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1.
Mar Environ Res ; 149: 80-89, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181418

RESUMO

Photosynthesis in the seagrass Zostera muelleri remains poorly understood. We investigated the effect of reduced irradiance on the incorporation of 13C, gene expression of photosynthetic, photorespiratory and intermediates recycling genes as well as the enzymatic content and activity of Rubisco and PEPC within Z. muelleri. Following 48 h of reduced irradiance, we found that i) there was a ∼7 fold reduction in 13C incorporation in above ground tissue, ii) a significant down regulation of photosynthetic, photorespiratory and intermediates recycling genes and iii) no significant difference in enzyme activity and content. We propose that Z. muelleri is able to alter its physiology in order to reduce the amount of C lost through photorespiration to compensate for the reduced carbon assimilation as a result of reduced irradiance. In addition, the first estimated rate constant (Kcat) and maximum rates of carboxylation (Vcmax) of Rubisco is reported for the first time for Z. muelleri.

2.
Plant Physiol ; 179(4): 1608-1619, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692219

RESUMO

Pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorimetry is widely used in photobiological studies of corals, as it rapidly provides numerous photosynthetic parameters to assess coral ecophysiology. Coral optics studies have revealed the presence of light gradients in corals, which are strongly affected by light scattering in coral tissue and skeleton. We investigated whether coral optics affects variable chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence measurements and derived photosynthetic parameters by developing planar hydrogel slabs with immobilized microalgae and with bulk optical properties similar to those of different types of corals. Our results show that PAM-based measurements of photosynthetic parameters differed substantially between hydrogels with different degrees of light scattering but identical microalgal density, yielding deviations in apparent maximal electron transport rates by a factor of 2. Furthermore, system settings such as the measuring light intensity affected F 0, Fm , and Fv /Fm in hydrogels with identical light absorption but different degrees of light scattering. Likewise, differences in microalgal density affected variable Chl fluorescence parameters, where higher algal densities led to greater Fv /Fm values and relative electron transport rates. These results have important implications for the use of variable Chl fluorimetry in ecophysiological studies of coral stress and photosynthesis, as well as other optically dense systems such as plant tissue and biofilms.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Clorofila/análise , Fenômenos Ópticos , Animais , Fluorometria , Hidrogéis/química
3.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 95(1)2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380056

RESUMO

Microbial mats and stromatolites are widespread in Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, however the phototrophic capacity of these systems is unknown. This study has determined the optical properties and light-harvesting potential of these mats with light microsensors. These characteristics were linked via a combination of 16S rDNA sequencing, pigment analyses and hyperspectral imaging. Local scalar irradiance was elevated over the incident downwelling irradiance by 1.5-fold, suggesting light trapping and strong scattering by the mats. Visible light (400-700 nm) penetrated to a depth of 2 mm, whereas near-infrared light (700-800 nm) penetrated to at least 6 mm. Chlorophyll a and bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a) were found to be the dominant photosynthetic pigments present, with BChl a peaking at the subsurface (2-4 mm). Detailed 16S rDNA analyses revealed the presence of putative Chl f-containing Halomicronema sp. and photosynthetic members primarily decreased from the mat surface down to a depth of 6 mm. Data indicated high abundances of some pigments and phototrophic organisms in deeper layers of the mats (6-16 mm). It is proposed that the photosynthetic bacteria present in this system undergo unique adaptations to lower light conditions below the mat surface, and that phototrophic metabolisms are major contributors to ecosystem function.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/efeitos da radiação , Fotossíntese , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Austrália , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/genética , Ecossistema , Luz , Processos Fototróficos
4.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 181: 31-43, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486460

