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1.
Adv Mater ; 32(32): e2000449, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609406

RESUMO

Lead-halide perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) or more broadly, nanocrystals possess advantageous features for solution-processed photovoltaic devices. The nanocrystal surface ligands play a crucial role in the transport of photogenerated carriers and ultimately affect the overall performance of PQD solar cells. Significantly improved CsPbI3 PQD synthetic yield and solar-cell performance through surface ligand management are demonstrated. The treatment of a secondary amine, di-n-propylamine (DPA), provides a mild and efficient approach to control the surface ligand density of PQDs, which has an apparently different working mechanism compared to previously reported surface treatments. Using an optimal DPA concentration, the treatment can simultaneously remove both long-chain insulating surface ligands of oleic acid and oleylamine, even for unpurified PQDs with high ligand density. As a result, the electrical coupling between PQDs is enhanced, leading to improved charge transport, reduced carrier recombination, and a high power conversion efficiency approaching 15% for CsPbI3 -PQD-based solar cells. In addition, the production yield of CsPbI3 PQDs can be increased by a factor of 8. These results highlight the importance of developing new ligand-management strategies, specifically for emerging PQDs to achieve scalable and high-performance perovskite-based optoelectronic devices.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2001906, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449221

RESUMO

Metal halide perovskite quantum dots (Pe-QDs) are of great interest in new-generation photovoltaics (PVs). However, it remains challenging in the construction of conductive and intact Pe-QD films to maximize their functionality. Herein, a ligand-assisted surface matrix strategy to engineer the surface and packing states of Pe-QD solids is demonstrated by a mild thermal annealing treatment after ligand exchange processing (referred to as "LE-TA") triggered by guanidinium thiocyanate. The "LE-TA" method induces the formation of surface matrix on CsPbI3 QDs, which is dominated by the cationic guanidinium (GA+ ) rather than the SCN- , maintaining the intact cubic structure and facilitating interparticle electrical interaction of QD solids. Consequently, the GA-matrix-confined CsPbI3 QDs exhibit remarkably enhanced charge mobility and carrier diffusion length compared to control ones, leading to a champion power conversion efficiency of 15.21% when assembled in PVs, which is one of the highest among all Pe-QD solar cells. Additionally, the "LE-TA" method shows similar effects when applied to other Pe-QD PV systems like CsPbBr3 and FAPbI3 (FA = formamidinium), indicating its versatility in regulating the surfaces of various Pe-QDs. This work may afford new guidelines to construct electrically conductive and structurally intact Pe-QD solids for efficient optoelectronic devices.

3.
Science ; 367(6482): 1097-1104, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139537

RESUMO

Wide-band gap metal halide perovskites are promising semiconductors to pair with silicon in tandem solar cells to pursue the goal of achieving power conversion efficiency (PCE) greater than 30% at low cost. However, wide-band gap perovskite solar cells have been fundamentally limited by photoinduced phase segregation and low open-circuit voltage. We report efficient 1.67-electron volt wide-band gap perovskite top cells using triple-halide alloys (chlorine, bromine, iodine) to tailor the band gap and stabilize the semiconductor under illumination. We show a factor of 2 increase in photocarrier lifetime and charge-carrier mobility that resulted from enhancing the solubility of chlorine by replacing some of the iodine with bromine to shrink the lattice parameter. We observed a suppression of light-induced phase segregation in films even at 100-sun illumination intensity and less than 4% degradation in semitransparent top cells after 1000 hours of maximum power point (MPP) operation at 60°C. By integrating these top cells with silicon bottom cells, we achieved a PCE of 27% in two-terminal monolithic tandems with an area of 1 square centimeter.

4.
Science ; 368(6487): 155-160, 2020 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217753

RESUMO

Maximizing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells that can exceed the Shockley-Queisser single-cell limit requires a high-performing, stable perovskite top cell with a wide bandgap. We developed a stable perovskite solar cell with a bandgap of ~1.7 electron volts that retained more than 80% of its initial PCE of 20.7% after 1000 hours of continuous illumination. Anion engineering of phenethylammonium-based two-dimensional (2D) additives was critical for controlling the structural and electrical properties of the 2D passivation layers based on a lead iodide framework. The high PCE of 26.7% of a monolithic two-terminal wide-bandgap perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell was made possible by the ideal combination of spectral responses of the top and bottom cells.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2842, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253800

