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1.
Nanotechnology ; 30(21): 214006, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736025

RESUMO

In this work, nanoscale electrical and optical properties of n-GaN nanowires (NWs) containing GaN/AlN multiple quantum discs (MQDs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated by means of single wire I(V) measurements, electron beam induced current microscopy (EBIC) and cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis. A strong impact of non-intentional AlN and GaN shells on the electrical resistance of individual NWs is put in evidence. The EBIC mappings reveal the presence of two regions with internal electric fields oriented in opposite directions: one in the MQDs region and the other in the adjacent bottom GaN segment. These fields are found to co-exist under zero bias, while under an external bias either one or the other dominates the current collection. In this way EBIC maps allow us to locate the current generation within the wire under different bias conditions and to give the first direct evidence of carrier collection from AlN/GaN MQDs. The NWs have been further investigated by photoluminescence and CL analyses at low temperature. CL mappings show that the near band edge emission of GaN from the bottom part of the NW is blue-shifted due to the presence of the radial shell. In addition, it is observed that CL intensity drops in the central part of the NWs. Comparing the CL and EBIC maps, this decrease of the luminescence intensity is attributed to an efficient charge splitting effect due to the electric fields in the MQDs region and in the GaN base.

2.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 3727, 2017 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28623293

RESUMO

Intuitively scientists accept that order can emerge from disorder and a significant amount of effort has been devoted over many years to demonstrate this. In metallic alloys and oxides, disorder at the atomic scale is the result of occupation at equivalent atomic positions by different atoms which leads to the material exhibiting a fully random or modulated scattering pattern. This arrangement has a substantial influence on the material's properties, for example ionic conductivity. However it is generally accepted that oxides, such as defect fluorite as used for nuclear waste immobilization matrices and fuel cells, are the result of disorder at the atomic scale. To investigate how order at the atomic scale induces disorder at a larger scale length, we have applied different techniques to study the atomic composition of a homogeneous La 2 Zr 2 O 7 pyrochlore, a textbook example of such a structure. Here we demonstrate that a pyrochlore, which is considered to be defect fluorite, is the result of intricate disorder due to a random distribution of fully ordered nano-domains. Our investigation provides new insight into the order disorder transformations in complex materials with regards to domain formation, resulting in a concord of chemistry with crystallography illustrating that order can induce disorder.

3.
Nano Lett ; 16(8): 4895-902, 2016 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27414518

RESUMO

Epitaxial growth of GaN nanowires on graphene is demonstrated using molecular beam epitaxy without any catalyst or intermediate layer. Growth is highly selective with respect to silica on which the graphene flakes, grown by chemical vapor deposition, are transferred. The nanowires grow vertically along their c-axis and we observe a unique epitaxial relationship with the ⟨21̅1̅0⟩ directions of the wurtzite GaN lattice parallel to the directions of the carbon zigzag chains. Remarkably, the nanowire density and height decrease with increasing number of graphene layers underneath. We attribute this effect to strain and we propose a model for the nanowire density variation. The GaN nanowires are defect-free and they present good optical properties. This demonstrates that graphene layers transferred on amorphous carrier substrates is a promising alternative to bulk crystalline substrates for the epitaxial growth of high quality GaN nanostructures.

4.
Sci Rep ; 6: 25674, 2016 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27166163

RESUMO

The integration of III-V semiconductors with silicon is a key issue for photonics, microelectronics and photovoltaics. With the standard approach, namely the epitaxial growth of III-V on silicon, thick and complex buffer layers are required to limit the crystalline defects caused by the interface polarity issues, the thermal expansion, and lattice mismatches. To overcome these problems, we have developed a reverse and innovative approach to combine III-V and silicon: the straightforward epitaxial growth of silicon on GaAs at low temperature by plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD). Indeed we show that both GaAs surface cleaning by SiF4 plasma and subsequent epitaxial growth from SiH4/H2 precursors can be achieved at 175 °C. The GaAs native oxide etching is monitored with in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy is used to assess the epitaxial silicon quality. We found that SiH4 dilution in hydrogen during deposition controls the layer structure: the epitaxial growth happens for deposition conditions at the transition between the microcrystalline and amorphous growth regimes. SIMS and STEM-HAADF bring evidences for the interface chemical sharpness. Together, TEM and XRD analysis demonstrate that PECVD enables the growth of high quality relaxed single crystal silicon on GaAs.

