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1.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 45(5): 508-518, sept.-oct. 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-167007

RESUMO

Introduction: Cow's milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Treatments such as oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guides on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives: To develop a clinical guide on OIT based on the available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. Methods: A review was made of studies published in the period between 1984 and June 2016, Doctoral Theses published in Spain, and summaries of communications at congresses (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, AAAAI), with evaluation of the opinion consensus established by a group of experts pertaining to the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. Results: Recommendations have been established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of suffering adverse reactions. Conclusions: A clinical practice guide is presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg, based on the opinion consensus of Spanish experts (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/terapia , Imunoterapia Sublingual/métodos
2.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 45(4): 393-404, jul.-ago. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-165100

RESUMO

Introduction: Cow's milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Treatments such as oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guides on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives: To develop a clinical guide on OIT based on the available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. Methods: A review was made of studies published in the period between 1984 and June 2016, Doctoral Theses published in Spain, and summaries of communications at congresses (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, AAAAI), with evaluation of the opinion consensus established by a group of experts pertaining to the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. Results: Recommendations have been established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of suffering adverse reactions. Conclusions: A clinical practice guide is presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg, based on the opinion consensus of Spanish experts (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/terapia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica
3.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 45(4): 393-404, 2017 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28662773

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cow's milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Treatments such as oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guides on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. OBJECTIVES: To develop a clinical guide on OIT based on the available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. METHODS: A review was made of studies published in the period between 1984 and June 2016, Doctoral Theses published in Spain, and summaries of communications at congresses (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, AAAAI), with evaluation of the opinion consensus established by a group of experts pertaining to the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. RESULTS: Recommendations have been established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of suffering adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: A clinical practice guide is presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg, based on the opinion consensus of Spanish experts.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/terapia , Proteínas do Ovo/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Proteínas do Leite/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Contraindicações , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Proteínas do Ovo/imunologia , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Proteínas do Leite/imunologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Espanha
4.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 45(5): 508-518, 2017 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28676231

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cow's milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Treatments such as oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guides on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. OBJECTIVES: To develop a clinical guide on OIT based on the available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. METHODS: A review was made of studies published in the period between 1984 and June 2016, Doctoral Theses published in Spain, and summaries of communications at congresses (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, AAAAI), with evaluation of the opinion consensus established by a group of experts pertaining to the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. RESULTS: Recommendations have been established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of suffering adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: A clinical practice guide is presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg, based on the opinion consensus of Spanish experts.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Proteínas do Ovo/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Proteínas do Leite/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Alérgenos/imunologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Proteínas do Ovo/imunologia , Prova Pericial , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Proteínas do Leite/imunologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Espanha
5.
J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol ; 27(4): 225-237, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28731411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cow milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guidelines on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives: To develop clinical guidelines for OIT based on available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. METHODS: A review was made of studies published between 1984 and June 2016, doctoral theses published in Spain, summaries of communications at scientific meetings (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, and AAAAI), and the consensus of opinion established by a group of experts from the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. RESULTS: Recommendations were established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical practice guidelines based on the consensus reached between Spanish experts are presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/terapia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Administração Oral , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Espanha
6.
J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol ; 27(5): 279-290, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28593864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cow milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guidelines on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives: To develop clinical guidelines for OIT based on available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. METHODS: A review was made of studies published between 1984 and June 2016, doctoral theses published in Spain, summaries of communications at scientific meetings (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, and AAAAI), and the consensus of opinion established by a group of experts from the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. RESULTS: Recommendations were established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical practice guidelines based on the consensus reached between Spanish experts are presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-167246

RESUMO

Introduction: Cow milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guidelines on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives: To develop clinical guidelines for OIT based on available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. Methods: A review was made of studies published between 1984 and June 2016, doctoral theses published in Spain, summaries of communications at scientific meetings (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, and AAAAI), and the consensus of opinion established by a group of experts from the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. Results: Recommendations were established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of adverse reactions. Conclusions: Clinical practice guidelines based on the consensus reached between Spanish experts are presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg (AU)


