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1.
Acta Oncol ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271079

RESUMO

Introduction: Inter-observer variability (IOV) in target volume delineation is a well-documented source of geometric uncertainty in radiotherapy. Such variability has not yet been explored in the context of adaptive re-delineation based on imaging data acquired during treatment. We compared IOV in the pre- and mid-treatment setting using expert primary gross tumour volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) delineations in locoregionally advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and (non-)small cell lung cancer [(N)SCLC]. Material and methods: Five and six observers participated in the HNSCC and (N)SCLC arm, respectively, and provided delineations for five cases each. Imaging data consisted of CT studies partly complemented by FDG-PET and was provided in two separate phases for pre- and mid-treatment. Global delineation compatibility was assessed with a volume overlap metric (the Generalised Conformity Index), while local extremes of IOV were identified through the standard deviation of surface distances from observer delineations to a median consensus delineation. Details of delineation procedures, in particular, GTV to CTV expansion and adaptation strategies, were collected through a questionnaire. Results: Volume overlap analysis revealed a worsening of IOV in all but one case per disease site, which failed to reach significance in this small sample (p-value range .063-.125). Changes in agreement were propagated from GTV to CTV delineations, but correlation could not be formally demonstrated. Surface distance based analysis identified longitudinal target extent as a pervasive source of disagreement for HNSCC. High variability in (N)SCLC was often associated with tumours abutting consolidated lung tissue or potentially invading the mediastinum. Adaptation practices were variable between observers with fewer than half stating that they consistently adapted pre-treatment delineations during treatment. Conclusion: IOV in target volume delineation increases during treatment, where a disparity in institutional adaptation practices adds to the conventional causes of IOV. Consensus guidelines are urgently needed.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 114: 47-54, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059973

RESUMO

Disparities in survival and long-term side-effects from paediatric cancer are observed across European Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOPE)-affiliated countries. The Joint Action on Rare Cancers (JARC) is a project supported by the European Union and member states aiming to formulate recommendations on rare cancers, including paediatric malignancies, to reduce inequalities and to improve health outcomes. Most paediatric cancers are treated by a combination of systemic agents, surgery and/or radiotherapy. Radiotherapy for children is becoming increasingly complex because of the growing availability of new modalities and techniques and the evolution in molecular biology. These added challenges have the potential to enhance disparities in survival and side-effects between countries, but also among centres in the same country. To tackle radiotherapy-related inequalities, representatives of SIOPE, European SocieTy for Radiotherapy and Oncology, Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society and Childhood Cancer International-Europe defined 'standard' and 'optional' levels to deliver Good Clinical Practice-compliant treatment in paediatric radiation oncology with a focus on patient-related care, education and training. In addition, more than 250 paediatric radiotherapy centres across the SIOPE-affiliated countries have been mapped. For a better understanding of resources in paediatric radiotherapy, JARC representatives are working on an online survey for paediatric radiation oncologists of each centre in SIOPE-affiliated countries. The outcome of this survey will give an insight into the strengths and weaknesses of paediatric radiotherapy across SIOPE-affiliated countries and can be relevant for European Reference Networks in terms of collaboration pathways and referrals in paediatric radiotherapy.

4.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 195(6): 504-516, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963203

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to retrospectively study survival and long-term morbidities of children with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated by induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation (CRT). The total dose of radiation was adapted to the response following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: Children with non-metastatic NPC treated in France between 1999 and 2015 were retrospectively included in the study. The strategy combined neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy, followed by adapted CRT to tumor response. RESULTS: In total, 95 patients (median age 15 years [range, 7-23 years], male-to-female ratio 1.8) with undifferentiated NPC were included; 59% of patients had TNM stage IV. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was delivered to 57 patients (60%), while the other patients were treated with conformal RT (3D-RT). After a median follow-up of 4.5 years [range, 3.6-5.5 years], 13 relapses and seven deaths had occurred. The 3­year overall and relapse-free survival (RFS) were 94% [95% CI, 85-97%] and 86% [77-92%], respectively. The locoregional failure rate was 6% [95% CI, 2-14]. Long-term treatment-related sequelae of grade 2+ were reported by 37 (50%) patients; odynophagia was significantly reduced treated by IMRT vs. conventional 3D-RT (7% vs. 55%, p = 0.015). Using a reduction dose of 59.4 Gy, 54 Gy, and 45 Gy, respectively, to the primary, involved, and uninvolved neck nodes, after a favorable tumor response, was not associated with an increased locoregional failure rate. CONCLUSIONS: The survival rates for NPC have been considerably improved by means of multimodal therapy, but long-term locoregional morbidity remains common. Use of IMRT may induce less residual odynophagia. Radiation dose reduction adapted to chemotherapy response does not have a negative impact on outcome. These findings support the use of an RT protocol adapted to the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for a long-lasting improvement in the patient's quality of life.

