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1.
Eur Urol Open Sci ; 33: 89-93, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661173

RESUMO

A prognostic model based on the population of the ASSURE phase 3 trial has recently been described. The ASSURE model stratifies patients into risk groups to predict survival after surgical resection of intermediate- and high-risk localised kidney cancer. We evaluated this model in an independent cohort of 1372 patients using discrimination, calibration, and decision curve analysis. Regarding disease-free survival, the ASSURE model showed modest discrimination (65%), miscalibration, and poor net benefit compared with the UCLA Integrated Staging System (UISS) and Leibovich 2018 models. Similarly, the ability of the ASSURE model to predict overall survival was poor in terms of discrimination (63%), with overestimation on calibration plots and a modest net benefit for the probability threshold of between 10% and 40%. Overall, our results show that the performance of the ASSURE model was less optimistic than expected, and not associated with a clear improvement in patient selection and clinical usefulness in comparison to with available models. We propose an updated version using the recalibration method, which leads to a (slight) improvement in performance but should be validated in another external population. Patient summary: The recent ASSURE model evaluates survival after surgery for nonmetastatic kidney cancer. We found no clear improvement in patient classification when we compared ASSURE with older models, so use of this model for patients with nonmetastatic kidney cancer still needs to be clarified.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17473, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471195

RESUMO

As for all newly-emergent pathogens, SARS-CoV-2 presents with a relative paucity of clinical information and experimental models, a situation hampering both the development of new effective treatments and the prediction of future outbreaks. Here, we find that a simple virus-free model, based on publicly available transcriptional data from human cell lines, is surprisingly able to recapitulate several features of the clinically relevant infections. By segregating cell lines (n = 1305) from the CCLE project on the base of their sole angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mRNA content, we found that overexpressing cells present with molecular features resembling those of at-risk patients, including senescence, impairment of antibody production, epigenetic regulation, DNA repair and apoptosis, neutralization of the interferon response, proneness to an overemphasized innate immune activity, hyperinflammation by IL-1, diabetes, hypercoagulation and hypogonadism. Likewise, several pathways were found to display a differential expression between sexes, with males being in the least advantageous position, thus suggesting that the model could reproduce even the sex-related disparities observed in the clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19. Overall, besides validating a new disease model, our data suggest that, in patients with severe COVID-19, a baseline ground could be already present and, as a consequence, the viral infection might simply exacerbate a variety of latent (or inherent) pre-existing conditions, representing therefore a tipping point at which they become clinically significant.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação para Cima , COVID-19/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Caracteres Sexuais
3.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362105

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are common events after radical nephrectomy (RN). In this study we aimed to predict AKI and CKD after RN relying on specific histological aspects. We collected data from a cohort of 144 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy. A histopathological review of the healthy part of the removed kidney was performed using an established chronicity score (CS). Logistic regression analyses were performed to predict AKI after RN, while linear regression analysis was adopted for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) variation at 1 year. The outcomes of the study were to determine variables correlated with AKI onset, and with eGFR decay at 1 year. The proportion of AKI was 64%. Logistic analyses showed that baseline eGFR independently predicted AKI (odds ratio 1.04, 95%CI 1.02:1.06). Moreover, AKI (Beta -16, 95%CI -21:-11), baseline eGFR (Beta -0.42, 95%CI -0.52:-0.33), and the presence of arterial narrowing (Beta 10, 95%CI 4:15) were independently associated with eGFR decline. Our findings showed that AKI onset and eGFR decline were more likely to occur with higher baseline eGFR and lower CS, highlighting that RN in normal renal function patients represents a more traumatic event than its CKD counterpart.

4.
BMC Urol ; 21(1): 104, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, renal angioembolization (RAE) has gained an important role in the non-operative management (NOM) of moderate to high-grade blunt renal injuries (BRI), but its use remains heterogeneous. The aim of this review is to examine the current literature on indications and outcomes of angioembolization in BRI. METHODS: We conducted a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS and Web of Science Databases up to February 2021 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines for studies on BRI treated with RAE. The methodological quality of eligible studies and their risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale RESULTS: A total of 16 articles that investigated angioembolization of blunt renal injury were included in the study. Overall, 412 patients were included: 8 presented with grade II renal trauma (2%), 97 with grade III renal trauma (23%); 225 with grade IV (55%); and 82 with grade V (20%). RAE was successful in 92% of grade III-IV (294/322) and 76% of grade V (63/82). Regarding haemodynamic status, success rate was achieved in 90% (312/346) of stable patients, but only in 63% (42/66) of unstable patients. The most common indication for RAE was active contrast extravasation in hemodynamic stable patients with grade III or IV BRI. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first review assessing outcomes and indication of angioembolization in blunt renal injuries. The results suggest that outcomes are excellent in hemodynamic stable, moderate to high-grade renal trauma.