RESUMO

This study describes the impacts of inorganic carbon limitation on the photosynthetic efficiency and operation of photosynthetic electron transport pathways in the biofuel-candidate microalga Nannochloropsis oculata. Using a combination of highly-controlled cultivation setup (photobioreactor), variable chlorophyll a fluorescence and transient spectroscopy methods (electrochromic shift (ECS) and P700 redox kinetics), we showed that net photosynthesis and effective quantum yield of Photosystem II (PSII) decreased in N. oculata under carbon limitation. This was accompanied by a transient increase in total proton motive force and energy-dependent non-photochemical quenching as well as slightly elevated respiration. On the other hand, under carbon limitation the rapid increase in proton motive force (PMF, estimated from the total ECS signal) was also accompanied by reduced conductivity of ATP synthase to protons (estimated from the rate of ECS decay in dark after actinic illumination). This indicates that the slow operation of ATP synthase results in the transient build-up of PMF, which leads to the activation of fast energy dissipation mechanisms such as energy-dependent non-photochemical quenching. N. oculata also increased content of lipids under carbon limitation, which compensated for reduced NAPDH consumption during decreased CO2 fixation. The integrated knowledge of the underlying energetic regulation of photosynthetic processes attained with a combination of biophysical methods may be used to identify photo-physiological signatures of the onset of carbon limitation in microalgal cultivation systems, as well as to potentially identify microalgal strains that can better acclimate to carbon limitation.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos da radiação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Luz , Microalgas/efeitos da radiação , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Prótons , Tilacoides/química , Tilacoides/metabolismo
5.
Photosynth Res ; 136(2): 147-160, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980125

RESUMO

Seagrasses are a diverse group of angiosperms that evolved to live in shallow coastal waters, an environment regularly subjected to changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide and irradiance. Zostera muelleri is the dominant species in south-eastern Australia, and is critical for healthy coastal ecosystems. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the pathways of carbon fixation in Z. muelleri and their regulation in response to environmental changes. In this study, the response of Z. muelleri exposed to control and very low oxygen conditions was investigated by using (i) oxygen microsensors combined with a custom-made flow chamber to measure changes in photosynthesis and respiration, and (ii) reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR to measure changes in expression levels of key genes involved in C4 metabolism. We found that very low levels of oxygen (i) altered the photophysiology of Z. muelleri, a characteristic of C3 mechanism of carbon assimilation, and (ii) decreased the expression levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and carbonic anhydrase. These molecular-physiological results suggest that regulation of the photophysiology of Z. muelleri might involve a close integration between the C3 and C4, or other CO2 concentrating mechanisms metabolic pathways. Overall, this study highlights that the photophysiological response of Z. muelleri to changing oxygen in water is capable of rapid acclimation and the dynamic modulation of pathways should be considered when assessing seagrass primary production.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Zosteraceae/fisiologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/genética , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/genética , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
6.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 83(13)2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28455341

RESUMO

To investigate the function of 2-methylhopanoids in modern cyanobacteria, the hpnP gene coding for the radical S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) methylase protein that acts on the C-2 position of hopanoids was deleted from the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133S. The resulting ΔhpnP mutant lacked all 2-methylhopanoids but was found to produce much higher levels of two bacteriohopanepentol isomers than the wild type. Growth rates of the ΔhpnP mutant cultures were not significantly different from those of the wild type under standard growth conditions. Akinete formation was also not impeded by the absence of 2-methylhopanoids. The relative abundances of the different hopanoid structures in akinete-dominated cultures of the wild-type and ΔhpnP mutant strains were similar to those of vegetative cell-dominated cultures. However, the ΔhpnP mutant was found to have decreased growth rates under both pH and osmotic stress, confirming a role for 2-methylhopanoids in stress tolerance. Evidence of elevated photosystem II yield and NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase activity in the ΔhpnP mutant under stress conditions, compared to the wild type, suggested that the absence of 2-methylhopanoids increases cellular metabolic rates under stress conditions.IMPORTANCE As the first group of organisms to develop oxygenic photosynthesis, Cyanobacteria are central to the evolutionary history of life on Earth and the subsequent oxygenation of the atmosphere. To investigate the origin of cyanobacteria and the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, geobiologists use biomarkers, the remnants of lipids produced by different organisms that are found in geologic sediments. 2-Methylhopanes have been considered indicative of cyanobacteria in some environmental settings, with the parent lipids 2-methylhopanoids being present in many contemporary cyanobacteria. We have created a Nostoc punctiforme ΔhpnP mutant strain that does not produce 2-methylhopanoids to assess the influence of 2-methylhopanoids on stress tolerance. Increased metabolic activity in the mutant under stress indicates compensatory alterations in metabolism in the absence of 2-methylhopanoids.


