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1.
Qual Life Res ; 29(5): 1217-1227, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838655

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To generate foundational knowledge in the creation of a quality-of-life instrument for patients who are clinically diagnosed as being in a vegetative or minimally conscious state but are able to communicate by modulating their brain activity (i.e., behaviourally nonresponsive and covertly aware). The study aimed to identify a short list of key domains that could be used to formulate questions for an instrument that determines their self-reported quality of life. METHODS: A novel two-pronged strategy was employed: (i) a scoping review of quality-of-life instruments created for patient populations sharing some characteristics with patients who are behaviourally nonresponsive and covertly aware was done to compile a set of potentially relevant domains of quality of life; and (ii) a three-round Delphi consensus process with a multidisciplinary panel of experts was done to determine which of the identified domains of quality of life are most important to those who are behaviourally nonresponsive and covertly aware. Five expert groups were recruited for this study including healthcare workers, neuroscientists, bioethicists, quality-of-life methodologists, and patient advocates. RESULTS: Thirty-five individuals participated in the study with an average response rate of 95% per round. Over the three rounds, experts reached consensus on 34 of 44 domains (42 domains were identified in the scoping review and two new domains were added based on suggestions by experts). 22 domains were rated as being important for inclusion in a quality-of-life instrument and 12 domains were deemed to be of less importance. Participants agreed that domains related to physical pain, communication, and personal relationships were of primary importance. Based on subgroup analyses, there was a high degree of consistency among expert groups. CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life should be a central patient-reported outcome in all patient populations regardless of patients' ability to communicate. It remains to be determined how covertly aware patients perceive their circumstances and quality of life after suffering a life-altering injury. Nonetheless, it is important that any further dialogue on what constitutes a life worth living should not occur without direct patient input.

2.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260519892958, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823697

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to measure love myths among Chilean youth. Items created based on review of available literature were refined through experts' revisions and participant focus groups. The initial questionnaire was applied to 1,538 high school and university students, aged between 14 and 24 years old. Exploratory factor analysis performed with half of the sample led to a 10-item questionnaire, grouped in two factors: idealization and love-abuse. Confirmatory factor analyses conducted with the other half of the sample corroborated this factorial structure. Reliability analyses indicated an adequate internal consistency, and correlations with dating violence and quality of relationship provide evidence on its concurrent validity. Complementary, results showed that females endorse more idealization and males love-abuse, and adolescents scored higher in both dimensions than emerging adults.

3.
Front Psychol ; 10: 1464, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316429

RESUMO

Parental involvement in school has been demonstrated to be a key factor for children's academic outcomes. However, there is a lack of research in Chile, as well as in Latin American countries in general, leaving a gap in the literature about the generalization of findings outside developed and industrialized countries, where most of the research has been done. The present study aims to analyse the associations between parental involvement in school and children's academic achievement. Cluster analysis results from a sample of 498 parents or guardians whose children attended second and third grades in 16 public elementary schools in Chile suggested the existence of three different profiles of parental involvement (high, medium, and low) considering different forms of parental involvement (at home, at school and through the invitations made by the children, the teachers, and the school). Results show that there are differences in children's academic achievement between the parental involvement profiles, indicating children whose parents have a low involvement have lower academic achievement. Findings are in line with international research evidence, suggesting the need to focus on this variable too in Latin American contexts.