5.
Andrology ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating testosterone levels have been found to be reduced in men with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, COVID-19, with lower levels being associated with more severe clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess total testosterone levels and the prevalence of total testosterone still suggesting for hypogonadism at 7-month follow-up in a cohort of 121 men who recovered from laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and hormonal values were collected for all patients. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone ≤9.2 nmol/L. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to score health-significant comorbidities. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression models tested the association between clinical and laboratory variables and total testosterone levels at follow-up assessment. RESULTS: Circulating total testosterone levels increased at 7-month follow-up compared to hospital admittance (p < 0.0001), while luteinizing hormone and 17ß-estradiol levels significantly decreased (all p ≤ 0.02). Overall, total testosterone levels increased in 106 (87.6%) patients, but further decreased in 12 (9.9%) patients at follow-up, where a total testosterone level suggestive for hypogonadism was still observed in 66 (55%) patients. Baseline Charlson Comorbidity Index score (OR 0.36; p = 0.03 [0.14, 0.89]) was independently associated with total testosterone levels at 7-month follow-up, after adjusting for age, BMI, and IL-6 at hospital admittance. CONCLUSIONS: Although total testosterone levels increased over time after COVID-19, more than 50% of men who recovered from the disease still had circulating testosterone levels suggestive for a condition of hypogonadism at 7-month follow-up. In as many as 10% of cases, testosterone levels even further decreased. Of clinical relevance, the higher the burden of comorbid conditions at presentation, the lower the probability of testosterone levels recovery over time.

7.
Minerva Urol Nephrol ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of warm ischemia time (WIT) on renal functional recovery remains controversial. We examined the length of WIT >30 min. on the long-term renal function following on-clamp partial nephrectomy (PN). METHODS: Data from 23 centers for patients undergoing on-clamp PN between 2000 and 2018 were analyzed. We included patients with two kidneys, single tumor, cT1, minimum 1-year followup, and preoperative eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2. Patients were divided into two groups according to WIT length: group Ⅰ "WIT ≤30 min." and group Ⅱ "WIT >30 min.". A propensity-score matched analysis (1:1 match) was performed to eliminate potential confounding factors between groups. We compared eGFR values, eGFR (%) preservation, eGFR decline, events of chronic kidney disease (CKD) upgrading, and CKD-free progression rates between both groups. Cox regression analysis evaluated WIT impact on upgrading of CKD stages. RESULTS: The primary cohort consisted of 3526 patients: group Ⅰ (n=2868) and group Ⅱ (n=658). After matching the final cohort consisted of 344 patients in each group. At last followup, there were no significant differences in median eGFR values at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years (P>0.05) between the matched groups. In addition, the median eGFR (%) preservation and absolute eGFR change were similar (89% in group Ⅰ vs. 87% in group Ⅱ, p=0.638) and (-10 in group Ⅰ vs. -11 in group Ⅱ, p=0.577), respectively. The 5 years new-onset CKD-free progression rates were comparable in the non-matched groups (79% in group Ⅰ vs. 81% in group Ⅱ, log-rank, p=0.763) and the matched groups (78.8% in group Ⅰ vs. 76.3% in group Ⅱ, log-rank, p=0.905). Univariable Cox regression analysis showed that WIT >30 min. was not a predictor of overall CKD upgrading (HR:0.953, 95%CI 0.829-1.094, p=0.764) nor upgrading into CKD stage ≥Ⅲ (HR:0.972, 95%CI 0.805-1.173, p=0.764). Retrospective design is a limitation of our study. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis based on a large multicenter international cohort study suggests that WIT length during PN has no effect on the long-term renal function outcomes in patients having two kidneys and preoperative eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2.