Assuntos
Nostoc/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Isomerismo , Metilação , Nostoc/química , Nostoc/genética , Nostoc/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osmose , Triterpenos/química
7.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 59, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28174567

RESUMO

Climate change-related coral bleaching, i.e., the visible loss of zooxanthellae from the coral host, is increasing in frequency and extent and presents a major threat to coral reefs globally. Coral bleaching has been proposed to involve accelerating light stress of their microalgal endosymbionts via a positive feedback loop of photodamage, symbiont expulsion and excess in vivo light exposure. To test this hypothesis, we used light and O2 microsensors to characterize in vivo light exposure and photosynthesis of Symbiodinium during a thermal stress experiment. We created tissue areas with different densities of Symbiodinium cells in order to understand the optical properties and light microenvironment of corals during bleaching. Our results showed that in bleached Pocillopora damicornis corals, Symbiodinium light exposure was up to fivefold enhanced relative to healthy corals, and the relationship between symbiont loss and light enhancement was well-described by a power-law function. Cell-specific rates of Symbiodinium gross photosynthesis and light respiration were enhanced in bleached P. damicornis compared to healthy corals, while areal rates of net photosynthesis decreased. Symbiodinium light exposure in Favites sp. revealed the presence of low light microniches in bleached coral tissues, suggesting that light scattering in thick coral tissues can enable photoprotection of cryptic symbionts. Our study provides evidence for the acceleration of in vivo light exposure during coral bleaching but this optical feedback mechanism differs between coral hosts. Enhanced photosynthesis in relation to accelerating light exposure shows that coral microscale optics exerts a key role on coral photophysiology and the subsequent degree of radiative stress during coral bleaching.

8.
Mycology ; 8(3): 205-215, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123641

RESUMO

Endolithic true fungi and fungus-like microorganisms penetrate calcareous substrates formed by living organisms, cause significant bioerosion and are involved in diseases of many host animals in marine ecosystems. A theoretical interactive model for the ecology of reef-building corals is proposed in this review. This model includes five principle partners that exist in a dynamic equilibrium: polyps of a colonial coelenterate, endosymbiotic zooxanthellae, endolithic algae (that penetrate coral skeletons), endolithic fungi (that attack the endolithic algae, the zooxanthellae and the polyps) and prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms (which live in the coral mucus). Endolithic fungi and fungus-like boring microorganisms are important components of the marine calcium carbonate cycle because they actively contribute to the biodegradation of shells of animals composed of calcium carbonate and calcareous geological substrates.

9.
Mycology ; 8(3): 216-227, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123642

RESUMO

Anamorphic ascomycetes have been implicated as causative agents of diseases in tissues and skeletons of hard corals, in tissues of soft corals (sea fans) and in tissues and shells of molluscs. Opportunist marine fungal pathogens, such as Aspergillus sydowii, are important components of marine mycoplankton and are ubiquitous in the open oceans, intertidal zones and marine sediments. These fungi can cause infection in or at least can be associated with animals which live in these ecosystems. A. sydowii can produce toxins which inhibit photosynthesis in and the growth of coral zooxanthellae. The prevalence of many documented infections has increased in frequency and severity in recent decades with the changing impacts of physical and chemical factors, such as temperature, acidity and eutrophication. Changes in these factors are thought to cause significant loss of biodiversity in marine ecosystems on a global scale in general, and especially in coral reefs and shallow bays.

10.
Plant Physiol ; 172(1): 272-83, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27373688

RESUMO

Seagrasses are marine angiosperms that evolved from land plants but returned to the sea around 140 million years ago during the early evolution of monocotyledonous plants. They successfully adapted to abiotic stresses associated with growth in the marine environment, and today, seagrasses are distributed in coastal waters worldwide. Seagrass meadows are an important oceanic carbon sink and provide food and breeding grounds for diverse marine species. Here, we report the assembly and characterization of the Zostera muelleri genome, a southern hemisphere temperate species. Multiple genes were lost or modified in Z. muelleri compared with terrestrial or floating aquatic plants that are associated with their adaptation to life in the ocean. These include genes for hormone biosynthesis and signaling and cell wall catabolism. There is evidence of whole-genome duplication in Z. muelleri; however, an ancient pan-commelinid duplication event is absent, highlighting the early divergence of this species from the main monocot lineages.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Ecossistema , Genoma de Planta/genética , Zosteraceae/genética , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Oceanos e Mares , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
11.
Front Microbiol ; 7: 230, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26955372