4.
Molecules ; 24(12)2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248198

RESUMO

Sulfur is an essential element in determining the productivity and quality of agricultural products. It is also an element associated with tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In agricultural practice, sulfur has broad use in the form of sulfate fertilizers and, to a lesser extent, as sulfite biostimulants. When used in the form of bulk elemental sulfur, or micro- or nano-sulfur, applied both to the soil and to the canopy, the element undergoes a series of changes in its oxidation state, produced by various intermediaries that apparently act as biostimulants and promoters of stress tolerance. The final result is sulfate S+6, which is the source of sulfur that all soil organisms assimilate and that plants absorb by their root cells. The changes in the oxidation states of sulfur S0 to S+6 depend on the action of specific groups of edaphic bacteria. In plant cells, S+6 sulfate is reduced to S-2 and incorporated into biological molecules. S-2 is also absorbed by stomata from H2S, COS, and other atmospheric sources. S-2 is the precursor of inorganic polysulfides, organic polysulfanes, and H2S, the action of which has been described in cell signaling and biostimulation in plants. S-2 is also the basis of essential biological molecules in signaling, metabolism, and stress tolerance, such as reactive sulfur species (RSS), SAM, glutathione, and phytochelatins. The present review describes the dynamics of sulfur in soil and plants, considering elemental sulfur as the starting point, and, as a final point, the sulfur accumulated as S-2 in biological structures. The factors that modify the behavior of the different components of the sulfur cycle in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, and how these influences the productivity, quality, and stress tolerance of crops, are described. The internal and external factors that influence the cellular production of S-2 and polysulfides vs. other S species are also described. The impact of elemental sulfur is compared with that of sulfates, in the context of proper soil management. The conclusion is that the use of elemental sulfur is recommended over that of sulfates, since it is beneficial for the soil microbiome, for productivity and nutritional quality of crops, and also allows the increased tolerance of plants to environmental stresses.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/química , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Enxofre/química , Adaptação Biológica , Biotransformação , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Valor Nutritivo , Oxirredução , Enxofre/análise , Enxofre/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215203, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978210

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of using a widely validated, web-based neurocognitive test battery (Cambridge Brain Sciences, CBS) in a cohort of critical illness survivors. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in two intensive care units (ICUs) at two tertiary care hospitals. Twenty non-delirious ICU patients who were mechanically ventilated for a minimum of 24 hours underwent cognitive testing using the CBS battery. The CBS consists of 12 cognitive tests that assess a broad range of cognitive abilities that can be categorized into three cognitive domains: reasoning skills, short-term memory, and verbal processing. Patients underwent cognitive assessment while still in the ICU (n = 13) or shortly after discharge to ward (n = 7). Cognitive impairment on each test was defined as a raw score that was 1.5 or more standard deviations below age- and sex-matched norms from healthy controls. RESULTS: We found that all patients were impaired on at least two tests and 18 patients were impaired on at least three tests. ICU patients had poorer performance on all three cognitive domains relative to healthy controls. We identified testing related fatigue due to battery length as a feasibility issue of the CBS test battery. CONCLUSIONS: Use of a web-based patient-administered cognitive test battery is feasible and can be used in large-scale studies to identify domain-specific cognitive impairment in critical illness survivors and the temporal course of recovery over time.


Assuntos
Cognição , Estado Terminal/psicologia , Internet , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Front Psychol ; 10: 335, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873076

RESUMO

There is an extensive body of evidence to support both family involvement and students' socioemotional development as key factors in the promotion of learning outcomes. However, there is insufficient evidence to establish exactly what this impact is when both factors are considered simultaneously. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the influence of family involvement and socioemotional development on learning outcomes of Chilean students, identifying the structure that most correctly identifies the influence of the predictor variables (family involvement and socioemotional development) on learning outcomes. We present the following three hypotheses that consider possible basic interrelation structures: (1) The influence of family involvement on learning outcomes is mediated by students' socioemotional development (mediation hypothesis); (2) The influence of family involvement on learning outcomes is moderated by students' socioemotional development (moderation hypothesis); (3) Family involvement and students' socio emotional development directly affect learning outcomes (covariance hypothesis). The structures were evaluated by means of a structural equation model analysis. The study included 768 students who attended second and third elementary grades in Chilean schools. The children were between 7 and 11 years old (M = 8.29, SD = 0.86); 41.3% were girls and 58.7% were boys. The results show that family involvement and students' emotional development directly affect learning outcomes (CFI = 0.995, TLI = 0.993, RMSEA = 0.016). From the results, we can conclude that the data support the hypothesis that both family involvement and socioemotional development are predictors of learning outcomes, thereby rejecting that the impact of family involvement on learning outcomes is mediated or moderated by socioemotional development.

