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1.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(6): 776-783, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Kidney functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires further investigation to enhance the noninvasive identification of patients at high risk of CKD progression. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In this exploratory study, we obtained baseline diffusion-weighted and blood oxygen level-dependent MRI in 122 participants of the CKD Optimal Management with Binders and Nicotinamide trial, which was a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, 12-month, four-group parallel trial of nicotinamide and lanthanum carbonate versus placebo conducted in individuals with eGFR 20-45 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Lower values of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on diffusion-weighted MRI may indicate increased fibrosis, and higher values of relaxation rate (R2*) on blood oxygen level-dependent MRI may represent decreased oxygenation. Because there was no effect of active treatment on eGFR over 12 months, we tested whether baseline kidney functional MRI biomarkers were associated with eGFR decline in all 122 participants. In a subset of 87 participants with 12-month follow-up MRI data, we evaluated whether kidney functional MRI biomarkers change over time. RESULTS: Mean baseline eGFR was 32±9 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and mean annual eGFR slope was -2.3 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], -3.4 to -1.1) ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year. After adjustment for baseline covariates, baseline ADC was associated with change in eGFR over time (difference in annual eGFR slope per 1 SD increase in ADC: 1.3 [95% CI, 0.1 to 2.5] ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, ADC×time interaction P=0.04). This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for albuminuria (difference in annual eGFR slope per 1 SD increase in ADC: 1.0 (95% CI, -0.1 to 2.2) ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, ADC×time interaction P=0.08). There was no significant association between baseline R2* and change in eGFR over time. In 87 participants with follow-up functional MRI, ADC and R2* values remained stable over 12 months (intraclass correlation: 0.71 and 0.68, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline cortical ADC was associated with change in eGFR over time, but this association was not independent of albuminuria. Kidney functional MRI biomarkers remained stable over 1 year. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: CKD Optimal Management with Binders and Nicotinamide (COMBINE), NCT02258074.

2.
Am J Nephrol ; 51(5): 395-400, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of urine flow remains challenging in both inpatient and outpatient settings. We hypothesized we could derive an equation that would accurately estimate urine flow rate (eV) through derivation from other existing equations commonly used in nephrology clinical practice. METHODS: The eV equation was derived using the Cockcroft-Gault and the measured creatinine clearance (CrCl = UCrV/PCr) equations. Within the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK; n = 570) and COMBINE (n = 133) clinical trials, we identified participants with concordant estimated and measured creatinine excretion rates to define a subset with highly accurate 24-h urine collections, to assure a reliable gold standard. We then compared eV to measured 24-h urine flow rates in these trials. RESULTS: In AASK, we found a high correlation between eV and measured urine flow rate (V; r = 0.91, p < 0.001); however, Bland-Altman plots showed that eV was 9.5 mL/h lower than V, on average. Thus, we added a correction factor to the eV equation and externally validated the new equation in COMBINE. eV and V were again highly correlated (r = 0.91, p < 0.001), and bias was improved (mean difference 5.3 mL/h). Overall, 80% of individuals had eV that was within 20% of V. CONCLUSIONS: A simple equation using urine creatinine, demographics, and body weight can accurately predict urine flow rate and may have clinical utility in situations where it is difficult to accurately measure the urine flow rate.