5.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 195(6): 496-503, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The decision between definitive radio(chemo)therapy (RCT) or a surgical strategy, i. e. surgery ± adjuvant radio(chemo)therapy for optimal treatment of oropharyngeal cancer is highly debated. Human papillomavirus(HPV)-related tumours are a distinct entity associated with p16 overexpression. While this represents a major prognostic factor, its predictive significance remains unknown. RESULTS: Among 183 consecutive unselected patients treated between 2009 and 2013 with a state-of-the-art surgical procedure ± adjuvant radio(chemo)therapy or definitive RCT including intensity-modulated radiotherapy, 3­year disease-free survival (DFS) was 74 vs. 57%, respectively (p = 0.007). When focusing on p16+ patients (49%), there was no significant difference in tumour control rate between surgery ± radio(chemo)therapy and the definitive RCT group (3-year DFS 83 vs. 82%, respectively; p = 0.48). However, delayed severe dysphagia was significantly lower in favour of definitive RCT: 35 vs. 4%, respectively; p = 0.0002. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight distinct outcomes after definitive RCT or initial surgical treatment according to p16 status, which should thus be considered during the decision process.

6.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(3): e155-e166, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842059

RESUMO

Inhomogeneities in radiotherapy dose distributions covering the vertebrae in children can produce long-term spinal problems, including kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis, and hypoplasia. In the published literature, many often interrelated variables have been reported to affect the extent of potential radiotherapy damage to the spine. Articles published in the 2D and 3D radiotherapy era instructed radiation oncologists to avoid dose inhomogeneity over growing vertebrae. However, in the present era of highly conformal radiotherapy, steep dose gradients over at-risk structures can be generated and thus less harm is caused to patients. In this report, paediatric radiation oncologists from leading centres in 11 European countries have produced recommendations on how to approach dose coverage for target volumes that are adjacent to vertebrae to minimise the risk of long-term spinal problems. Based on available information, it is advised that homogeneous vertebral radiotherapy doses should be delivered in children who have not yet finished the pubertal growth spurt. If dose fall-off within vertebrae cannot be avoided, acceptable dose gradients for different age groups are detailed here. Vertebral delineation should include all primary ossification centres and growth plates, and therefore include at least the vertebral body and arch. For partial spinal radiotherapy, the number of irradiated vertebrae should be restricted as much as achievable, particularly at the thoracic level in young children (<6 years old). There is a need for multicentre research on vertebral radiotherapy dose distributions for children, but until more valid data become available, these recommendations can provide a basis for daily practice for radiation oncologists who have patients that require vertebral radiotherapy.