RESUMO

Coral photophysiology has been studied intensively from the colony scale down to the scale of single fluorescent pigment granules as light is one of the key determinants for coral health. We studied the photophysiology of the oral and aboral symbiont band of scleractinian coral Montastrea curta to investigate if different acclimation to light exist in hospite on a polyp scale. By combined use of electrochemical and fiber-optic microsensors for O2, scalar irradiance and variable chlorophyll fluorescence, we could characterize the physical and chemical microenvironment experienced by the symbionts and, for the first time, estimate effective quantum yields of PSII photochemistry and rates of electron transport at the position of the zooxanthellae corrected for the in-tissue gradient of scalar irradiance. The oral- and aboral Symbiodinium layers received ∼71% and ∼33% of surface scalar irradiance, respectively, and the two symbiont layers experience considerable differences in light exposure. Rates of gross photosynthesis did not differ markedly between the oral- and aboral layer and curves of PSII electron transport rates corrected for scalar irradiance in hospite, showed that the light use efficiency under sub-saturating light conditions were similar between the two layers. However, the aboral Symbiodinium band did not experience photosynthetic saturation, even at the highest investigated irradiance where the oral layer was clearly saturated. We thus found a different light acclimation response for the oral and aboral symbiont bands in hospite, and discuss whether such response could be shaped by spectral shifts caused by tissue gradients of scalar irradiance. Based on our experimental finding, combined with previous knowledge, we present a conceptual model on the photophysiology of Symbiodinium residing inside living coral tissue under natural gradients of light and chemical parameters.

12.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1857(6): 840-7, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26869375

RESUMO

The global rise in sea surface temperatures causes regular exposure of corals to high temperature and high light stress, leading to worldwide disastrous coral bleaching events (loss of symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) from reef-building corals). Our picosecond chlorophyll fluorescence experiments on cultured Symbiodinium clade C cells exposed to coral bleaching conditions uncovered the transformations of the alga's photosynthetic apparatus (PSA) that activate an extremely efficient non-photochemical "super-quenching" mechanism. The mechanism is associated with a transition from an initially heterogeneous photosystem II (PSII) pool to a homogeneous "spillover" pool, where nearly all excitation energy is transferred to photosystem I (PSI). There, the inherently higher stability of PSI and high quenching efficiency of P(700)(+) allow dumping of PSII excess excitation energy into heat, resulting in almost complete cessation of photosynthetic electron transport (PET). This potentially reversible "super-quenching" mechanism protects the PSA against destruction at the cost of a loss of photosynthetic activity. We suggest that the inhibition of PET and the consequent inhibition of organic carbon production (e.g. sugars) in the symbiotic Symbiodinium provide a trigger for the symbiont expulsion, i.e. bleaching.


Assuntos
Antozoários/parasitologia , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Clorofila/metabolismo , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Dinoflagelados/ultraestrutura , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos da radiação , Cinética , Luz , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Oxirredução/efeitos da radiação , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Tilacoides/metabolismo , Tilacoides/efeitos da radiação , Fatores de Tempo
13.
ChemSusChem ; 8(16): 2727-36, 2015 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26212226

RESUMO

This study presents the first in-depth analysis of CO2 limitation on the biomass productivity of the biofuel candidate marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata. Net photosynthesis decreased by 60% from 125 to 50 µmol O2 L(-1)h(-1) over a 12 h light cycle as a direct result of carbon limitation. Continuous dissolved O2 and pH measurements were used to develop a detailed diurnal mechanism for the interaction between photosynthesis, gas exchange and carbonate chemistry in the photo-bioreactor. Gas exchange determined the degree of carbon limitation experienced by the algae. Carbon limitation was confirmed by delivering more CO2 , which increased net photosynthesis back to its steady-state maximum. This study highlights the importance of maintaining replete carbon concentrations in photo-bioreactors and other culturing facilities, either by constant pH operation or preferably by designing a feedback loop based on the dissolved O2 concentration.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Estramenópilas/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Estramenópilas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Environ Microbiol ; 17(10): 4121-32, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26176189