3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(1): 161-174, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) may preserve kidney function in CKD, even if initiated when serum bicarbonate concentration is normal. Adequately powered trials testing this hypothesis have not been conducted, partly because the best dose for testing is unknown. METHODS: This multicenter pilot trial assessed the safety, tolerability, adherence, and pharmacodynamics of two doses of NaHCO3 over 28 weeks in adults with eGFR 20-44 or 45-59 ml/min per 1.73 m2 with urinary albumin/creatinine (ACR) ≥50 mg/g and serum bicarbonate 20-28 meq/L. We randomly assigned 194 participants from ten clinical sites to receive higher-dose (HD-NaHCO3; 0.8 meq/kg of lean body wt per day; n=90) or lower-dose (LD-NaHCO3; 0.5 meq/kg of lean body wt per day; n=52) NaHCO3 or matching placebo (n=52). The dose was adjusted depending on side effects. The prescribed dose at week 28 was the primary outcome; a dose was considered acceptable for a full-scale trial if ≥67% of participants were on full-dose and ≥80% were on ≥25% of the per-protocol dose. RESULTS: Mean±SD baseline eGFR was 36±9 ml/min per 1.73 m2, serum bicarbonate was 24±2 meq/L, and median (IQR) ACR was 181 (25-745) mg/g. Both doses were well tolerated without significant changes in BP, weight, or serum potassium. The proportions of adverse events and hospitalizations were similar across the groups. Consequently, 87% in HD-NaHCO3, 96% in LD-NaHCO3, and 87% in placebo were on full dose at week 28; and 91% in HD-NaHCO3, 98% in LD-NaHCO3, and 92% in placebo were on ≥25% of the per-protocol dose. Mean urinary ammonium excretion was 25% lower and serum bicarbonate concentration was 1.3 meq/L higher in HD-NaHCO3 compared with LD-NaHCO3 at week 28. However, mean ACR increased by 12% in the lower-dose group and 30% in the higher-dose group. CONCLUSIONS: Both NaHCO3 doses were well tolerated over 28 weeks with no significant difference in adverse events or hospitalization compared with placebo. The higher dose lowered urinary ammonium excretion and increased serum bicarbonate more than the lower dose but was associated with a greater increase in ACR. The higher 0.8 meq/kg of lean body wt per day dose of NaHCO3 may be a reasonable choice for future trials.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacocinética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Bicarbonato de Sódio/efeitos adversos
4.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 179, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports on vitamin C in HD patients have shown effects of vitamin C deficiency in association with scurvy symptoms. Dialyzability of water soluble vitamins is high, and substantial losses in those who are dialyzed more frequently were hypothesized. The randomized FHN Daily Trial compared the effects of in-center HD six versus three times per week. We studied baseline correlations between vitamin C and potentially associated parameters, and the effect of more frequent HD on circulating vitamin C concentrations. METHODS: We studied vitamin C levels at baseline and months, 3, 5 and 11. Patients enrolled between 2007 and 2009 into the randomized FHN Daily trial in the East Coast consortium were approached for participation. Predialysis plasma samples were processed with metaphosphoric acid and frozen at - 70 °C for measurement with HPLC. Regression models between baseline log-transformed vitamin C and hemoglobin, CRP, eKt/V, ePCR and PTH, and a linear mixed-effects model to estimate the effect size of more frequent HD on plasma vitamin C, were constructed. RESULTS: We studied 44 subjects enrolled in the FHN Daily trial (50 ± 12 years, 36% female, 29% Hispanics and 64% blacks, 60% anuric). Vitamin C correlated significantly with predialysis hemoglobin (r = 0.3; P = 0.03) and PTH (r = - 0.3, P = 0.04), respectively. Vitamin C did not significantly differ at baseline (6×/week, 25.8 ± 25.9 versus 3×/week, 32.6 ± 39.4 µmol/L) and no significant treatment effect on plasma vitamin C concentrations was found [- 26.2 (95%CI -57.5 to 5.1) µmol/L at Month 4 and - 2.5 (95%CI -15.6 to 10.6) µmol/L at Month 12. CONCLUSIONS: Based on data from this large randomized-controlled trial no significant effect of the intervention on circulating plasma vitamin C concentrations was found, allaying the concerns that more frequent HD would affect the concentrations of water-soluble vitamins and adversely affect patient's well-being. Correlations between vitamin C and hemoglobin and PTH support the importance of vitamin C for normal bone and mineral metabolism, and anemia management.

5.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(6): 1096-1108, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher serum phosphate and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) levels may be modifiable to prevent cardiovascular disease in CKD. Short-term studies have reported modest efficacy in phosphate and FGF23 reduction with intestinal phosphate binders in CKD. METHODS: To investigate effects of lanthanum carbonate (LC; a phosphate binder) and/or nicotinamide (NAM; an inhibitor of active intestinal phosphate transport) on serum phosphate and FGF23 in stage 3b/4 CKD, we conducted a randomized trial among individuals with eGFR 20-45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 to NAM (750 mg twice daily) plus LC (1000 mg thrice daily), NAM plus LC placebo, LC plus NAM placebo, or double placebo for 12 months. Dual primary end points were change from baseline in serum phosphate and intact FGF23 concentrations. RESULTS: Mean eGFR for the 205 participants was 32ml/min per 1.73 m2. At baseline, serum phosphate was 3.7 mg/dl and median FGF23 was 99 pg/ml (10th, 90th percentiles: 59, 205). Mean rates of change in phosphate increased slightly over 12 months in all groups and did not differ significantly across arms. Similarly, percent changes in FGF23 per 12 months increased for all arms except LC plus placebo, and did not differ significantly across arms. Gastrointestinal symptoms limited adherence. Adverse events rates were similar across arms. CONCLUSIONS: LC and/or NAM treatment did not significantly lower serum phosphate or FGF23 in stage 3b/4 CKD over 12 months. Although these agents appeared safe, intestinal symptoms limited adherence. Reducing phosphate and FGF23 in nondialysis CKD will require new approaches.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Lantânio/administração & dosagem , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Fosfatos/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método de Monte Carlo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 28(10): 3005-3013, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28710091