7.
Heliyon ; 5(1): e01148, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723828

RESUMO

Vegetable soybean (Edamame) blanching with hot water/steam is an energy- and water- intensive process that may also result in compromised product quality. The effectiveness of infrared (IR) heating to dry and simultaneously blanch Edamame was investigated at heating intensities of 11.06, 8.43 and 6.99 kW/m2. Temperature, weight, texture, and green intensity of heated samples for various durations were determined. In general, product weight decreased during IR heating. The largest weight reduction (9.5 %) was achieved after 100 s of heating at the highest IR heating intensity. Hardness was reduced alongside treatment duration, reaching the lowest values (11172.9-10847 N) at 100 or 120 s despite heating intensity. The highest green intensity was recorded (0.33) for treatments at 100 or 120 s. The new process combined drying and blanching into one step which potentially improves processing efficiency and product quality.

8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13259, 2018 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185912

RESUMO

How are the myriad stimuli arriving at our senses transformed into conscious thought? To address this question, in a series of studies, we asked whether a common mechanism underlies loss of information processing in unconscious states across different conditions, which could shed light on the brain mechanisms of conscious cognition. With a novel approach, we brought together for the first time, data from the same paradigm-a highly engaging auditory-only narrative-in three independent domains: anesthesia-induced unconsciousness, unconsciousness after brain injury, and individual differences in intellectual abilities during conscious cognition. During external stimulation in the unconscious state, the functional differentiation between the auditory and fronto-parietal systems decreased significantly relatively to the conscious state. Conversely, we found that stronger functional differentiation between these systems in response to external stimulation predicted higher intellectual abilities during conscious cognition, in particular higher verbal acuity scores in independent cognitive testing battery. These convergent findings suggest that the responsivity of sensory and higher-order brain systems to external stimulation, especially through the diversification of their functional responses is an essential feature of conscious cognition and verbal intelligence.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Conectoma/métodos , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Adulto , Anestesia , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Inconsciência/induzido quimicamente , Inconsciência/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Front Neurol ; 9: 492, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997565

RESUMO

It is well established that some patients, who are deemed to have disorders of consciousness, remain entirely behaviorally non-responsive and are diagnosed as being in a vegetative state, yet can nevertheless demonstrate covert awareness of their external environment by modulating their brain activity, a phenomenon known as cognitive-motor dissociation. However, the extent to which these patients retain internal awareness remains unknown. To investigate the potential for internal and external awareness in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DoC), we asked whether the pattern of juxtaposition between the functional time-courses of the default mode (DMN) and fronto-parietal networks, shown in healthy individuals to mediate the naturally occurring dominance switching between internal and external aspects of consciousness, was present in these patients. We used a highly engaging movie by Alfred Hitchcock to drive the recruitment of the fronto-parietal networks, including the dorsal attention (DAN) and executive control (ECN) networks, and their maximal juxtaposition to the DMN in response to the complex stimulus, relative to rest and a scrambled, meaningless movie baseline condition. We tested a control group of healthy participants (N = 13/12) and two groups of patients with disorders of consciousness, one comprised of patients who demonstrated independent, neuroimaging-based evidence of covert external awareness (N = 8), and the other of those who did not (N = 8). Similarly to the healthy controls, only the group of patients with overt and, critically, covert external awareness showed significantly heightened differentiation between the DMN and the DAN in response to movie viewing relative to their resting state time-courses, which was driven by the movie's narrative. This result suggested the presence of functional integrity in the DMN and fronto-parietal networks and their relationship to one another in patients with covert external awareness. Similar to the effect in healthy controls, these networks became more strongly juxtaposed to one another in response to movie viewing relative to the baseline conditions, suggesting the potential for internal and external awareness during complex stimulus processing. Furthermore, our results suggest that naturalistic paradigms can dissociate between groups of DoC patients with and without covert awareness based on the functional integrity of brain networks.