7.
Radiother Oncol ; 132: 1-7, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825956

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate retrospectively the clinical results of re-irradiation for children with a locally recurrent brain ependymoma. METHODS: 33 full-dose re-irradiations were delivered to 31 children with a recurrent brain ependymoma after a standard treatment. Each child was followed up with clinical and MRI examinations. We evaluated overall survival, local recurrence free-survival and short term toxicity according to CTCAE 4.0 scale. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 37 months (range, 0 to 107), median local recurrence free-survival was 31 months (range, 2 to 63) and median overall survival was 34 months (range, 3 to 63). It was significantly higher in patients who underwent surgery first, compared with re-irradiation only. Cumulated dosimetric data were available for 22 patients. On average, maximal BED to brain stem was 106,2 Gyα/ß3 (±35,4) for infratentorial re-irradiation. No acute toxicity grade >2 was reported and 1 case of brain radionecrosis treated successfully with steroids was reported after radiosurgery. CONCLUSION: Local recurrence of brain ependymoma can be treated with full-dose re-irradiation, which can be hypofractionated with an acceptable short term toxicity in spite of high total doses delivered to OARs, especially brain stem.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 167, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma, a high-grade glial infiltrating tumor, is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in adults and carries a dismal prognosis. External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) increases overall survival but this is still low due to local relapses, mostly occurring in the irradiation field. As the ratio of spectra of choline/N acetyl aspartate> 2 (CNR2) on MR spectroscopic imaging has been described as predictive for the site of local relapse, we hypothesized that dose escalation on these regions would increase local control and hence global survival. METHODS/DESIGN: In this multicenter prospective phase III trial for newly diagnosed glioblastoma, 220 patients having undergone biopsy or surgery are planned for randomization to two arms. Arm A is the Stupp protocol (EBRT 60 Gy on contrast enhancement + 2 cm margin with concomitant temozolomide (TMZ) and 6 months of TMZ maintenance); Arm B is the same treatment with an additional simultaneous integrated boost of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of 72Gy/2.4Gy delivered on the MR spectroscopic imaging metabolic volumes of CHO/NAA > 2 and contrast-enhancing lesions or resection cavity. Stratification is performed on surgical and MGMT status. DISCUSSION: This is a dose-painting trial, i.e. delivery of heterogeneous dose guided by metabolic imaging. The principal endpoint is overall survival. An online prospective quality control of volumes and dose is performed in the experimental arm. The study will yield a large amount of longitudinal multimodal MR imaging data including planning CT, radiotherapy dosimetry, MR spectroscopic, diffusion and perfusion imaging. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01507506 , registration date December 20, 2011.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Prospectivos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 62(4): 337-348, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497232

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Owing to their heterogeneity and radioresistance, the prognosis of primitive brain tumors, which are mainly glial tumors, remains poor. Dose escalation in radioresistant areas is a potential issue for improving local control and overall survival. This review focuses on advances in biological and metabolic imaging of brain tumors that are proving to be essential for defining tumor target volumes in radiation therapy (RT) and for increasing the use of DPRT (dose painting RT) and ART (adaptative RT), to optimize dose in radio-resistant areas. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Various biological imaging modalities such as PET (hypoxia, glucidic metabolism, protidic metabolism, cellular proliferation, inflammation, cellular membrane synthesis) and MRI (spectroscopy) may be used to identify these areas of radioresistance. The integration of these biological imaging modalities improves the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of brain tumors. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Technological improvements (PET and MRI), the development of research, and intensive cooperation between different departments are necessary before using daily metabolic imaging (PET and MRI) to treat patients with brain tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The adaptation of treatment volumes during RT (ART) seems promising, but its development requires improvements in several areas and an interdisciplinary approach involving radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. We review the literature on biological imaging to outline the perspectives for using DPRT and ART in brain tumors.

11.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 102(1): 166-173, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30102193

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to analyze survival and prognostic factors for children, adolescents, and young adults treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) for intracranial ependymoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2000 and 2013, 202 patients aged ≤25 years were treated in the 13 main French pediatric RT reference centers. Their medical records were reviewed for information, treatments received, and survival rates. All children had received postoperative RT- conformal, intensity modulated, or proton beam. In 2009, the prescribed standard dose in France rose from 54 Gy to 59.4 Gy. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 53.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 47-63.5). Median age at RT was 5 years (range 1-22), and 32% of the children treated were aged <3 years. Regarding treatment, 85.6% of patients underwent gross total resection, 62% of patients received conformal RT (vs 29% for intensity modulated RT and 8% for proton beam RT), 62.4% of patients received a dose >54 Gy, and 71% received chemotherapy. Of the 84 relapses, 75% were local. The cumulative incidence of local relapse was 24.4% (95% CI 18.2-31.2) at 3 years and 31.3% (95% CI 24-38.9) at 5 years. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival rates were 50.4% (95% CI 42.2-58) and 71.4% (95% CI 63.1-78.2). Tumor grade was the only prognostic factor for local relapse and DFS. Tumor grade, age, and extent of resection were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed several clinical and tumoral prognostic factors in a large French multicenter study. DFS for intracranial ependymoma remains low, and new biological and imaging markers are needed to distinguish among different subtypes, adapt treatments, and improve survival.