RESUMO

The cyanobacterium Prochloron didemni is primarily found in symbiotic relationships with various marine hosts such as ascidians and sponges. Prochloron remains to be successfully cultivated outside of its host, which reflects a lack of knowledge of its unique ecophysiological requirements. We investigated the microenvironment and diversity of Prochloron inhabiting the upper, exposed surface of didemnid ascidians, providing the first insights into this microhabitat. The pH and O2 concentration in this Prochloron biofilm changes dynamically with irradiance, where photosynthetic activity measurements showed low light adaptation (Ek ∼ 80 ± 7 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) but high light tolerance. Surface Prochloron cells exhibited a different fine structure to Prochloron cells from cloacal cavities in other ascidians, the principle difference being a central area of many vacuoles dissected by single thylakoids in the surface Prochloron. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA pyro-sequencing of the biofilm community on four ascidians resulted in 433 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) where on average -85% (65-99%) of all sequence reads, represented by 136 OTUs, were identified as Prochloron via blast search. All of the major Prochloron-OTUs clustered into independent, highly supported phylotypes separate from sequences reported for internal Prochloron, suggesting a hitherto unexplored genetic variability among Prochloron colonizing the outer surface of didemnids.


Assuntos
Microambiente Celular/fisiologia , Poríferos/microbiologia , Prochloron/classificação , Simbiose/genética , Urocordados/microbiologia , Animais , Biofilmes , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Variação Genética , Luz , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Filogenia , Prochloron/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
15.
ISME J ; 9(9): 2108-11, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25668158

RESUMO

Chlorophyll (Chl) f is the most recently discovered chlorophyll and has only been found in cyanobacteria from wet environments. Although its structure and biophysical properties are resolved, the importance of Chl f as an accessory pigment in photosynthesis remains unresolved. We found Chl f in a cyanobacterium enriched from a cavernous environment and report the first example of Chl f-supported oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria from such habitats. Pigment extraction, hyperspectral microscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of Chl a and f in unicellular cyanobacteria found in enrichment cultures. Amplicon sequencing indicated that all oxygenic phototrophs were related to KC1, a Chl f-containing cyanobacterium previously isolated from an aquatic environment. Microsensor measurements on aggregates demonstrated oxygenic photosynthesis at 742 nm and less efficient photosynthesis under 768- and 777-nm light probably because of diminished overlap with the absorption spectrum of Chl f and other far-red absorbing pigments. Our findings suggest the importance of Chl f-containing cyanobacteria in terrestrial habitats.


Assuntos
Clorofila/análogos & derivados , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Clorofila/química , Clorofila/genética , Clorofila A , Classificação , Cianobactérias/genética , Ecossistema , Luz , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Oxigênio/química , Pigmentação , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Microbiologia da Água
16.
J Exp Bot ; 66(5): 1489-98, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25563969

RESUMO

Seagrasses are flowering plants which grow fully submerged in the marine environment. They have evolved a range of adaptations to environmental challenges including light attenuation through water, the physical stress of wave action and tidal currents, high concentrations of salt, oxygen deficiency in marine sediment, and water-borne pollination. Although, seagrasses are a key stone species of the costal ecosystems, many questions regarding seagrass biology and evolution remain unanswered. Genome sequence data for the widespread Australian seagrass species Zostera muelleri were generated and the unassembled data were compared with the annotated genes of five sequenced plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Phoenix dactylifera, Musa acuminata, and Spirodela polyrhiza). Genes which are conserved between Z. muelleri and the five plant species were identified, together with genes that have been lost in Z. muelleri. The effect of gene loss on biological processes was assessed on the gene ontology classification level. Gene loss in Z. muelleri appears to influence some core biological processes such as ethylene biosynthesis. This study provides a foundation for further studies of seagrass evolution as well as the hormonal regulation of plant growth and development.


Assuntos
Etilenos/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta , Zosteraceae/genética , Ecossistema , Genômica , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Zosteraceae/metabolismo
17.
Environ Microbiol ; 17(11): 4239-52, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25472545

RESUMO

Acaryochloris marina is a symbiotic species of cyanobacteria that is capable of utilizing far-red light. We report the characterization of the phages A-HIS1 and A-HIS2, capable of infecting Acaryochloris. Morphological characterization of these phages places them in the family Siphoviridae. However, molecular characterization reveals that they do not show genetic similarity with any known siphoviruses. While the phages do show synteny between each other, the nucleotide identity between the phages is low at 45-67%, suggesting they diverged from each other some time ago. The greatest number of genes shared with another phage (a myovirus infecting marine Synechococcus) was four. Unlike most other cyanophages and in common with the Siphoviridae infecting Synechococcus, no photosynthesis-related genes were found in the genome. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) spacers from the host Acaryochloris had partial matches to sequences found within the phages, which is the first time CRISPRs have been reported in a cyanobacterial/cyanophage system. The phages also encode a homologue of the proteobacterial RNase T. The potential function of RNase T in the mark-up or digestion of crRNA hints at a novel mechanism for evading the host CRISPR system.