RESUMO

Intimal hyperplasia and stenosis are often cited as causes of arteriovenous fistula maturation failure, but definitive evidence is lacking. We examined the associations among preexisting venous intimal hyperplasia, fistula venous stenosis after creation, and clinical maturation failure. The Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study prospectively observed 602 men and women through arteriovenous fistula creation surgery and their postoperative course. A segment of the vein used to create the fistula was collected intraoperatively for histomorphometric examination. On ultrasounds performed 1 day and 2 and 6 weeks after fistula creation, we assessed fistula venous stenosis using pre-specified criteria on the basis of ratios of luminal diameters and peak blood flow velocities at certain locations along the vessel. We determined fistula clinical maturation using criteria for usability during dialysis. Preexisting venous intimal hyperplasia, expressed per 10% increase in a hyperplasia index (range of 0%-100%), modestly associated with lower fistula blood flow rate (relative change, -2.5%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], -4.6% to -0.4%; P=0.02) at 6 weeks but did not significantly associate with stenosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.16; P=0.07) at 6 weeks or failure to mature clinically without procedural assistance (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.15; P=0.07). Fistula venous stenosis at 6 weeks associated with maturation failure (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.25 to 3.12; P=0.004) after controlling for case mix factors, dialysis status, and fistula location. These findings suggest that postoperative fistula venous stenosis associates with fistula maturation failure. Preoperative venous hyperplasia may associate with maturation failure but if so, only modestly.


Assuntos
Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Constrição Patológica/etiologia , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Constrição Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperplasia/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Diálise Renal , Túnica Íntima/patologia , Ultrassonografia
7.
Kidney Int ; 91(5): 1186-1192, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28089366

RESUMO

The Frequent Hemodialysis Network Daily Trial compared conventional three-times weekly treatment to more frequent treatment with a longer weekly treatment time in patients receiving in-center hemodialysis. Evaluation at one year showed favorable effects of more intensive treatment on left ventricular mass, blood pressure, and phosphate control, but modest or no effects on physical or cognitive performance. The current study compared plasma concentrations of uremic solutes in stored samples from 53 trial patients who received three-times weekly in-center hemodialysis for an average weekly time of 10.9 hours and 30 trial patients who received six-times weekly in-center hemodialysis for an average of 14.6 hours. Metabolomic analysis revealed that increased treatment frequency and time resulted in an average reduction of only 15 percent in the levels of 107 uremic solutes. Quantitative assays confirmed that increased treatment did not significantly reduce levels of the putative uremic toxins p-cresol sulfate or indoxyl sulfate. Kinetic modeling suggested that our ability to lower solute concentrations by increasing hemodialysis frequency and duration may be limited by the presence of non-dialytic solute clearances and/or changes in solute production. Thus, failure to achieve larger reductions in uremic solute concentrations may account, in part, for the limited benefits observed with increasing frequency and weekly treatment time in Frequent Hemodialysis Daily Trial participants.


Assuntos
Cresóis/sangue , Indicã/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/métodos , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/sangue , Uremia/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Kidney Int ; 91(3): 746-754, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28094031