12.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol ; 7(4): 415-423, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851372

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe fecundity in female survivors of childhood cancer and consider the correlation with quality of life (QOL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 1744 women treated for childhood cancer before the age of 15 years at one of eight French cancer treatment centers between 1948 and 1992, 1187 who were alive in 2005 were sent a self-administered questionnaire, including questions about health status, QOL (MOS SF-36), and fecundity. A standardized fecundity ratio (SFR) was calculated (SFR: observed/expected number of children) for each individual based on a national reference. RESULTS: Of the 972 individuals (82%) who responded, 53% had at least 1 child. The overall SFR, 0.65, was dependent upon the initial diagnosis, more decreased in Central Nervous System tumors (0.24; p < 10-3) than in Germ cell (0.46; p = 0.03) or Sympathetic Nervous System tumors (0.79; p = 0.02). The average QOL motor score was 72.5 ± 19.5, and the average mental score was 61.4 ± 16.7. After adjusting for age, pathology, and self-reported sequelae in the questionnaires, it was determined that SF-36 mental (p = 0.002) and motor (p < 0.0002) scores correlated positively with fecundity, and SF-36 scores correlated negatively with locomotor late effects (p < 0.0001), growth insufficiency (p = 0.002), and psychological disorders (p < 0.001). Gonadal insufficiency was correlated with neither motor nor mental scores. CONCLUSION: Women treated for childhood cancer demonstrated impaired fecundity that correlated with poor QOL, as registered by the SF-36. Patients should be warned of the risk of impaired fecundity early during the follow-up. If possible, preservation of fertility should be prioritized at initiation of therapy.