Assuntos
Exorribonucleases/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Siphoviridae/classificação , Siphoviridae/genética , Synechococcus/virologia , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Genômica , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteômica , Siphoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Synechococcus/genética , Sintenia
18.
PLoS One ; 9(10): e110814, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25360746

RESUMO

The light dependency of respiratory activity of two scleractinian corals was examined using O2 microsensors and CO2 exchange measurements. Light respiration increased strongly but asymptotically with elevated irradiance in both species. Light respiration in Pocillopora damicornis was higher than in Pavona decussata under low irradiance, indicating species-specific differences in light-dependent metabolic processes. Overall, the coral P. decussata exhibited higher CO2 uptake rates than P. damicornis over the experimental irradiance range. P. decussata also harboured twice as many algal symbionts and higher total protein biomass compared to P. damicornis, possibly resulting in self-shading of the symbionts and/or changes in host tissue specific light distribution. Differences in light respiration and CO2 availability could be due to host-specific characteristics that modulate the symbiont microenvironment, its photosynthesis, and hence the overall performance of the coral holobiont.


Assuntos
Antozoários/metabolismo , Antozoários/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Respiração/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Antozoários/fisiologia , Transporte Biológico/efeitos da radiação , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Simbiose/efeitos da radiação
19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 83: 159-67, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25146689

RESUMO

Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry has been widely used to estimate the relative photosynthetic efficiency of corals. However, both the optical properties of intact corals as well as past technical constrains to PAM fluorometers have prevented calculations of the electron turnover rate of PSII. We used a new Multi-colour PAM (MC-PAM) in parallel with light microsensors to determine for the first time the wavelength-specific effective absorption cross-section of PSII photochemistry, σII(λ), and thus PAM-based absolute electron transport rates of the coral photosymbiont Symbiodinium both in culture and in hospite in the coral Pocillopora damicornis. In both cases, σII of Symbiodinium was highest in the blue spectral region and showed a progressive decrease towards red wavelengths. Absolute values for σII at 440 nm were up to 1.5-times higher in culture than in hospite. Scalar irradiance within the living coral tissue was reduced by 20% in the blue when compared to the incident downwelling irradiance. Absolute electron transport rates of P. damicornis at 440 nm revealed a maximum PSII turnover rate of ca. 250 electrons PSII(-1) s(-1), consistent with one PSII turnover for every 4 photons absorbed by PSII; this likely reflects the limiting steps in electron transfer between PSII and PSI. Our results show that optical properties of the coral host strongly affect light use efficiency of Symbiodinium. Therefore, relative electron transport rates do not reflect the productivity rates (or indeed how the photosynthesis-light response is parameterised). Here we provide a non-invasive approach to estimate absolute electron transport rates in corals.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Luz , Animais , Transporte de Elétrons
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 167: 521-9, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25016367

RESUMO

Multi-wavelength chlorophyll fluorescence analysis was utilised to examine the photosynthetic efficiency of the biofuel-producing alga Nannochloropsis oculata, grown under two light regimes; low (LL) and high (HL) irradiance levels. Wavelength dependency was evident in the functional absorption cross-section of Photosystem II (σII(λ)), absolute electron transfer rates (ETR(II)), and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence in both HL and LL cells. While σII(λ) was not significantly different between the two growth conditions, HL cells upregulated ETR(II) 1.6-1.8-fold compared to LL cells, most significantly in the wavelength range of 440-540 nm. This indicates preferential utilisation of blue-green light, a highly relevant spectral region for visible light in algal pond conditions. Under these conditions, the HL cells accumulated saturated fatty acids, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids were more abundant in LL cells. This knowledge is of importance for the use of N. oculata for fatty acid production in the biofuel industry.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Clorofila/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Absorção Fisico-Química , Transporte de Elétrons , Ésteres/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fluorescência , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Teoria Quântica
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