RESUMO

Most patients with end-stage kidney disease value their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and want to know how it will be affected by their dialysis modality. We extended the findings of two prior clinical trial reports to estimate the effects of frequent compared to conventional hemodialysis on additional measures of HRQoL. The Daily Trial randomly assigned 245 patients to receive frequent (six times per week) or conventional (three times per week) in-center hemodialysis. The Nocturnal Trial randomly assigned 87 patients to receive frequent nocturnal (six times per week) or conventional (three times per week) home hemodialysis. All patients were on conventional hemodialysis prior to randomization, with an average feeling thermometer score of 70 to 75 (a visual analog scale from 0 to 100 where 100 is perfect health), an average general health scale score of 40 to 47 (a score from 0 to 100 where 100 is perfect health), and an average dialysis session recovery time of 2 to 3 hours. Outcomes are reported as the between-treatment group differences in one-year change in HRQoL measures and analyzed using linear mixed effects models. After one year in the Daily Trial, patients assigned to frequent in-center hemodialysis reported a higher feeling thermometer score, better general health, and a shorter recovery time after a dialysis session compared to standard thrice-weekly dialysis. After one year in the Nocturnal Trial, patients assigned to frequent home hemodialysis also reported a shorter recovery time after a dialysis session, but no statistical difference in their feeling thermometer or general health scores compared to standard home dialysis schedules. Thus, patients receiving day or nocturnal hemodialysis on average recovered approximately one hour earlier from a frequent compared to conventional hemodialysis session. Patients treated in an in-center dialysis facility reported better HRQoL with frequent compared to conventional hemodialysis.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Diálise Renal/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
9.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 21(6): 566-571, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27778458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). HD 6-times/week (6x/wk) may reduce SCD risk compared to usual 3-times/week HD (3x/wk) by mechanisms unknown. T-wave alternans (TWA), heart rate turbulence (HRT), and ventricular ectopy (VE) are elevated in HD patients, but their response to 6x/wk HD has not been assessed. METHODS: Baseline and 1-year Holter recordings were analyzed from enrollees in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Daily Trial, a randomized trial comparing 3x/wk to 6x/wk in 245 chronic HD patients. TWA, HRT, and VE were assessed using MARS software. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients (34 with 6x/wk) had complete baseline and 1-year Holter recordings. Mean age was 50 ± 13 years and 38% were female. Maximum TWA in the 3x/wk and 6x/wk groups were 52.4 µV at baseline and 51.2 µV at 1-year versus 54.0 and 49.9 µV, respectively (P = 0.28). The proportion of abnormal HRT (scores of 1 or 2) in the 3x/wk group decreased from 65% to 56% at 1-year versus 53% to 53% in the 6x/wk group (P = 0.58). Mean %VE changed from 1.6% to 2.9% in the 3x/wk group from baseline to 1-year and from 2.1% to 3.7% in the 6x/wk group (P = 0.85). CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences in HRT or VE at 1-year in chronic HD patients randomized to 6x/wk versus 3x/wk and a trend in TWA reduction. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the impact and mechanisms of SCD in HD.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Complexos Ventriculares Prematuros/fisiopatologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Vasc Surg ; 64(4): 1050-1058.e1, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27478007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Access-related hand ischemia (ARHI) is a major complication after hemodialysis access construction. This study was designed to prospectively describe its incidence, predictors, interventions, and associated access maturation. METHODS: The Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study is a multicenter prospective cohort study designed to identify predictors of autogenous arteriovenous access (arteriovenous fistula [AVF]) maturation. Symptoms and interventions for ARHI were documented, and participants who received interventions for ARHI were compared with other participants using a nested case-control design. Associations of ARHI with clinical, ultrasound, vascular function, and vein histologic variables were each individually evaluated using conditional logistic regression; the association with maturation was assessed by relative risk, Pearson χ(2) test, and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The study cohort included 602 participants with median follow-up of 2.1 years (10th-90th percentiles, 0.7-3.5 years). Mean age was 55.1 ± 13.4 (standard deviation) years; the majority were male (70%), white (47%), diabetic (59%), smokers (55%), and on dialysis (64%) and underwent an upper arm AVF (76%). Symptoms of ARHI occurred in 45 (7%) participants, and intervention was required in 26 (4%). Interventions included distal revascularization with interval ligation (13), ligation (7), banding (4), revision using distal inflow (1), and proximalization of arterial inflow (1). Interventions were performed ≤7 days after AVF creation in 4 participants (15%), between 8 and 30 days in 6 (23%), and >30 days in 16 (63%). Female gender (odds ratio, 3.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-7.91; P = .013), diabetes (13.62 [1.81-102.4]; P = .011), coronary artery disease (2.60 [1.03-6.58]; P = .044), higher preoperative venous capacitance (per %/10 mm Hg, 2.76 [1.07-6.52]; P = .021), and maximum venous outflow slope (per [mL/100 mL/min]/10 mm Hg, 1.13 [1.03-1.25]; P = .011) were significantly associated with interventions; a lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and the outflow vein diameter in the early postoperative period (days 0-3) approached significance (P < .10). Intervention for ARHI was not associated with AVF maturation failure (unadjusted risk ratio, 1.18 [0.69-2.04], P = .56; adjusted odds ratio, 0.97 [0.41-2.31], P = .95). CONCLUSIONS: Remedial intervention for ARHI after AVF construction is uncommon. Diabetes, female gender, capacitant outflow veins, and coronary artery disease are all associated with an increased risk of intervention. These higher risk patients should be counseled preoperatively, their operative plans should be designed to reduce the risk of hand ischemia, and they should be observed closely.