8.
Eur Urol ; 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salvage treatment for local recurrence after prior partial nephrectomy (PN) or local tumor ablation (LTA) for kidney cancer is, as of yet, poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To classify the treatments and standardize the nomenclature of salvage robot-assisted renal surgery, to describe the surgical technique for each scenario, and to investigate complications, renal function, and oncologic outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-seven patients underwent salvage robot-assisted renal surgery from October 2010 to December 2020 at nine tertiary referral centers. SURGICAL PROCEDURE: Salvage robot-assisted renal surgery classified according to treatment type as salvage robot-assisted partial or radical nephrectomy (sRAPN or sRARN) and according to previous primary treatment (PN or LTA). MEASUREMENTS: Postoperative complications, renal function, and oncologic outcomes were assessed. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 32 and 35 patients underwent salvage robotic surgery following PN and LTA, respectively. After prior PN, two patients underwent sRAPN, while ten underwent sRARN for a metachronous recurrence in the same kidney. No intra- or perioperative complication occurred. For local recurrence in the resection bed, six patients underwent sRAPN, while 14 underwent sRARN. For sRAPN, the intraoperative complication rate was 33%; there was no postoperative complication. For sRARN, there was no intraoperative complication and the postoperative complication rate was 7%. At 3 yr, the local recurrence-free rates were 64% and 82% for sRAPN and sRARN, respectively, while the 3-yr metastasis-free rates were 80% and 79%, respectively. At 33 mo, the median estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) were 57 and 45 ml/min/1.73 m2 for sRAPN and sRARN, respectively. After prior LTA, 35 patients underwent sRAPN and no patient underwent sRARN. There was no intraoperative complication; the overall postoperative complications rate was 20%. No local recurrence occurred. The 3-yr metastasis-free rate was 90%. At 43 mo, the median eGFR was 38 ml/min/1.73 m2. The main limitations are the relatively small population and the noncomparative design of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Salvage robot-assisted surgery has a safe complication profile in the hands of experienced surgeons at high-volume institutions, but the risk of local recurrence in this setting is non-negligible. PATIENT SUMMARY: Patients with local recurrence after partial nephrectomy or local tumor ablation should be aware that further treatment with robot-assisted surgery is not associated with a worrisome complication profile, but also that they are at risk of further recurrence.

9.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 4(3): 506-509, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074486

RESUMO

Surgical treatment of small renal masses (RMs) is still characterized by a non-negligible rate of benign histology, ultimately resulting in overtreatment. Since the risk of kidney cancer increases with age and the risk of malignancy usually increases with tumor size, we created a model based on patient age, RM size, and their interaction for predicting malignant histology. As male sex is associated with a higher risk of renal malignancy, we also stratified our analyses by sex. We used data for 2252 patients with cT1N0M0 disease (1551 male [69%], 701 female [31%]). On logistic regression, both age and RM size were predictors of malignant histology. For males, the odds ratio (OR) was 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78-2.80) for age and 2.04 (95% CI 1.69-2.47) for RM size; for females, the OR was 1.82 (95% CI 1.78-2.80) for age and 2.04 (95% CI 1.69-2.47) for RM size (all p ≤ 0.007), with a significant continuous-by-continuous interaction between them (p < 0.001) in both models. On decision curve analysis, the model demonstrated clinical utility for predicting malignancy at a probability of <55% for males and <60% for females. Individuals with lower probability should be considered for renal biopsy and those with higher probability for upfront surgery. The model was also more informative than RM size alone in predicting malignancy, which currently represents the only absolute criterion for active surveillance eligibility. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study we analyzed the correlation between age and tumor size for predicting tumor malignancy. The aim in management is to balance the utility of performing a biopsy and the appropriateness of upfront surgery against the ultimate goal of decreasing overtreatment.

10.
Curr Probl Cancer ; : 100759, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130863

RESUMO

The indications for adjuvant vascular endothelial growth factor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGF-TKI) agents after curative intent nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma are still a matter of debate. The ASSURE, PROTECT and ATLAS trials have failed to meet their primary end-points. Conversely, S-TRAC has shown a disease free survival (DFS) benefit. To date, meta-analyses have repeatedly proved the absence of a clinical benefit, in term of DFS and overall survival (OS). Nevertheless, the results of the SORCE trial have been recently released and might add valuable information. We pooled the results of all five reported trials testing for any potential DFS and OS benefits associated with VEGF-TKI use. Interestingly, for pooled DFS we found a marginal positive hazard ratio (HR) of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-1.00; P-value = 0.049) in favor of adjuvant VEGF-TKI agents. This benefit was more pronounced for DFS in the sub-groups of only high-risk patients (HR: 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.99; P-value = 0.026), but less pronounced in clear-cell only subgroup (HR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.85-1.00; P-value = 0.044). Overall survival benefit was instead not reached. However, pooled relative risk for high-grade (grade ≥3 according to CTCAE classification) adverse events was irremediably high, 2.56 (95% CI: 2.15-3.04; P-value < 0.001). Given the marginal benefit in terms of DFS and the drawback of high-grade adverse events, even after the SORCE trial publication, adjuvant VEGF-TKIs therapy cannot be considered in the whole group of patients with non-metastatic high-risk renal cell carcinoma after surgery.