Introducción: El huevo y la leche de vaca son la causa más frecuente de alergia alimentaria en los primeros años de vida. Como alternativa terapéutica a la dieta de eliminación se han investigado otras formas de tratamiento como la inmunoterapia oral (ITO). Actualmente no existen guías de práctica clínica para el manejo de la ITO con leche y huevo. Objetivos: Elaborar una guía clínica para el tratamiento con ITO basada en la evidencia científica disponible y en la opinión de expertos. Métodos: Revisión de estudios publicados desde el año 1984 hasta junio de 2016, tesis doctorales publicadas en España, resúmenes de comunicaciones en congresos (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, AAAAI) y consenso de opinión de un grupo de expertos de las sociedades científicas SEICAP y SEAIC. Resultados: Se establecen recomendaciones acerca de la indicación, requerimientos, aspectos prácticos del tratamiento en las diferentes fases de la ITO, y pautas especiales para pacientes de alto riesgo de reacciones adversas. Conclusiones: Se presenta una guía con las directrices para el manejo en la práctica clínica de la ITO con leche y huevo que aúna la opinión consensuada de expertos españoles (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Omalizumab/administração & dosagem , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Dosagem/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Administração Sublingual
8.
J. investig. allergol. clin. immunol ; 27(4): 225-237, 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-165011

RESUMO

Introduction: Cow milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guidelines on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives: To develop clinical guidelines for OIT based on available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. Methods: A review was made of studies published between 1984 and June 2016, doctoral theses published in Spain, summaries of communications at scientific meetings (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, and AAAAI), and the consensus of opinion established by a group of experts from the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. Results: Recommendations were established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of adverse reactions. Conclusions: Clinical practice guidelines based on the consensus reached between Spanish experts are presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg (AU)


Introducción: El huevo y la leche de vaca son la causa más frecuente de alergia alimentaria en los primeros años de vida. Como alternativa terapéutica a la dieta de eliminación se han investigado otras formas de tratamiento como la inmunoterapia oral (ITO). Actualmente no existen guías de práctica clínica para el manejo de la ITO con leche y huevo. Objetivos: Elaborar una guía clínica para el tratamiento con ITO basada en la evidencia científica disponible y en la opinión de expertos. Métodos: Revisión de estudios publicados desde el año 1984 hasta junio de 2016, tesis doctorales publicadas en España, resúmenes de comunicaciones en congresos (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, AAAAI) y consenso de opinión de un grupo de expertos de las sociedades científicas SEICAP y SEAIC. Resultados: Se establecen recomendaciones acerca de la indicación, requerimientos, aspectos prácticos del tratamiento en las diferentes fases de la ITO, y pautas especiales para pacientes de alto riesgo de reacciones adversas. Conclusiones: Se presenta una guía con las directrices para el manejo en la práctica clínica de la ITO con leche y huevo que aúna la opinión consensuada de expertos españoles (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/terapia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Diretrizes para o Planejamento em Saúde
9.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 44(supl.1): 1-32, nov. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-157833

RESUMO

Allergic respiratory diseases are major health problems in paediatric population due their high level of prevalence and chronicity, and to their relevance in the costs and quality of life. One of the most important risk factors for the development of airway diseases in children and adolescents is atopy. The mainstays for the treatment of these diseases are avoiding allergens, controlling symptoms, and preventing them through sustained desensitization by allergen immunotherapy (AIT). AIT is a treatment option that consists in the administration of increasing amounts of allergens to modify the biological response to them, inducing long-term tolerance even after treatment has ended. This treatment approach has shown to decrease symptoms and improve quality of life, becoming cost effective for a large number of patients. In addition, it is considered the only treatment that can influence the natural course of the disease by targeting the cause of the allergic inflammatory response. The aim of this publication is to reflect the advances of AIT in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic respiratory diseases in children and adolescents reviewing articles published since 2000, establishing evidence categories to support the strength of the recommendations based on evidence. The first part of the article covers the prerequisite issues to understand how AIT is effective, such as the correct etiologic and clinical diagnosis of allergic respiratory diseases. Following this, the article outlines the advancements in understanding the mechanisms by which AIT achieve immune tolerance to allergens. Administration routes, treatment regimens, dose and duration, efficacy, safety, and factors associated with adherence are also reviewed. Finally, the article reviews future advances in the research of AIT (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/complicações , Padrões de Prática Médica , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Imunoterapia Sublingual/métodos , Asma/terapia , Rinite Alérgica/terapia
10.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 44 Suppl 1: 1-32, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27776895