Assuntos
Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Mãos/irrigação sanguínea , Isquemia/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Isquemia/terapia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Prospectivos , Retratamento , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 5(7)2016 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27451463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease is accompanied by functional and structural vascular abnormalities. The objective of this study was to characterize vascular function in a large cohort of patients with end-stage renal disease, using noninvasive physiological measurements, and to correlate function with demographic and clinical factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed cross-sectional baseline data from the Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study, a multicenter prospective observational cohort study of 602 patients with end-stage renal disease from 7 centers. Brachial artery flow- and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation, carotid-femoral and -radial pulse wave velocity, and venous occlusion plethysmography were performed prior to arteriovenous fistula creation. Relationships of these vascular function measures with demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models. Arterial function, as assessed by flow- and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, worsened with increasing age and diabetes mellitus. Venous capacitance decreased with diabetes mellitus but not with age. Flow-mediated dilation was higher among patients undergoing maintenance dialysis than for those at predialysis, and a U-shaped relationship between serum phosphorus concentration and flow-mediated dilation was evident. Partial correlations among different measures of vascular function, adjusting for demographic factors, diabetes mellitus, and clinical center, were modest or essentially nonexistent. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple demographic and clinical factors were associated with the functions of vessels of different sizes and types in this large cohort of patients with end-stage renal disease. Low correlations between the different measures, controlling for demographic factors, diabetes mellitus, and center, indicated that these different types of vascular function otherwise vary heterogeneously across patients.


Assuntos
Anastomose Cirúrgica , Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Diálise Renal , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitroglicerina , Pletismografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Vasodilatadores
12.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 31(6): 984-91, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27190356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients who receive maintenance hemodialysis experience poor sleep. Uncontrolled studies suggest frequent hemodialysis improves sleep quality, which is a strong motivation for some patients to undertake the treatment. We studied the effects of frequent in-center ('daily') and nocturnal home hemodialysis on self-reported sleep quality in two randomized trials. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to frequent (six times per week) or conventional (three times per week) hemodialysis in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Daily (n = 245) and Nocturnal (n = 87) Trials. We used the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Problems Index II (SPI II), a validated and reliable instrument in patients with end-stage renal disease, to measure self-reported sleep quality. The SPI II is scored from 0-100, with a higher value indicating poorer quality of sleep. A mean relative decline in SPI II would suggest improved sleep quality. The primary sleep outcome was the change in the SPI II score over 12 months. RESULTS: In the Daily Trial, after adjustment for baseline SPI II, subjects randomized to frequent as compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis experienced a 4.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-8.0] point adjusted mean relative decline in SPI II at 4 months and a 2.6 (95% CI -2.3-7.5) point adjusted mean relative decline at 12 months. In the Nocturnal Trial, subjects randomized to frequent nocturnal as compared with conventional home hemodialysis experienced 2.9 (95% CI -3.4-9.3) and 4.5 (95% CI -3.2-12.2) point mean relative declines at Months 4 and 12, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although a possible benefit of frequent in-center hemodialysis was observed at 4 months, neither frequent in-center hemodialysis nor home nocturnal hemodialysis demonstrated significant improvements in self-reported sleep quality compared with conventional hemodialysis at 12 months.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/métodos , Autorrelato , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Vasc Surg ; 63(1): 163-70.e6, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26718822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early thrombosis (ET) contributes to autogenous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure. We studied patients undergoing AVF placement in the Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study, a prospective, observational cohort study, using a nested case-control analysis to identify preoperative and intraoperative predictors of ET. METHODS: ET cases were compared with controls, who were matched for gender, age, diabetes, dialysis status, and surgeon fistula volume. ET was defined as thrombosis diagnosed by physical examination or ultrasound within 18 days of AVF creation. Conditional logistic regression models were fit to identify risk factors for ET. RESULTS: Thirty-two ET cases (5.3%) occurred among 602 study participants; 198 controls were matched. ET was associated with female gender (odds ratio [OR], 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-6.38; P = .018), fistula location (forearm vs upper arm; OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.05-7.23; P = .039), feeding artery (radial vs brachial; OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.03-6.77; P = .043) and arterial diameter (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.02-2.26; P = .039, per mm smaller). The draining vein diameter was nonlinearly associated with ET, with highest risk in 2- to 3-mm veins. Surprisingly, ET risk was lower in diabetics (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07-0.47; P = .0004), lower with less nitroglycerin-mediated brachial artery dilation (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.20-1.92; P = .029 for each 10% lower) and higher with lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.02-2.20; P = .041, for each m/s lower). Intraoperative protamine use was associated with a higher ET risk (OR, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.28-∞; P = .038). Surgeon's intraoperative perceptions were associated with ET: surgeons' greater concern about maturation success (likely, marginal, unlikely) was associated with higher thrombosis risk (OR, 8.09; 95% CI, 4.03-∞; P < .0001, per category change), as were absence vs presence of intraoperative thrill (OR, 21.0; 95% CI, 5.07-∞; P = .0001) and surgeons' reported frustration during surgery (OR, 6.85; 95% CI, 2.70-∞; P = .0004). Decreased extent of intraoperative thrill (proximal, mid or distal third of the forearm or upper arm, based on AVF placement) was also associated with ET (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.31-∞; P = .007, per diminished level). Oral antithrombotic medication use was not significantly associated with ET. CONCLUSIONS: ET was found to be associated with female gender, forearm AVF, smaller arterial size, draining vein diameter of 2 to 3 mm, and protamine use. Paradoxically, diabetes and stiff, noncompliant feeding arteries were associated with a lower frequency of ET. Absent or attenuated intraoperative thrill, and both surgeon frustration and concern about successful maturation during surgery, were correlated strongly with ET.