5.
Sci Rep ; 6: 21116, 2016 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26883992

RESUMO

Ion beam shaping is a novel technique with which one can shape nano-structures that are embedded in a matrix, while simultaneously imposing their orientation in space. In this work, we demonstrate that the ion-shaping technique can be implemented successfully to engineer the morphology of hollow metallic spherical particles embedded within a silica matrix. The outer diameter of these particles ranges between 20 and 60 nm and their shell thickness between 3 and 14 nm. Samples have been irradiated with 74 MeV Kr ions at room temperature and for increasing fluences up to 3.8 × 10(14) cm(-2). In parallel, the experimental results have been theoretically simulated by using a three-dimensional code based on the thermal-spike model. These calculations show that the particles undergo a partial melting during the ion impact, and that the amount of molten phase is maximal when the impact is off-center, hitting only one hemisphere of the hollow nano-particle. We suggest a deformation scenario which differs from the one that is generally proposed for solid nano-particles. Finally, these functional materials can be seen as building blocks for the fabrication of nanodevices with really three-dimensional architecture.

6.
Nanotechnology ; 26(46): 465203, 2015 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26508299

RESUMO

Core/shell InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on vertically standing single nanowires and nanowire arrays were fabricated and extensively characterized. The emission of single wire LEDs with the same conformal contact geometry as the array device exhibits the same broadening as the array LED electroluminescence, which proves an excellent wire-to-wire homogeneity. The electroluminescence spectra present two peaks corresponding to the m-plane InGaN quantum well (blue emission) and to an In-rich region at the m-plane-semipolar plane junction (green emission), in agreement with structural characterizations. Modification of the contact layout and a post-growth plasma treatment enable strongly suppressing the unwanted green electroluminescence while increasing the intensity in the blue spectral range for the same injected electrical power. Electron beam induced current mapping proves the inhibition of the electrical activity of the top part of the nanowire after plasma treatment. Inductively coupled plasma etching of the In-rich region permits one to completely remove the green emission for all injection currents, but loss of intensity in the blue spectral range is observed. Selectively contacting the m-plane and plasma treatment of the top part of the nanowire appear as a viable solution for controlling the color of core/shell nanowire LEDs with an inhomogeneous indium composition.

7.
J Appl Crystallogr ; 48(Pt 3): 702-710, 2015 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26089763

RESUMO

This study is carried out in the context of III-V semiconductor monolithic integration on silicon for optoelectronic device applications. X-ray diffraction is combined with atomic force microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy for structural characterization of GaP nanolayers grown on Si. GaP has been chosen as the interfacial layer, owing to its low lattice mismatch with Si. But, microtwins and antiphase boundaries are still difficult to avoid in this system. Absolute quantification of the microtwin volume fraction is used for optimization of the growth procedure in order to eliminate these defects. Lateral correlation lengths associated with mean antiphase boundary distances are then evaluated. Finally, optimized growth conditions lead to the annihilation of antiphase domains within the first 10 nm.

8.
Small ; 10(18): 3707-16, 2014 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24864008

RESUMO

The use of peptidic ligands is validated as a generic chemical platform allowing one to finely control the organization in solid phase of semiconductor nanorods originally dispersed in an aqueous media. An original method to generate, on a macroscopic scale and with the desired geometry, three-dimensional supracrystals composed of quantum rods is introduced. In a first step, nanorods are transferred in an aqueous phase thanks to the substitution of the original capping layer by peptidic ligands. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy data prove that the exchange is complete; fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrates that the emitter optical properties are not significantly altered; electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering experiments assess the good colloidal stability of the resulting aqueous suspension. In a second step, water evaporation in a microstructured environment yields superstructures with a chosen geometry and in which nanorods obey a smectic B arrangement, as shown by electron microscopy. Incidentally, bulk drying in a capillary tube generates a similar local order, as evidenced by small angle X-ray scattering.