10.
Rev Med Chil ; 146(3): 300-307, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29999099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are common in patients with cancer. AIM: To adapt and validate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for adult Chilean cancer patients, and to provide information about their prevalence of anxiety and depression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred fifteen patients with cancer answered an adapted version of HADS for Chilean population. The language adjustment of the scale was carried out with the opinions of 10 expert linguists and with a pilot study on 17 cancer patients. The Depression and Anxiety subscales of the DASS-21 were also applied to verify the convergent validity of HADS: Results: The confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the data fits the model of two correlated factors (anxiety and depression), χ2 = 98.608; df = 76;p < 0.05; χ2/df= 1.23, RMSEA = 0.037; CFI = 0.99; TLI = .98. Reliability analysis showed an adequate internal consistency of both subscales (.76 for anxiety and .84 for depression) and the general scale (.87). Correlations between HADS and DASS-21 scores were significant for both anxiety (r =.514, p < 0.001) and depression (r = 0.600, p < 0.001). Prevalence rates were approximately 30% for depression (actual = 12%, possible = 22.8%) and approximately 20% for anxiety (actual = 7%, possible = 8.4%). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that HADS is a reliable and valid instrument for screening clinically relevant anxiety and depression symptoms in Chilean cancer patients.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Chile , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Projetos Piloto , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tradução , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260518760612, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502509

RESUMO

The Dating Violence Questionnaire (DVQ) is a 42-item questionnaire that measures victimization in romantic relationships between young people, through eight interrelated scales assessing detachment, humiliation, coercion, emotional punishment, gender-based, sexual, physical, and instrumental violence. It has been validated in a myriad of countries and languages and is commonly used in Spanish-speaking countries; however, two scales (emotional punishment and instrumental violence) have shown reliability issues. The aim of present study is to analyze the psychometric proprieties of the adapted version of the DVQ for the Chilean population, reviewing evidence of structure validity, external validity, and reliability-using polychoric and ordinal analysis-and including new items to improve instrumental and emotional punishment scales (DVQ+). Eight hundred forty-six high school and university students (14-24 years old) participated in the study. Results showed that both DVQ and DVQ+ versions had an adequate fit with the original correlated eight-factor model (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .023; comparative fit index [CFI] = .97, in both cases), as well as with a more parsimonious second-order factor model (RMSEA = .024-.025; CFI = .97-.97, respectively). Reliability analysis also showed both version presented satisfactory values for internal consistency. Finally, scores of DVQ were correlated-as expected-negatively with quality of the relationship and positively with fear, perceived abuse, and attachment-related anxiety, thus providing new evidences of validity.

12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(3): 300-307, mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-961394

RESUMO

Background: Depression and anxiety are common in patients with cancer. Aim: To adapt and validate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for adult Chilean cancer patients, and to provide information about their prevalence of anxiety and depression. Material and Methods: Two hundred fifteen patients with cancer answered an adapted version of HADS for Chilean population. The language adjustment of the scale was carried out with the opinions of 10 expert linguists and with a pilot study on 17 cancer patients. The Depression and Anxiety subscales of the DASS-21 were also applied to verify the convergent validity of HADS: Results: The confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the data fits the model of two correlated factors (anxiety and depression), χ2 = 98.608; df = 76;p < 0.05; χ2/df= 1.23, RMSEA = 0.037; CFI = 0.99; TLI = .98. Reliability analysis showed an adequate internal consistency of both subscales (.76 for anxiety and .84 for depression) and the general scale (.87). Correlations between HADS and DASS-21 scores were significant for both anxiety (r =.514, p < 0.001) and depression (r = 0.600, p < 0.001). Prevalence rates were approximately 30% for depression (actual = 12%, possible = 22.8%) and approximately 20% for anxiety (actual = 7%, possible = 8.4%). Conclusions: We conclude that HADS is a reliable and valid instrument for screening clinically relevant anxiety and depression symptoms in Chilean cancer patients.