Assuntos
Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/etiologia , Diálise Renal , Trombose/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/métodos , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/diagnóstico , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas de Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Exame Físico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Protaminas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla , Estados Unidos
14.
Blood Purif ; 41(4): 277-86, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26795100

RESUMO

In previous reports of the Frequent Hemodialysis Network trials, frequent hemodialysis (HD) reduced extracellular fluid (ECF) and left ventricular mass (LVM), with more pronounced effects observed among patients with low urine volume (UVol). We analyzed the effect of frequent HD on interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and a time-integrated estimate of ECF load (TIFL). We also explored whether volume and sodium loading contributed to the change in LVM over the study period. Treatment effects on volume parameters were analyzed for modification by UVol and the dialysate-to-serum sodium gradient. Predictors of change in LVM were determined using linear regression. Frequent HD reduced IDWG and TIFL in the Daily Trial. Among patients with UVol <100 ml/day, reduction in TIFL was associated with LVM reduction. This suggests that achievement of better volume control could attenuate changes in LVM associated with mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. TIFL may prove more useful than IDWG alone in guiding HD practice. Video Journal Club 'Cappuccino with Claudio Ronco' at http://www.karger.com/?doi=441966.


Assuntos
Soluções para Hemodiálise/uso terapêutico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/métodos , Sódio/sangue , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Soluções para Hemodiálise/química , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 27(6): 1830-6, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26467779