Assuntos
Nanotecnologia/métodos , Peptídeos/química , Pontos Quânticos , Compostos de Cádmio/química , Humanos , Ligantes , Luz , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia Eletrônica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanotubos/química , Espalhamento de Radiação , Compostos de Selênio/química , Semicondutores , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Sulfetos/química , Água/química , Raios X
9.
Nano Lett ; 13(6): 2743-7, 2013 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23668839

RESUMO

We demonstrate the vertical self-catalyzed molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of GaAs nanowires on an amorphous SiO2 substrate by using a smooth [111] fiber-textured silicon thin film with very large grains, fabricated by aluminum-induced crystallization. This generic platform paves the way to the use of inexpensive substrates for the fabrication of dense ensembles of vertically standing nanowires (NWs) with promising perspectives for the integration of NWs in devices.

10.
Nanotechnology ; 22(17): 175305, 2011 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21411926

RESUMO

We have studied how spherical 23 ± 3 nm Au(45)Ag(55) nanoparticles embedded within a silica matrix transform into prolate nanorods and nanowires by irradiating them with swift heavy ions. Samples were irradiated at room temperature and normal incidence with 74 MeV Kr and 36 MeV S ions for fluences up to 1.0 × 10(15) cm(-2). We demonstrate the existence of two regimes: (i) below a critical fluence, ∼ 2.0 × 10(14) cm(-2), the transformation of the spherical nanoparticle into a nanorod is an individual process, i.e. each nanoparticle transforms into a single nanorod; (ii) for larger fluences the transformation from nanorod to nanowire becomes a collective process, i.e. the break up and dissolution of unstable nanorods contribute to the growth of long nanowires. The passage from the first to the second regime can be interpreted in terms of a Rayleigh-like instability under irradiation. The latter becomes active when the diameter of the nanowire approaches its saturation width under irradiation. Furthermore, we show that the composition of the alloy is only slightly modified during the ion-shaping process. Finally, the energy and the fluence thresholds for deformation and the deformation strain-rate are estimated.

11.
Nanotechnology ; 21(42): 425206, 2010 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20864782

RESUMO

We report the investigation of electronic transport in GaN nanowires containing GaN/AlN quantum discs (QDiscs). The nanowires were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and contacted by electron-beam lithography. Three nanowire samples containing QDiscs are analyzed and compared to a reference binary n-i-n GaN nanowire sample. The current-voltage measurements on single nanowires show that if the QDiscs are covered with a lateral GaN shell, the current mainly flows through the shell close to the lateral surface and the wire conductivity is extremely sensitive to the environmental conditions. On the contrary, if no GaN shell is present, the current flows through the QDisc region and a reproducible negative differential resistance related to electron tunneling through the QDiscs can be observed for temperatures up to 250 K. The demonstration of the resonant tunneling in GaN/AlN superlattices is of major importance for the development of nitride-based far-infrared quantum cascade lasers operating at high temperature.

12.
Nano Lett ; 8(6): 1638-43, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18471022

RESUMO

We bury vertical free-standing core-shell GaAs/AlGaAs nanowires by a planar GaAs overgrowth. As the nanowires get buried, their crystalline structure progressively transforms: whereas the upper emerging part retains its initial wurtzite structure, the buried part adopts the zinc blende structure of the burying layer. The burying process also suppresses all the stacking faults that existed in the wurtzite nanowires. We consider two possible mechanisms for the structural transition upon burying, examine how they can be discriminated from each other, and explain why the transition is favorable.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/química , Cristalização/métodos , Gálio/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Nanotubos/química , Nanotubos/ultraestrutura , Zinco/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Teste de Materiais , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Transição de Fase , Propriedades de Superfície
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