Objetivo: Adaptar y validar la Escala Hospitalaria de Ansiedad y Depresión (HAD) a población adulta oncológica chilena y aportar información sobre la prevalencia de ansiedad y depresión en la muestra. Método: Participantes: 215 pacientes oncológicos. Instrumentos: Protocolo de datos sociodemográficos y clínicos; HAD y el DASS-21, utilizada como Gold Standar para comprobar la validez de convergencia de la escala. Procedimiento: adaptación lingüística de la escala mediante juicio de expertos lingüistas (n = 10) y pilotaje con 17 pacientes oncológicos. Resultados: El análisis factorial confirmatorio indica que la escala se ajusta al modelo de dos factores correlacionados (ansiedad y depresión) (χ2 = 98,608; gl = 76; p < 0,05; χ2/gl = 1.23; RMSEA = 0,037; CFI = 0,99; TLI = 0,98). Los análisis de confiabilidad ponen de manifiesto una adecuada consistencia interna tanto de las subescalas que la componen (0,76 para ansiedad y 0,84 para depresión) como de la escala general (0,87). Las correlaciones entre las puntuaciones del HAD y el DASS-21 fueron positivas y significativas tanto para ansiedad (r = 0,514, p < 0,001) como para depresión (r = 0,600, p < 0,001). Se señalan cifras de prevalencia en torno al 30% para depresión (caso = 12%; posible = 22,8%) y al 20% para ansiedad (caso = 7%; posible = 8,4%). Conclusiones: El HADS es un instrumento válido y confiable para el screnning de síntomas de ansiedad y depresión de relevancia clínica en pacientes oncológicos chilenos.

13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 98(2): 478-485, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210352

RESUMO

Compared with South America, there is a lack of epidemiologic studies about the risk of congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Central America and Mexico. It has been suggested that T. cruzi genotypes might differ by region and that congenital transmission might vary according to the parasite's genotype. Our objective was to compare T. cruzi congenital transmission rates in three countries. We performed an observational prospective study in 2011-2014 enrolling women at delivery in one hospital in Argentina, two hospitals in Honduras, and two hospitals in Mexico. Congenital T. cruzi infection was defined as the presence of one or more of the following criteria: presence of parasites in cord blood (direct parasitological microscopic examination) with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in cord blood, presence of parasites in infant's blood at 4-8 weeks (direct parasitological microscopic examination), and persistence of T. cruzi-specific antibodies at 10 months, as measured by at least two tests. Among 28,145 enrolled women, 347 had at least one antibody rapid test positive in cord blood and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in maternal blood. PCR in maternal blood was positive in 73.2% of the cases, and genotyping identified a majority of non-TcI in the three countries. We found no (0.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.0, 2.0) confirmed congenital case in Honduras. Congenital transmission was 6.6% (95% CI: 3.1, 12.2) in Argentina and 6.3% (95% CI: 0.8, 20.8) in Mexico. Trypanosoma cruzi non-TcI predominated and risks of congenital transmission were similar in Argentina and Mexico.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/parasitologia , Honduras/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , México/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade
14.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 31: 19, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-955759

RESUMO

Abstract Ethnic identity becomes an important issue during adolescence, especially for ethnic minority groups. This study examines ethnic identities of immigrant and native adolescents who live in Spain, focusing on the ethnic labels they use, their development, and the relation with life satisfaction. Questionnaires were administered to first-generation immigrants (n= 501; mean age 14.6 years) as well as to their native host classmates (n= 501, mean age 14.3 years). Results show that ethnic identification was mainly determined by country of birth; however, in the case of immigrants, having immigrated at an early age favored the use of identity labels of the majority group. Immigrants were more likely to be in the achieved ethnic identity category than non-immigrants, although it was positively related to life satisfaction in both groups. Finally, older adolescents were not more likely to be in the achieved category than younger ones.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos , Satisfação Pessoal
16.
Univ. psychol ; 16(2): 26-36, abr.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-963245

RESUMO

Resumen En este estudio se analizan los perfiles de aculturación de 331 adolescentes latinoamericanos residentes en España y su relación con sus niveles de autonomía conductual, los conflictos que mantienen con sus progenitores y su bienestar subjetivo. Los resultados de los análisis de conglomerados confirman la existencia de cuatro perfiles de aculturación: integración (n=113), separación (n=100), marginación (n=63) y asimilación (n=55). Respecto a las diferencias entre perfiles en las variables estudiadas, los resultados de los análisis de la varianza mostraron que no existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la autonomía conductual ni en la frecuencia de conflictos; pero sí en el bienestar subjetivo, siendo el perfil de marginación fue el que presentó una menor satisfacción vital.