RESUMO

The Frequent Hemodialysis Network Daily Trial randomized 245 patients to receive six (frequent) or three (conventional) in-center hemodialysis sessions per week for 12 months. As reported previously, frequent in-center hemodialysis yielded favorable effects on the coprimary composite outcomes of death or change in left ventricular mass and death or change in self-reported physical health. Here, we determined the long-term effects of the 12-month frequent in-center hemodialysis intervention. We determined the vital status of patients over a median of 3.6 years (10%-90% range, 1.5-5.3 years) after randomization. Using an intention to treat analysis, we compared the mortality hazard in randomized groups. In a subset of patients from both groups, we reassessed left ventricular mass and self-reported physical health a year or more after completion of the intervention; 20 of 125 patients (16%) randomized to frequent hemodialysis died during the combined trial and post-trial observation periods in contrast to 34 of 120 patients (28%) randomized to conventional hemodialysis. The relative mortality hazard for frequent versus conventional hemodialysis was 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.31 to 0.93); with censoring of time after kidney transplantation, the relative hazard was 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.99). Bayesian analysis suggested a relatively high probability of clinically significant benefit and a very low probability of harm with frequent hemodialysis. In conclusion, a 12-month frequent in-center hemodialysis intervention significantly reduced long-term mortality, suggesting that frequent hemodialysis may benefit selected patients with ESRD.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Blood Purif ; 40(1): 99-108, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26159747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-linear heart rate variability (HRV) indices were hypothesized to correlate with cardiac function, fluid overload and physical performance in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Twenty-four-hour Holter electrocardiograms were recorded in patients enrolled in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Daily Dialysis Trial. Correlations between non-linear HRV indices and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), extracellular volume (ECV)/total body water (TBW) ratio, the SF-36 Physical Health Composite (PHC) and Physical Functioning (PF) scores were tested. RESULTS: We studied 210 subjects (average age 49.8 ± 13.5 years, 62% men, 42% diabetics). In non-diabetic patients, multiscale entropy (MSE) slope sample entropy (SampEn) and approximate entropy (ApEn) correlated positively with LVEF, PF and PHC and inversely with LVEDV and ECV/TBW. Spectral power slope correlated positively with ECV/TBW (r = 0.27). Irregularity measures (MSE ApEn and MSE SampEn) correlated positively with LVEDV (r = 0.19 and 0.20). CONCLUSION: Non-linear HRV indices indicated an association between a deteriorated heart rate regulatory system and impaired cardiac function, fluid accumulation and poor physical condition.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca , Diálise Renal , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/métodos , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
17.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 66(3): 459-68, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25863828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data are available regarding the long-term mortality rate for patients receiving nocturnal home hemodialysis. STUDY DESIGN: Posttrial observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Nocturnal Trial participants who consented to extended follow-up. INTERVENTION: The FHN Nocturnal Trial randomly assigned 87 individuals to 6-times-weekly home nocturnal hemodialysis or 3-times-weekly hemodialysis for 1 year. Patients were enrolled starting in March 2006 and follow-up was completed by May 2010. After the 1-year trial concluded, FHN Nocturnal participants were free to modify their hemodialysis prescription. OUTCOMES & MEASUREMENTS: We obtained dates of death and kidney transplantation through July 2011 using linkage to the US Renal Data System and queries of study centers. We used log-rank tests and Cox regression to relate mortality to the initial randomization assignment. RESULTS: Median follow-up for the trial and posttrial observational period was 3.7 years. In the nocturnal arm, there were 2 deaths during the 12-month trial period and an additional 12 deaths during the extended follow-up. In the conventional arm, the numbers of deaths were 1 and 4, respectively. In the nocturnal dialysis group, the overall mortality HR was 3.88 (95% CI, 1.27-11.79; P=0.01). Using as-treated analysis with a 12-month running treatment average, the HR for mortality was 3.06 (95% CI, 1.11-8.43; P=0.03). Six-month running treatment data analysis showed an HR of 1.12 (95% CI, 0.44-3.22; P=0.7). LIMITATIONS: These results should be interpreted cautiously due to a surprisingly low (0.03 deaths/patient-year) mortality rate for individuals randomly assigned to conventional home hemodialysis, low statistical power for the mortality comparison due to the small sample size, and the high rate of hemodialysis prescription changes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients randomly assigned to nocturnal hemodialysis had a higher mortality rate than those randomly assigned to conventional dialysis. The implications of this result require further investigation.


Assuntos
Hemodiálise no Domicílio/métodos , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Hemodial Int ; 19(3): 386-401, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25560227