RESUMO

Metal halide perovskite semiconductors possess outstanding characteristics for optoelectronic applications including but not limited to photovoltaics. Low-dimensional and nanostructured motifs impart added functionality which can be exploited further. Moreover, wider cation composition tunability and tunable surface ligand properties of colloidal quantum dot (QD) perovskites now enable unprecedented device architectures which differ from thin-film perovskites fabricated from solvated molecular precursors. Here, using layer-by-layer deposition of perovskite QDs, we demonstrate solar cells with abrupt compositional changes throughout the perovskite film. We utilize this ability to abruptly control composition to create an internal heterojunction that facilitates charge separation at the internal interface leading to improved photocarrier harvesting. We show how the photovoltaic performance depends upon the heterojunction position, as well as the composition of each component, and we describe an architecture that greatly improves the performance of perovskite QD photovoltaics.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(34): 11737-11741, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218795

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic hybrid two-dimensional (2D) perovskites (n≤5) have recently attracted significant attention because of their promising stability and optoelectronic properties. Normally, 2D perovskites contain a monocation [e.g., methylammonium (MA+ ) or formamidinium (FA+ )]. Reported here for the first time is the fabrication of 2D perovskites (n=5) with mixed cations of MA+ , FA+ , and cesium (Cs+ ). The use of these triple cations leads to the formation of a smooth, compact surface morphology with larger grain size and fewer grain boundaries compared to the conventional MA-based counterpart. The resulting perovskite also exhibits longer carrier lifetime and higher conductivity in triple cation 2D perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2D PSCs with triple cations was enhanced by more than 80 % (from 7.80 to 14.23 %) compared to PSCs fabricated with a monocation. The PCE is also higher than that of PSCs based on binary cation (MA+ -FA+ or MA+ -Cs+ ) 2D structures.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(14): 5972-5979, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882210

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic halide perovskites incorporating two-dimensional (2D) structures have shown promise for enhancing the stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, the bulky spacer cations often limit charge transport. Here, we report on a simple approach based on molecular design of the organic spacer to improve the transport properties of 2D perovskites, and we use phenethylammonium (PEA) as an example. We demonstrate that by fluorine substitution on the para position in PEA to form 4-fluorophenethylammonium (F-PEA), the average phenyl ring centroid-centroid distances in the organic layer become shorter with better aligned stacking of perovskite sheets. The impact is enhanced orbital interactions and charge transport across adjacent inorganic layers as well as increased carrier lifetime and reduced trap density. Using a simple perovskite deposition at room temperature without using any additives, we obtained a power conversion efficiency of >13% for (F-PEA)2MA4Pb5I16-based PSCs. In addition, the thermal stability of 2D PSCs based on F-PEA is significantly enhanced compared to those based on PEA.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(14): 5201-5209, 2017 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28316244

RESUMO

The development of porous well-defined hybrid materials (e.g., metal-organic frameworks or MOFs) will add a new dimension to a wide number of applications ranging from supercapacitors and electrodes to "smart" membranes and thermoelectrics. From this perspective, the understanding and tailoring of the electronic properties of MOFs are key fundamental challenges that could unlock the full potential of these materials. In this work, we focused on the fundamental insights responsible for the electronic properties of three distinct classes of bimetallic systems, Mx-yM'y-MOFs, MxM'y-MOFs, and Mx(ligand-M'y)-MOFs, in which the second metal (M') incorporation occurs through (i) metal (M) replacement in the framework nodes (type I), (ii) metal node extension (type II), and (iii) metal coordination to the organic ligand (type III), respectively. We employed microwave conductivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, pressed-pellet conductivity, and theoretical modeling to shed light on the key factors responsible for the tunability of MOF electronic structures. Experimental prescreening of MOFs was performed based on changes in the density of electronic states near the Fermi edge, which was used as a starting point for further selection of suitable MOFs. As a result, we demonstrated that the tailoring of MOF electronic properties could be performed as a function of metal node engineering, framework topology, and/or the presence of unsaturated metal sites while preserving framework porosity and structural integrity. These studies unveil the possible pathways for transforming the electronic properties of MOFs from insulating to semiconducting, as well as provide a blueprint for the development of hybrid porous materials with desirable electronic structures.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(33): 22937-45, 2016 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27485768