Abstract In this study, we analyze the acculturation profiles of 331 Latin-American adolescents living in Spain, and their relation with their levels of behavioral autonomy, conflicts with their parents, and their subjective well-being. Results confirm the existence of four acculturation strategies: integration (n=113), separation (n=100), marginalization (n=63), and assimilation (n=55). Regarding differences between profiles, results from analyses of variance showed there were not statistical differences in adolescents' behavioral autonomy, nor in the frequency of parent-adolescent conflict; there was in subjective well-being, being the marginalization profile the one that presenting less life satisfaction.


Assuntos
Humanos , Aculturação , Espanha , Adolescente , América Latina
17.
Front Psychol ; 8: 173, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28243215

RESUMO

Dynamic Assessment (DA) has been shown to have more predictive value than conventional tests for academic performance. However, in relation to reading difficulties, further research is needed to determine the predictive validity of DA for specific aspects of the different processes involved in reading and the differential validity of DA for different subgroups of students with an academic disadvantage. This paper analyzes the implementation of a DA device that evaluates processes involved in reading (EDPL) among 60 students with reading comprehension difficulties between 9 and 16 years of age, of whom 20 have intellectual disabilities, 24 have reading-related learning disabilities, and 16 have socio-cultural disadvantages. We specifically analyze the predictive validity of the EDPL device over attitude toward reading, and the use of dialogue/participation strategies in reading activities in the classroom during the implementation stage. We also analyze if the EDPL device provides additional information to that obtained with a conventionally applied personal-social adjustment scale (APSL). Results showed that dynamic scores, obtained from the implementation of the EDPL device, significantly predict the studied variables. Moreover, dynamic scores showed a significant incremental validity in relation to predictions based on an APSL scale. In relation to differential validity, the results indicated the superior predictive validity for DA for students with intellectual disabilities and reading disabilities than for students with socio-cultural disadvantages. Furthermore, the role of metacognition and its relation to the processes of personal-social adjustment in explaining the results is discussed.

18.
Neuroimage Clin ; 12: 359-71, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27595064

RESUMO

Functional neuroimaging of covert perceptual and cognitive processes can inform the diagnoses and prognoses of patients with disorders of consciousness, such as the vegetative and minimally conscious states (VS;MCS). Here we report an event-related potential (ERP) paradigm for detecting a hierarchy of auditory processes in a group of healthy individuals and patients with disorders of consciousness. Simple cortical responses to sounds were observed in all 16 patients; 7/16 (44%) patients exhibited markers of the differential processing of speech and noise; and 1 patient produced evidence of the semantic processing of speech (i.e. the N400 effect). In several patients, the level of auditory processing that was evident from ERPs was higher than the abilities that were evident from behavioural assessment, indicating a greater sensitivity of ERPs in some cases. However, there were no differences in auditory processing between VS and MCS patient groups, indicating a lack of diagnostic specificity for this paradigm. Reliably detecting semantic processing by means of the N400 effect in passively listening single-subjects is a challenge. Multiple assessment methods are needed in order to fully characterise the abilities of patients with disorders of consciousness.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Consciência/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Semântica , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0148191, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26863136