11.
Minerva Urol Nephrol ; 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) in patients ≥75 years is certainly underused with concerns regarding surgical quality and a negligible impact on renal function. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of progression of chronic kidney disease for purely off-clamp (ocRPN) and on-clamp RPN (onRPN) in elderly patients on a multi-institutional series. METHODS: A collaborative minimally-invasive renal surgery dataset was queried for "RPN" performed between July 2007 and March 2021 and "age≥75 years". A total of 205 patients matched the inclusion criteria. Descriptive analyses were used. Frequencies and proportions were reported for categorical variables while medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) were reported for continuous variables. Baseline, perioperative and functional data were compared between groups. New-onset of stages 3b,4,5 CKD in onRPN and ocRPN cohorts was computed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of progression to severe CKD (sCKD [stages ≥3b]). For all statistical analyses, a two-sided p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of the cohort considered was 78 years (IQR 76-80). At a median follow-up of 29 months (IQR 14.5-44.5), new onset CKD-3b and CKD-4,5 stages was observed in 16.6% and 2.4% of patients, respectively. At Kaplan-Meier analysis, onRPN was associated with a significantly higher risk of developing sCKD (p=0.002). On multivariable analysis, hypertension (HR 2.64; 95% CI 1.14-6.11; p=0.023), on-clamp approach (HR 3.41; 95% CI 1.50-7.74; p=0.003) non-achievement of trifecta (HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.17-0.78; p=0.01) were independent predictors of sCKD. CONCLUSIONS: RPN in patients≥75 years is a safe surgical option. On-clamp approach, hypertension and non-achievement of trifecta were independent predictors of sCKD in the elderly after RPN.

12.
Urol Oncol ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147313

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Advances in neoadjuvant therapy for patients with localized, nonmetastatic, upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is needed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PURE-02 was a feasibility study enrolling individuals with UTUC, at clinical stage N0M0, with high-risk features according to the modified European Association of Urology definition, based on the presence of either: high-grade disease, multifocality, tumor size ≥2 cm, and/or hydronephrosis. The treatment consisted of 3 courses of 200 mg pembrolizumab, intravenously, every 3 weeks, followed by radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). The endpoints were to assess the safety, pathological responses, and biomarkers. RESULTS: Ten patients were enrolled between August 2018 and November 2020, 9 (90%) completed the neoadjuvant course. One treatment-related death occurred as a complication of severe myocarditis, myasthenia gravis, hepatitis and myositis. One (14.3%) patient achieved a clinical complete response and refused to undergo RNU. Two (20%) had disease progression and received subsequent chemotherapy, prior to RNU. Overall, 7 patients underwent RNU: one (14.3%) achieved an ypT1N0 response, although this patient was reported to have a cT1 tumor at baseline imaging. The remaining patients were nonresponders. Circulating tumor DNA assay did not identify patients likely to achieve a complete pathologic response. CONCLUSION: Single-agent neoadjuvant pembrolizumab did not appear to be a promising treatment strategy for patients with biomarker-unselected, high-risk localized UTUC.

13.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) has a significant morbidity. Nephrometry scores have been described to predict the occurrence of complications. Their usefulness is debated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical utility of three nephrometry scores (radius, exophytic/endophytic, nearness, anterior/posterior, location [RENAL], preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical [PADUA], and simplified PADUA Renal [SPARE]) to predict perioperative outcomes and compare their performance to the simple measurement of tumor size in a large cohort of patients who underwent RPN. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed 1581 consecutive patients who underwent RPN for small renal masses. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Tumor size, RENAL, PADUA, and SPARE scores were calculated based on preoperative imaging. Correlation between scores, estimated blood loss (EBL), operative time (OT), and warm ischemia time (WIT) were calculated. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of overall and major complications. The area under the curve was used to identify models with the highest discrimination. Decision curve analyses determined the net benefit associated with their use. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The median age was 62 yr (interquartile range [IQR]: 52-70) and the median tumor size was 35 mm (IQR: 25-47). Postoperative complications were observed in 346 patients (21.9%), including 5.6% of major complications. All scores were significantly correlated with EBL, OT, and WIT. However, correlation coefficients were all <0.3, suggesting a weak association. Nephrometry scores and tumor size were significant predictors of overall complications in univariate and adjusted multivariable logistic regression model analysis. However, decision curve analysis demonstrated net benefit of tumor size comparable with all nephrometry scores. Finally, neither nephrometry scores nor tumor size was found to be associated with the risk of major complications. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor size has the same ability as nephrometry scores to predict perioperative outcomes of RPN. PATIENT SUMMARY: We evaluated the association between tumor size, nephrometry scores, and perioperative outcomes of robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). We found that tumor size could predict perioperative outcomes of RPN as well as nephrometry scores.