RESUMO

We report on electronically excited-state dynamics of three different trifluoromethyl C60 fullerenes (TMFs, C60(CF3)n: C60/4-1, C60/6-2, and C60/10-1, featuring four, six, and ten trifluoromethyl groups, respectively) using steady-state and time-resolved optical spectroscopy as well as ultrafast pump/probe transient absorption spectroscopy. C60/4-1 and C60/6-2 dissolved in toluene solvent show near-unity S1 → T1 intersystem crossing quantum yield (ΦISC), ca. 1 ns S1-state lifetimes, and microsecond-timescale T1-state lifetimes, which are typical of the fullerene class. On the other hand, C60/10-1 exhibits a dominant sub-nanosecond nonradiative S1 → S0 relaxation mechanism and negligible ΦISC, therefore decreasing the average excited-state lifetime (τavg) by about 5 orders of magnitude compared to that of C60/4-1 and C60/6-2 (τavg ≈ 17 µs and 54 µs for C60/4-1 and C60/6-2, respectively, whereas τavg ≈ 100 ps for C60/10-1). These excited-state characteristics of C60/4-1 and C60/6-2 are preserved in polymer matrix, suggesting that fullerene/polymer interactions do not modulate intrinsic photophysics of trifluoromethyl-substituted fullerenes. The contrasting excited-state study results of C60/4-1 and C60/6-2 to that of C60/10-1 infer that intrinsic optical properties and excited-state dynamics can be affected by the substitution on the fullerene.

10.
Nat Chem ; 8(6): 603-9, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27219706

RESUMO

Understanding the kinetics and energetics of interfacial electron transfer in molecular systems is crucial for the development of a broad array of technologies, including photovoltaics, solar fuel systems and energy storage. The Marcus formulation for electron transfer relates the thermodynamic driving force and reorganization energy for charge transfer between a given donor/acceptor pair to the kinetics and yield of electron transfer. Here we investigated the influence of the thermodynamic driving force for photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and fullerene derivatives by employing time-resolved microwave conductivity as a sensitive probe of interfacial exciton dissociation. For the first time, we observed the Marcus inverted region (in which driving force exceeds reorganization energy) and quantified the reorganization energy for PET for a model SWCNT/acceptor system. The small reorganization energies (about 130 meV, most of which probably arises from the fullerene acceptors) are beneficial in minimizing energy loss in photoconversion schemes.

11.
Chem Sci ; 6(3): 1801-1815, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29142669

RESUMO

Reaction of C60, C6F5CF2I, and SnH(n-Bu)3 produced, among other unidentified fullerene derivatives, the two new compounds 1,9-C60(CF2C6F5)H (1) and 1,9-C60(cyclo-CF2(2-C6F4)) (2). The highest isolated yield of 1 was 35% based on C60. Depending on the reaction conditions, the relative amounts of 1 and 2 generated in situ were as high as 85% and 71%, respectively, based on HPLC peak integration and summing over all fullerene species present other than unreacted C60. Compound 1 is thermally stable in 1,2-dichlorobenzene (oDCB) at 160 °C but was rapidly converted to 2 upon addition of Sn2(n-Bu)6 at this temperature. In contrast, complete conversion of 1 to 2 occurred within minutes, or hours, at 25 °C in 90/10 (v/v) PhCN/C6D6 by addition of stoichiometric, or sub-stoichiometric, amounts of proton sponge (PS) or cobaltocene (CoCp2). DFT calculations indicate that when 1 is deprotonated, the anion C60(CF2C6F5)- can undergo facile intramolecular SNAr annulation to form 2 with concomitant loss of F-. To our knowledge this is the first observation of a fullerene-cage carbanion acting as an SNAr nucleophile towards an aromatic C-F bond. The gas-phase electron affinity (EA) of 2 was determined to be 2.805(10) eV by low-temperature PES, higher by 0.12(1) eV than the EA of C60 and higher by 0.18(1) eV than the EA of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). In contrast, the relative E1/2(0/-) values of 2 and C60, -0.01(1) and 0.00(1) V, respectively, are virtually the same (on this scale, and under the same conditions, the E1/2(0/-) of PCBM is -0.09 V). Time-resolved microwave conductivity charge-carrier yield × mobility values for organic photovoltaic active-layer-type blends of 2 and poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) were comparable to those for equimolar blends of PCBM and P3HT. The structure of solvent-free crystals of 2 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The number of nearest-neighbor fullerene-fullerene interactions with centroid···centroid (⊙···âŠ™) distances of ≤10.34 Å is significantly greater, and the average ⊙···âŠ™ distance is shorter, for 2 (10 nearest neighbors; ave. ⊙···âŠ™ distance = 10.09 Å) than for solvent-free crystals of PCBM (7 nearest neighbors; ave. ⊙···âŠ™ distance = 10.17 Å). Finally, the thermal stability of 2 was found to be far greater than that of PCBM.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 47(3): 875-7, 2011 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21063613

RESUMO

High-temperature syntheses of the new C(60)(i-C(3)F(7))(2,4,6) and C(70)(i-C(3)F(7))(2,4) isomers and their characterization by spectroscopic methods, X-ray crystallography, cyclic voltammetry and density functional theory provide compelling evidence that they are superior electron acceptors than trifluoromethylfullerenes.

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