RESUMO

Allergic respiratory diseases are major health problems in paediatric population due their high level of prevalence and chronicity, and to their relevance in the costs and quality of life. One of the most important risk factors for the development of airway diseases in children and adolescents is atopy. The mainstays for the treatment of these diseases are avoiding allergens, controlling symptoms, and preventing them through sustained desensitization by allergen immunotherapy (AIT). AIT is a treatment option that consists in the administration of increasing amounts of allergens to modify the biological response to them, inducing long-term tolerance even after treatment has ended. This treatment approach has shown to decrease symptoms and improve quality of life, becoming cost effective for a large number of patients. In addition, it is considered the only treatment that can influence the natural course of the disease by targeting the cause of the allergic inflammatory response. The aim of this publication is to reflect the advances of AIT in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic respiratory diseases in children and adolescents reviewing articles published since 2000, establishing evidence categories to support the strength of the recommendations based on evidence. The first part of the article covers the prerequisite issues to understand how AIT is effective, such as the correct etiologic and clinical diagnosis of allergic respiratory diseases. Following this, the article outlines the advancements in understanding the mechanisms by which AIT achieve immune tolerance to allergens. Administration routes, treatment regimens, dose and duration, efficacy, safety, and factors associated with adherence are also reviewed. Finally, the article reviews future advances in the research of AIT.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/terapia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunoterapia/tendências , Cooperação do Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/imunologia
11.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 83(2): 136.e1-136.e7, ago. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-139406

RESUMO

La pletismografía corporal completa permite la medición de volúmenes, capacidades y resistencias pulmonares. Es una técnica bien estandarizada y ampliamente utilizada en neumología pediátrica, aunque requiere equipo específico, personal especializado y cierta colaboración por parte del paciente. La pletismografía utiliza la ley de Boyle para determinar el volumen de gas intratorácico o capacidad residual funcional, y una vez determinada esta, se extrapolan el volumen residual y la capacidad pulmonar total. La medición de la capacidad pulmonar total es necesaria para el diagnóstico de patología restrictiva. La resistencia de la vía aérea es una medida de obstrucción, pudiéndose determinar la resistencia total, que incluye la resistencia de la pared torácica, tejido pulmonar y vía aérea, y la resistencia específica, que es un parámetro más estable que corresponde al producto de la resistencia de la vía aérea por la capacidad residual funcional. La complejidad de esta técnica, las ecuaciones de referencia, las diferencias en el equipamiento, la variabilidad de la misma y las condiciones en las que se realiza han hecho necesaria su estandarización. Se analizan a lo largo del artículo los aspectos prácticos de esta técnica, especificando las recomendaciones para su realización, sistemática de calibración y los cálculos que se deben llevar a cabo, así como la interpretación de los resultados obtenidos. El objetivo de esta publicación es favorecer una mejor comprensión de los principios de la pletismografía completa con el fin de optimizar la interpretación de los resultados favoreciendo un mejor manejo del paciente y un consenso en la especialidad (AU)


Whole body plethysmography is used to measure lung volumes, capacities and resistances. It is a well standardised technique, and although it is widely used in paediatric chest diseases units, it requires specific equipment, specialist staff, and some cooperation by the patient. Plethysmography uses Boyle's law in order to measure the intrathoracic gas volume or functional residual capacity, and once this is determined, the residual volume and total lung capacity is extrapolated. The measurement of total lung capacity is necessary for the diagnosis of restrictive diseases. Airway resistance is a measurement of obstruction, with the total resistance being able to be measured, which includes chest wall, lung tissue and airway resistance, as well as the specific airway resistance, which is a more stable parameter that is determined by multiplying the measured values of airway resistance and functional residual capacity. The complexity of this technique, the reference equations, the differences in the equipment and their variability, and the conditions in which it is performed, has led to the need for its standardisation. Throughout this article, the practical aspects of plethysmography are analysed, specifying recommendations for performing it, its systematic calibration and the calculations that must be made, as well as the interpretation of the results obtained. The aim of this article is to provide a better understanding of the principles of whole body plethysmography with the aim of optimising the interpretation of the results, leading to improved management of the patient, as well as a consensus among the speciality (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pletismografia Total/métodos , Pletismografia Total/tendências , Volume Residual/fisiologia , Volume Residual/efeitos da radiação , Capacidade Residual Funcional/fisiologia , Capacidade Residual Funcional/efeitos da radiação , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias/fisiologia , Pressão Atmosférica , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Insuflação/métodos , Valores de Referência
12.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 83(2): 137.e1-137.e7, ago. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-139407

