between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2016. MEASURES: Patients' primary hospice diagnosis, hospice length stay, and hospice care site. We also determined the frequency of opioid prescriptions with and without a bowel regimen on hospice admission. RESULTS: Among 78,647 adult decedents, the mean age was 79.2 (SD=13.5) years, 56.4% were female, and 69.9% were a non-Hispanic White race. Most hospice referrals were from the hospital (51.9%), followed by the community (21.9%), nursing homes (17.4%), and assisted living (8.8%). Cancer (33.6%) was the most prevalent primary hospice diagnosis; however, this varied significantly between referral locations (P<0.001). Similarly, home hospice (32.8%) was the most prevalent site; however, this also varied significantly between referral locations (P<0.001). More hospital-referred patients (55.6%) had a hospice length of stay <7 days compared with patients referred from nursing homes (30.3%), the community (28.9%), or assisted living (18.7%), P<0.001. Hospital-referred patients also had the lowest frequency (58.4%) of coprescribed opioids and bowel regimen on hospice admission compared with other referral locations. CONCLUSION: We observed significant differences in hospice patient and admission characteristics by referral location.

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