13.
Radiother Oncol ; 128(3): 467-471, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A previous randomized trial in recurrent Head and Neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has shown re-irradiation combined with chemotherapy after salvage surgery significantly improved disease-free survival (DFS). The objective of this randomized trial was to compare two methods of re-irradiation in terms of toxicity and survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with recurrence/second primary in previously irradiated area were randomly allocated to receive either 60 Gy over 11 weeks with concomitant 5FU - hydroxyurea (VP-arm), or 60 Gy (1.2 Gy twice daily) over 5 weeks with cetuximab (HFR-arm). Primary endpoint was treatment interruption >15 days (acute toxicity). RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were included in VP-arm and 27 in HFR-arm. One patient in VP-arm experienced >15 days interruption due to toxicity, and none in HFR-arm. In both arms, all patients received at least 60 Gy. In VP-arm, 8/26 patients had chemotherapy delay and/or dose reduction. In HFR-arm, 4/27 patients had <6 cycles cetuximab. There was no significant difference in overall survival (Median OS: 37.4 months vs 21.9 months, p = 0.12). Toxicities and DFS were not different between 2 arms. CONCLUSIONS: Twice daily schedule of re-irradiation of 60 Gy/5 weeks with cetuximab was tolerable and no significant difference in treatment delays occurred between two arms.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Reirradiação/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Terapia de Salvação , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
14.
Radiother Oncol ; 127(1): 103-107, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ependymoma is the third most common brain tumor in children. Radiation therapy (RT) is systematically administered after maximum surgical resection, utilizing recent advances in radiation delivery. Imaging can make a significant contribution to improving treatment outcome. This prompted us to look for significant preoperative and postoperative imaging markers for survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We undertook a national retrospective review of 121 patients who had undergone resection followed by RT. Preoperative tumor volumes on T1 and FLAIR images were delineated, together with postoperative hyperintense volumes on FLAIR images. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) analyses included clinical data and volumes extracted from images. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 38.5 months, 80.2% of patients were alive, but 39.7% had experienced at least one event. Statistically significant differences between patients with and without postoperative FLAIR abnormalities were found for both DFS (71.9% vs. 40.3%; p = 0.006) and OS (93.7% vs. 72.4%; p = 0.023) in the univariate analyses, and for OS (p = 0.049) in the multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative FLAIR hyperintensities are a negative prognostic factor for intracranial ependymoma and may be a surrogate for residual disease. They could therefore prove helpful in patients' surgical and radiotherapeutic management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Ependimoma/radioterapia , Adolescente , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Ependimoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Ependimoma/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico por imagem , Período Pós-Operatório , Prognóstico , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral , Adulto Jovem
15.
Br J Radiol ; 91(1086): 20170824, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29493262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of early second breast cancer (SBC) among survivors of childhood and young adult malignancy treated with irradiation. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study of women who presented with breast cancer aged 50 years or younger in nine French centers. RESULTS: 121 patients and 141 SBC were analyzed (invasive = 130; non-invasive = 11). The mean age at first cancer diagnosis was 15 years and at initial SBC diagnosis was 38 years. Bilateral disease before the age of 51 years was diagnosed in 16% of the females. The majority of SBC were invasive carcinomas (92%). Among the invasive carcinomas, 39% had a histoprognostic score of III, 3.1% overexpressed HER2 and 29% were triple negative. The proportion of triple negative phenotype SBC was higher in patients older at first cancer diagnosis [RR = 1.2, 95% CI (1.1-1.3)]. 94% of triple negative SBCs developed in breast tissue which had received >20 Gy. CONCLUSION: We found a high proportion of aggressive SBC following thoracic radiotherapy in childhood or early adulthood. Advances in knowledge: SBC screening is recommended by scientific societies for these child/young-adulthood cancer survivors in the same way as the one for high risk women because of constitutional mutations. Our results support these recommendations, not only because of a similar cumulative risk, but also because of the aggressive histological characteristics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Radiografia Torácica/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genes erbB-2 , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
16.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 100(4): 980-986, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29485078

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify the incidence of patients with perihippocampal metastases to assess the risk of brain relapse when sparing the hippocampal area. Medulloblastoma (MB) represents 20% of pediatric brain tumors. For high-risk MB patients, the 3- to 5-year event-free survival rate has recently improved from 50% to >76%. Many survivors, however, experience neurocognitive side effects. Several retrospective studies of patients receiving whole brain irradiation (WBI) have suggested a relationship between the radiation dose to the hippocampus and neurocognitive decline. The hippocampal avoidance-WBI (HA-WBI) approach could partially reduce neurocognitive impairment in children treated for high-risk MB. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 2008 to 2011, 51 patients with high-risk MB were treated according to the French trial primitive neuroectodermal tumor HR+5. Hippocampal contouring was manually generated on 3-dimensional magnetic resonance images according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0933 atlas. The distribution of metastases was assessed relative to the hippocampus: 0 to 5 mm for the first perihippocampal area and 5 to 15 mm for the rest of the perihippocampal area. RESULTS: The median patient age was 8.79 years (33% female). After a follow-up of 2.4 years, 43 patients were alive; 28 had had brain metastasis at diagnosis and 2 at relapse, with 16% in the first perihippocampal area and 43% in the rest of the perihippocampal area. Of the 18 patients without brain metastases at diagnosis, including M1 patients, none developed secondary lesions within the first or the rest of the perihippocampal area, after receiving 36 Gy. No clinical or biological factor was significantly associated with the development of perihippocampal metastases. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest the HA-WBI strategy should be evaluated for the subgroup of high-risk MB patients without metastatic disease.