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms regulating the accuracy of gene expression are still not fully understood. Among these mechanisms, Nonsense-mediated Decay (NMD) is a quality control process that detects post-transcriptionally abnormal transcripts and leads them to degradation. The UPF1 protein lays at the heart of NMD as shown by several structural and functional features reported for this factor mainly for Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This process is highly conserved in eukaryotes but functional diversity can be observed in various species. Ustilago maydis is a basidiomycete and the best-known smut, which has become a model to study molecular and cellular eukaryotic mechanisms. In this study, we performed in silico analysis to investigate the structural and biochemical properties of the putative UPF1 homolog in Ustilago maydis. The putative homolog for UPF1 was recognized in the annotated genome for the basidiomycete, exhibiting 66% identity with its human counterpart at the protein level. The known structural and functional domains characteristic of UPF1 homologs were also found. Based on the crystal structures available for UPF1, we constructed different three-dimensional models for umUPF1 in order to analyze the secondary and tertiary structural features of this factor. Using these models, we studied the spatial arrangement of umUPF1 and its capability to interact with UPF2. Moreover, we identified the critical amino acids that mediate the interaction of umUPF1 with UPF2, ATP, RNA and with UPF1 itself. Mutating these amino acids in silico showed an important effect over the native structure. Finally, we performed molecular dynamic simulations for UPF1 proteins from H. sapiens and U. maydis and the results obtained show a similar behavior and physicochemical properties for the protein in both organisms. Overall, our results indicate that the putative UPF1 identified in U. maydis shows a very similar sequence, structural organization, mechanical stability, physicochemical properties and spatial organization in comparison to the NMD factor depicted for Homo sapiens. These observations strongly support the notion that human and fungal UPF1 could perform equivalent biological activities.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Transativadores/química , Ustilago/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Biologia Computacional , Cristalografia por Raios X , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido , Filogenia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 14(1): 591-601, ene.-jun. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-794074

RESUMO

En este estudio analizamos las propiedades psicométricas y la estructura factorial de la adaptación al español de la Escala de Identidad étnica Multigrupo Revisada (Eiem-R). Participaron 1002 adolescentes residentes en España, la mitad inmigrantes de primera generación (67.7% nacidos en Latinoamérica, 13.6% en Europa del Este, 13.2% en áfrica, 3.6% en Asia y 2% en el resto de Europa, así como sus padres y madres) y la otra mitad autóctonos (nacidos en España, así como sus padres y madres). Los análisis factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios apoyan que la escala mide los dos componentes de la identidad étnica propuestos -exploración y compromiso- por los autores originales, y que estos se encuentran correlacionados. Los análisis también mostraron casi completos niveles de invarianza de esta estructura factorial al comparar entre sexos, etapas de adolescencia y autóctonos e inmigrantes.


This study examined the psychometric properties and factorial structure of the Spanish version of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure Revised (Meim-R). Participants for this study were 1002 adolescents living in Spain, half of them first-generation migrants (67.7% born in Latin America, 13.6% in Eastern Europe, 13.2% in Africa, 3.6% in Asia and 2% in the rest of Europe, as well as their parents). Confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis supports that the scale measures the two dimensions of ethnic identity (exploration and commitment) proposed by the original authors, and that these dimensions are correlated. High Measurement Invariance levels of this structure are proved across gender, periods of adolescence and native and immigrant adolescents.


O presente estudo analisa as propriedades psicométricas e a estrutura de fatores da adaptação ao espanhol da Escala de Identidade étnica Multigrupo Revisada (Eiem-R). Participaram 1002 adolescentes que moram na Espanha, sendo a metade deles de imigrantes de primeira geração (67,7% nascidos na América Latina, 13,6% na Europa do Leste, 13,2% na áfrica, 3,6% na ásia e 2% no resto da Europa, assim como os seus pais e as suas mães) e a outra metade de autóctones (nascidos na Espanha, assim como os seus pais e suas mães). As análises fatoriais exploratórias e confirmatórias sustentam que a escala mede os dois componentes da identidade étnica (exploração e compromisso) que já foram propostos pelos autores originais, e que ambos estão correlacionados. Além disso, a análise também mostrou níveis quase completos dessa invariância fatorial ao comparar, entre os sexos, as etapas da adolescência e autóctones e imigrantes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Emigração e Imigração , Espanha
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