14.
World J Urol ; 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050813

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the outcomes of retroperitoneal robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (r-RAPN) in a large cohort of patients with postero-lateral renal masses comparing to those of transperitoneal RAPN (t-RAPN). METHODS: Patients with posterior (R.E.N.A.L. score grading P) or lateral (grading X) renal mass who underwent RAPN in six high-volume US and European centers were identified and stratified into two groups according to surgical approach: r-RAPN ("study group") and t-RAPN ("control group"). Baseline characteristics, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected and compared. RESULTS: Overall, 447 patients were identified for the analysis. 231 (51.7%) and 216 (48.3%) patients underwent r-RAPN and t-RAPN, respectively. Baseline characteristics were not statistically significantly different between the groups. r-RAPN group reported lower median operative time (140 vs. 170 min, p < 0.001). No difference was found in ischemia time, estimated blood loss, and intraoperative complications. Overall, 47 and 54 postoperative complications were observed in r-RAPN and t-RAPN groups, respectively (20.3 vs. 25.1%, p = 0.9). 1 and 2 patients reported major complications (Clavien-Dindo ≥ III grade) in the retroperitoneal and transperitoneal groups (0.4 vs. 0.9%, p = 0.9). There was no difference in hospital re-admission rate, median length of stay, and PSM rate. Trifecta criteria were achieved in 90.3 and 89.2% of r-RAPN and t-RAPN, respectively (p = 0.7). CONCLUSION: r-RAPN and t-RAPN offer similar postoperative, functional, and oncological outcomes for patients with postero-lateral renal tumors. Our analysis suggests an advantage for r-RAPN in terms of shorter operative time, whereas it does not confirm a difference in terms of length of stay, as suggested by previous reports.

16.
Surg Oncol ; 38: 101588, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the effect of robot-assisted (RAPN) vs. open (OPN) partial nephrectomy on short-term postoperative outcomes and total hospital charges in frail patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: Within the National Inpatient Sample database we identified 2745 RCC patients treated with either RAPN or OPN between 2008 and 2015, who met the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups frailty-defining indicator criteria. We examined the rates of RAPN vs. OPN over time. Moreover, we compared the effect of RAPN vs. OPN on short-term postoperative outcomes and total hospital charges. Time trends and multivariable logistic, Poisson and linear regression models were applied. RESULTS: Overall, 1109 (40.4%) frail patients were treated with RAPN. Rates of RAPN increased over time, from 16.3% to 54.7% (p < 0.001). Frail RAPN patients exhibited lower rates (all p < 0.001) of overall complications (35.3 vs. 48.3%), major complications (12.4 vs. 20.4%), blood transfusions (8.0 vs. 13.5%), non-home-based discharge (9.6 vs. 15.2%), shorter length of stay (3 vs. 4 days), but higher total hospital charges ($50,060 vs. $45,699). Moreover, RAPN independently predicted (all p < 0.001) lower risk of overall complications (OR: 0.58), major complications (OR: 0.55), blood transfusions (OR: 0.60) and non-home-based discharge (OR: 0.51), as well as shorter LOS (RR: 0.77) but also higher total hospital charges (RR: +$7682), relative to OPN. CONCLUSIONS: In frail patients, RAPN is associated with lower rates of short-term postoperative complications, blood transfusions and non-home-based discharge, as well as with shorter LOS than OPN. However, RAPN use also results in higher total hospital charges.