RESUMO

Hypertension is a common complication of chronic kidney disease and persists among most patients with end-stage renal disease despite the provision of conventional thrice weekly hemodialysis (HD). We analyzed the effects of frequent HD on blood pressure in the randomized controlled Frequent Hemodialysis Network trials. The daily trial randomized 245 patients to 12 months of 6× ("frequent") vs. 3× ("conventional") weekly in-center hemodialysis; the nocturnal trial randomized 87 patients to 12 months of 6× weekly nocturnal HD vs. 3× weekly predominantly home-based hemodialysis. In the daily trial, compared with 3× weekly HD, 2 months of frequent HD lowered predialysis systolic blood pressure by -7.7 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.9 to -3.5] and diastolic blood pressure by -3.9 mmHg [95% CI: -6.5 to -1.3]. In the nocturnal trial, compared with 3× weekly HD, 2 months of frequent HD lowered systolic blood pressure by -7.3 mmHg [95% CI: -14.2 to -0.3] and diastolic blood pressure by -4.2 mmHg [95% CI: -8.3 to -0.1]. In both trials, blood pressure treatment effects were sustained until month 12. Frequent HD resulted in significantly fewer antihypertensive medications (daily: -0.36 medications [95% CI: -0.65 to -0.08]; nocturnal: -0.44 mediations [95% CI: -0.89 to -0.03]). In the daily trial, the relative risk per dialysis session for intradialytic hypotension was lower with 6×/week HD but given the higher number of sessions per week, there was a higher relative risk for intradialytic hypotensive requiring saline administration. In summary, frequent HD reduces blood pressure and the number of prescribed antihypertensive medications.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal/métodos
19.
Nephron Clin Pract ; 128(1-2): 115-26, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25402657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is well established to assess body composition. Agreements between single- and multi-frequency bioimpedance (SF-BIA, MF-BIS) measurements in subjects undergoing 6 or 3 times/week hemodialysis (HD) were analyzed. METHODS: Total body water (TBW) and intra- and extracellular fluid (ICF, ECF) of subjects enrolled in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Daily Trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov No. NCT00264758) were measured with a Hydra 4200 at baseline (BL) and at 5 months (M5). Volumes were computed using SF (at 50 kHz) and MF approaches. Agreement was assessed by means of linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis and treatment effects by t test. RESULTS: 35 subjects (17 on the more frequent regimen, 26 males, 20 African-American, 48 ± 9 years, pre-HD weight 84 ± 19 kg) were studied. Assessments with SF-BIA and MF-BIS correlated significantly at BL and M5 in both arms. No proportional errors, but systematic biases over the entire range of values were found at BL and M5. Agreement did not differ between subjects randomized to either HD treatment arm at both time points. MF-BIS appears to have better precision than SF-BIA allowing the observation of a significant treatment effect by the intervention [-1.5 (95% CI -2.5 to -0.5) l] on ECF, not found for ECF SF-BIA. Precision also affected the statistical power of the SF-BIA data in the current analysis. CONCLUSION: Both methods showed agreement without significant proportional errors regardless of HD frequency and can be used for longitudinal analyses. SF-BIA has lower precision which needs thorough consideration in the design of future trials with similar outcomes.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Água Corporal , Líquido Extracelular , Diálise Renal , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 9(5): 936-42, 2014 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24721892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients receiving hemodialysis often perceive their caregivers are overburdened. We hypothesize that increasing hemodialysis frequency would result in higher patient perceptions of burden on their unpaid caregivers. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In two separate trials, 245 patients were randomized to receive in-center daily hemodialysis (6 days/week) or conventional hemodialysis (3 days/week) while 87 patients were randomized to receive home nocturnal hemodialysis (6 nights/week) or home conventional hemodialysis for 12 months. Changes in overall mean scores over time in the 10-question Cousineau perceived burden scale were compared. RESULTS: In total, 173 of 245 (70%) and 80 of 87 (92%) randomized patients in the Daily and Nocturnal Trials, respectively, reported having an unpaid caregiver at baseline or during follow-up. Relative to in-center conventional dialysis, the 12-month change in mean perceived burden score with in-center daily hemodialysis was -2.1 (95% confidence interval, -9.4 to +5.3; P=0.58). Relative to home conventional dialysis, the 12-month change in mean perceived burden score with home nocturnal dialysis was +6.1 (95% confidence interval, -0.8 to +13.1; P=0.08). After multiple imputation for missing data in the Nocturnal Trial, the relative difference between home nocturnal and home conventional hemodialysis was +9.4 (95% confidence interval, +0.55 to +18.3; P=0.04). In the Nocturnal Trial, changes in perceived burden were inversely correlated with adherence to dialysis treatments (Pearson r=-0.35; P=0.02). CONCLUSION: Relative to conventional hemodialysis, in-center daily hemodialysis did not result in higher perceptions of caregiver burden. There was a trend to higher perceived caregiver burden among patients randomized to home nocturnal hemodialysis. These findings may have implications for the adoption of and adherence to frequent nocturnal hemodialysis.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Diálise Renal/psicologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Feminino , Hemodiálise no Domicílio/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Percepção , Diálise Renal/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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