RESUMO

La capacidad de difusión es la técnica que mide la capacidad del aparato respiratorio para realizar el intercambio gaseoso y así diagnosticar la disfunción de la unidad alvéolo-capilar. El parámetro más importante a evaluar es la capacidad de difusión del CO (DLCO). Actualmente hay nuevos métodos para medir la capacidad de difusión utilizando óxido nítrico (NO). Existen diferentes métodos de medida, aunque en este artículo nos referiremos sobre todo a la técnica de la respiración única, la más utilizada y mejor estandarizada. Su complejidad, sus ecuaciones de referencia, las diferencias en equipamiento, la variabilidad interpacientes y las condiciones en las que se realiza hacen que exista una gran variabilidad interlaboratorio, habiéndose realizado estandarizaciones para hacer este método más fiable y reproducible. Se analizan los aspectos prácticos de la técnica, especificando las recomendaciones para la realización de un procedimiento adecuado, sistemática de calibración y cálculos y ajustes necesarios. También se exponen sus aplicaciones clínicas. Se produce un aumento de la transferencia de CO en las enfermedades en las que existe un aumento del volumen sanguíneo en los capilares pulmonares, en la policitemia y en la hemorragia pulmonar. Existe una disminución de la DLCO en los pacientes con reducción del volumen alveolar o en los defectos de difusión, ya sea por alteración de la membrana alvéolo-capilar (enfermedad intersticial) o por disminución del volumen de sangre en los capilares pulmonares (embolia pulmonar o hipertensión pulmonar primaria). También se exponen otras causas de disminución o aumento de la DLCO (AU)


The diffusion capacity is the technique that measures the ability of the respiratory system for gas exchange, thus allowing a diagnosis of the malfunction of the alveolar-capillary unit. The most important parameter to assess is the CO diffusion capacity (DLCO). New methods are currently being used to measure the diffusion using nitric oxide (NO). There are other methods for measuring diffusion, although in this article the single breath technique is mainly referred to, as it is the most widely used and best standardized. Its complexity, its reference equations, differences in equipment, inter-patient variability and conditions in which the DLCO is performed, lead to a wide inter-laboratory variability, although its standardization makes this a more reliable and reproductive method. The practical aspects of the technique are analyzed, by specifying the recommendations to carry out a suitable procedure, the calibration routine, calculations and adjustments. Clinical applications are also discussed. An increase in the transfer of CO occurs in diseases in which there is an increased volume of blood in the pulmonary capillaries, such as in the polycythemia and pulmonary hemorrhage. There is a decrease in DLCO in patients with alveolar volume reduction or diffusion defects, either by altered alveolar-capillary membrane (interstitial diseases) or decreased volume of blood in the pulmonary capillaries (pulmonary embolism or primary pulmonary hypertension). Other causes of decreased or increased DLCO are also highlighted (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar/instrumentação , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar/métodos , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Dióxido de Carbono , Testes de Função Respiratória/instrumentação , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia
13.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 83(2): 136.e1-7, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25797588

RESUMO

Whole body plethysmography is used to measure lung volumes, capacities and resistances. It is a well standardised technique, and although it is widely used in paediatric chest diseases units, it requires specific equipment, specialist staff, and some cooperation by the patient. Plethysmography uses Boyle's law in order to measure the intrathoracic gas volume or functional residual capacity, and once this is determined, the residual volume and total lung capacity is extrapolated. The measurement of total lung capacity is necessary for the diagnosis of restrictive diseases. Airway resistance is a measurement of obstruction, with the total resistance being able to be measured, which includes chest wall, lung tissue and airway resistance, as well as the specific airway resistance, which is a more stable parameter that is determined by multiplying the measured values of airway resistance and functional residual capacity. The complexity of this technique, the reference equations, the differences in the equipment and their variability, and the conditions in which it is performed, has led to the need for its standardisation. Throughout this article, the practical aspects of plethysmography are analysed, specifying recommendations for performing it, its systematic calibration and the calculations that must be made, as well as the interpretation of the results obtained. The aim of this article is to provide a better understanding of the principles of whole body plethysmography with the aim of optimising the interpretation of the results, leading to improved management of the patient, as well as a consensus among the speciality.