18.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma (nmRCC) treated with nephrectomy, prediction of cancer-specific mortality (CSM) by T stage and substage has not been validated for the separate histological subtypes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of pathological T stage and substage to predict CSM for patients with clear-cell, papillary, or chromophobe nmRCC treated with nephrectomy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Using the SEER database for 2004-2016, we identified 87 149 patients with T1-4 N0/X M0 nmRCC treated with nephrectomy for the clear-cell (65 715; 75.4%), papillary (14 587; 16.7%), or chromophobe (6847; 7.9%) histological subtype. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression models were used to estimate CSM. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: For all three histological subtypes, patients with T1a-T3a disease exhibited more favorable CSM than patients with T3b-T4 RCC. For clear-cell RCC, there were clinically meaningful and statistically significant differences for virtually all intergroup comparisons among T1a-T3a stages. For papillary T1a-T3a RCC, clinically meaningful differences disappeared, although the statistical significance remained. For chromophobe T1a-T3a RCC, no clinically meaningful or statistically significant differences were observed. For all three histological subtypes, patients with T3b-T4 RCC exhibited virtually uniformly unfavorable CSM, with no clinically meaningful intergroup CSM differences. CONCLUSION: The use of T stage and substage for stratification of patients with nmRCC treated with nephrectomy revealed differences in CSM among T1a-T3a cases, but not T3b-T4. The magnitude of the CSM difference was greatest for clear-cell, intermediate for papillary, and marginal for chromophobe RCC. PATIENT SUMMARY: For patients with kidney cancer, the stage of their disease assessed after surgery on the affected kidney can predict how likely they are to die from their cancer. This prediction varies for different subtypes of kidney cancer.

19.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(4): e253-e261, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655218

RESUMO

Background: Patients with severe COVID-19 develop a life-threatening hyperinflammatory response to the virus. Interleukin (IL)-1 or IL-6 inhibitors have been used to treat this patient population, but the comparative effectiveness of these different strategies remains undetermined. We aimed to compare IL-1 and IL-6 inhibition in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, respiratory insufficiency, and hyperinflammation. Methods: This cohort study included patients admitted to San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy) with COVID-19, respiratory insufficiency, defined as a ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen of 300 mm Hg or less, and hyperinflammation, defined as serum C-reactive protein concentration of 100 mg/L or more or ferritin concentration of 900 ng/mL or more. The primary endpoint was survival, and the secondary endpoint was a composite of death or mechanical ventilation (adverse clinical outcome). Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to compare clinical outcomes of patients receiving IL-1 inhibition (anakinra) or IL-6 inhibition (tocilizumab or sarilumab) with those of patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors, after accounting for baseline differences. All patients received standard care. Interaction tests were used to assess the probability of survival according to C-reactive protein or lactate dehydrogenase concentrations. Findings: Of 392 patients included between Feb 25 and May 20, 2020, 275 did not receive interleukin inhibitors, 62 received the IL-1 inhibitor anakinra, and 55 received an IL-6 inhibitor (29 received tocilizumab and 26 received sarilumab). In the multivariable analysis, compared with patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors, patients treated with IL-1 inhibition had a significantly reduced mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0·450, 95% CI 0·204-0·990, p=0·047), but those treated with IL-6 inhibition did not (0·900, 0·412-1·966; p=0·79). In the multivariable analysis, there was no difference in adverse clinical outcome risk in patients treated with IL-1 inhibition (HR 0·866, 95% CI 0·482-1·553; p=0·63) or IL-6 inhibition (0·882, 0·452-1·722; p=0·71) relative to patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors. For increasing C-reactive protein concentrations, patients treated with IL-6 inhibition had a significantly reduced risk of mortality (HR 0·990, 95% CI 0·981-0·999; p=0·031) and adverse clinical outcome (0·987, 0·979-0·995; p=0·0021) compared with patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors. For decreasing concentrations of serum lactate dehydrogenase, patients treated with an IL-1 inhibitor and patients treated with IL-6 inhibitors had a reduced risk of mortality; increasing concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase in patients receiving either interleukin inhibitor were associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR 1·009, 95% CI 1·003-1·014, p=0·0011 for IL-1 inhibitors and 1·006, 1·001-1·011, p=0·028 for IL-6 inhibitors) and adverse clinical outcome (1·006, 1·002-1·010, p=0·0031 for IL-1 inhibitors and 1·005, 1·001-1·010, p=0·016 for IL-6 inhibitors) compared with patients who did not receive interleukin inhibitors. Interpretation: IL-1 inhibition, but not IL-6 inhibition, was associated with a significant reduction of mortality in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, respiratory insufficiency, and hyperinflammation. IL-6 inhibition was effective in a subgroup of patients with markedly high C-reactive protein concentrations, whereas both IL-1 and IL-6 inhibition were effective in patients with low lactate dehydrogenase concentrations. Funding: None.

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