17.
Neuro Oncol ; 20(4): 445-456, 2018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29194500

RESUMO

Ependymal tumors are rare CNS tumors and may occur at any age, but their proportion among primary brain tumors is highest in children and young adults. Thus, the level of evidence of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions is higher in the pediatric compared with the adult patient population.The diagnosis and disease staging is performed by craniospinal MRI. Tumor classification is achieved by histological and molecular diagnostic assessment of tissue specimens according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification 2016. Surgery is the crucial initial treatment in both children and adults. In pediatric patients with intracranial ependymomas of WHO grades II or III, surgery is followed by local radiotherapy regardless of residual tumor volume. In adults, radiotherapy is employed in patients with anaplastic ependymoma WHO grade III, and in case of incomplete resection of WHO grade II ependymoma. Chemotherapy alone is reserved for young children <12 months and for adults with recurrent disease when further surgery and irradiation are no longer feasible. A gross total resection is the mainstay of treatment in spinal ependymomas, and radiotherapy is reserved for incompletely resected tumors. Nine subgroups of ependymal tumors across different anatomical compartments (supratentorial, posterior fossa, spinal) and patient ages have been identified with distinct genetic and epigenetic alterations, and with distinct outcomes. These findings may lead to more precise diagnostic and prognostic assessments, molecular subgroup-adapted therapies, and eventually new recommendations pending validation in prospective studies.

19.
Neuroradiology ; 59(10): 1013-1020, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28842741

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), with respect to the Macdonald criteria and changes in contrast-enhancement (CE) volume. Related variations in relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were investigated. METHODS: Forty-three patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2010 were included. All underwent surgical resection, followed by temozolomide-based chemoradiation. MR images were retrospectively reviewed. Times to progression (TTPs) according to RANO criteria, Macdonald criteria and increased CE volume (CE-3D) were compared, and the percentage change in the 75th percentile of rCBV (rCBV75) was evaluated. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 22.7 months, a total of 39 patients had progressed according to RANO criteria, 32 according to CE-3D, and 42 according to Macdonald. Median TTPs were 6.4, 9.3, and 6.6 months, respectively. Overall agreement was 79.07% between RANO and CE-3D and 93.02% between RANO and Macdonald. The mean percentage change in rCBV75 at RANO progression onset was over 73% in 87.5% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our findings suggest that CE-3D criterion is not yet suitable to assess progression in routine clinical practice. Indeed, the accurate threshold is still not well defined. To date, in our opinion, early detection of disease progression by RANO combined with advanced MRI imaging techniques like MRI perfusion and diffusion remains the best way to assess disease progression. Further investigations that would examine the impact of treatment modifications after progression determined by different criteria on overall survival would be of great value.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Volume Sanguíneo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Quimiorradioterapia , Terapia Combinada , Meios de Contraste , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Glioblastoma/terapia , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 326, 2017 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28499444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survival of childhood, adolescent and young adult (CAYA) cancers has increased with progress in the management of the treatments and has reached more than 80% at 5 years. Nevertheless, these survivors are at great risk of second cancers and non-malignant co-morbidities in later life. DeNaCaPST is a non-interventional study whose aim is to organize a national screening for thyroid cancer and breast cancer in survivors of CAYA cancers. It will study the compliance with international recommendations, with the aim, regarding a breast screening programme, of offering for every woman living in France, at equal risk, an equal screening. METHOD: DeNaCaPST trial is coordinated by the INSERM 1018 unit in cooperation with the LEA (French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study for Leukaemia) study's coordinators, the long term follow up committee and the paediatric radiation committee of the SFCE (French Society of Childhood Cancers). A total of 35 centres spread across metropolitan France and la Reunion will participate. FCCSS (French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study), LEA and central registry will be interrogated to identify eligible patients. To participate, centers agreed to perform a complete "long-term follow-up consultations" according to good clinical practice and the guidelines of the SFCE (French Society of Children Cancers). DISCUSSION: As survival has greatly improved in childhood cancers, detection of therapy-related malignancies has become a priority even if new radiation techniques will lead to better protection for organs at risk. International guidelines have been put in place because of the evidence for increased lifetime risk of breast and thyroid cancer. DeNaCaPST is based on these international recommendations but it is important to recognize that they are based on expert consensus opinion and are supported by neither nonrandomized observational studies nor prospective randomized trials in this specific population. Over-diagnosis is a phenomenon inherent in any screening program and therefore such programs must be evaluated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Mama/patologia , Feminino , França , Humanos , Glândula Tireoide/patologia
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