Assuntos
Pletismografia Total/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Criança , Humanos , Pletismografia Total/métodos , Testes de Função Respiratória
14.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 83(2): 137.e1-7, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25488028

RESUMO

The diffusion capacity is the technique that measures the ability of the respiratory system for gas exchange, thus allowing a diagnosis of the malfunction of the alveolar-capillary unit. The most important parameter to assess is the CO diffusion capacity (DLCO). New methods are currently being used to measure the diffusion using nitric oxide (NO). There are other methods for measuring diffusion, although in this article the single breath technique is mainly referred to, as it is the most widely used and best standardized. Its complexity, its reference equations, differences in equipment, inter-patient variability and conditions in which the DLCO is performed, lead to a wide inter-laboratory variability, although its standardization makes this a more reliable and reproductive method. The practical aspects of the technique are analyzed, by specifying the recommendations to carry out a suitable procedure, the calibration routine, calculations and adjustments. Clinical applications are also discussed. An increase in the transfer of CO occurs in diseases in which there is an increased volume of blood in the pulmonary capillaries, such as in the polycythemia and pulmonary hemorrhage. There is a decrease in DLCO in patients with alveolar volume reduction or diffusion defects, either by altered alveolar-capillary membrane (interstitial diseases) or decreased volume of blood in the pulmonary capillaries (pulmonary embolism or primary pulmonary hypertension). Other causes of decreased or increased DLCO are also highlighted.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/fisiologia , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar , Controle de Qualidade , Testes de Função Respiratória/normas , Criança , Humanos , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos
15.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 41(4): 265-272, jul.-ago. 2013. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-114230

RESUMO

Immunotherapy selectively modulates the allergen-specific immune response. It involves the gradual administration of increasing amounts of allergen for the purpose of inducing protective immunological changes and it is the only curative approach for specific type I allergy (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunoterapia , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/fisiologia , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Alérgenos/imunologia , Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Citocinas/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressão/métodos , Imunossupressão
18.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 41(4): 265-72, 2013 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23332741

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Immunotherapy selectively modulates the allergen-specific immune response. It involves the gradual administration of increasing amounts of allergen for the purpose of inducing protective immunological changes and it is the only curative approach for specific type I allergy. AIM: Description of the allergic inflammation.- Comprehension of the early cellular changes after specific immunotherapy has been initiated. Exposure of the mechanisms involved in tolerance induction by regulatory T cells (Treg) with the inhibition of the Th2 responses. Comprehension of IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF- ) roles. Explanation of specific IgE, IgG and IgA changes. Description of the suppression of inflammatory responses during immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/terapia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/terapia
19.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 37(cong): 7-10, mayo 2009.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-144843

RESUMO

La inmunoterapia específica con alérgenos es el único tratamiento capaz de modifi car el curso natural de las enfermedades alérgicas, siendo más efi caz cuanto más precozmente se inicie. Sin embargo, las recomendaciones de la OMS continúan considerando la edad inferior a 5 años como una contraindicación relativa. De todas formas, las últimas revisiones bibliográficas consideran iniciar el tratamiento con inmunoterapia en niños menores de 5 años afectos, sobre todo, de asma bronquial (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Asma/terapia , Administração por Inalação , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 33(3): 157-61, 2005 May-Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15946629

RESUMO

The clinical and immunological characteristics that suggest diverse forms of primary immunodeficiency are discussed. Data on the hospitals that perform immunological, molecular and genetic tests for the diagnosis of most of the primary immunodeficiencies in Spain are presented.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Testes Imunológicos , Laboratórios Hospitalares , Algoritmos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Técnicas Genéticas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Espanha
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