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1.
Am J Manag Care ; 25(8): e247-e253, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting the direct healthcare costs of treating older adults with diagnosed Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRD) within private Medicare managed care plans. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of all studies published in English reporting original empirical analyses of direct costs for older adults with ADRD in Medicare managed care. METHODS: All papers indexed in PubMed or Web of Science reporting ADRD costs within Medicare managed care plans from 1983 through 2018 were identified and reviewed. RESULTS: Despite the growth in Medicare managed care enrollment, only 9 papers report the costs of care for individuals with ADRD within these plans, and only 1 study reports data less than 10 years old. This limited literature reports wide ranges for ADRD-attributable costs, with estimates varying from $3738 to $8726 in annual prevalent costs and $8938 to $38,794 in 1-year immediate postdiagnosis incident costs. Reviewed studies also used varied study populations, case and cost ascertainment methods, and analytic methods, making cross-study comparisons difficult. CONCLUSIONS: The expected continued growth in Medicare managed care enrollment, coupled with the large and growing impact of ADRD on America's healthcare delivery and finance systems, requires more research on the cost of ADRD within managed care. This research should use more consistent approaches to identify ADRD prevalence and provide more detail regarding which components of care are included in analyses and how the costs of care are captured and measured.

2.
Crit Care Med ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Many survivors of sepsis suffer long-term cognitive impairment, but the mechanisms of this association remain unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether sepsis is associated with cerebral microinfarcts on brain autopsy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Five-hundred twenty-nine participants of the Adult Changes in Thought, a population-based prospective cohort study of older adults carried out in Kaiser Permanente Washington greater than or equal to 65 years old without dementia at study entry and who underwent brain autopsy. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Late-life sepsis hospitalization was identified using administrative data. We identified 89 individuals with greater than or equal to 1 sepsis hospitalization during study participation, 80 of whom survived hospitalization and died a median of 169 days after discharge. Thirty percent of participants with one or more sepsis hospitalization had greater than two microinfarcts, compared with 19% participants without (χ p = 0.02); 20% of those with sepsis hospitalization had greater than two microinfarcts in the cerebral cortex, compared with 10% of those without (χ p = 0.01). The adjusted relative risk of greater than two microinfarcts was 1.61 (95% CI, 1.01-2.57; p = 0.04); the relative risk for having greater than two microinfarcts in the cerebral cortex was 2.12 (95% CI, 1.12-4.02; p = 0.02). There was no difference in Braak stage for neurofibrillary tangles or consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer's disease score for neuritic plaques between, but Lewy bodies were less significantly common in those with sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: Sepsis was specifically associated with moderate to severe vascular brain injury as assessed by microvascular infarcts. This association was stronger for microinfarcts within the cerebral cortex, with those who experienced severe sepsis hospitalization being more than twice as likely to have evidence of moderate to severe cerebral cortical injury in adjusted analyses. Further study to identify mechanisms for the association of sepsis and microinfarcts is needed.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 70(2): 611-619, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is considerable heterogeneity in clinical presentation among people with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). We have categorized people with LOAD into subgroups based on relative impairments across cognitive domains. These 6 groups are people with no relatively impaired domains (AD-No Domains), 4 groups with one relatively impaired domain (AD-Memory, AD-Executive, AD-Language, and AD-Visuospatial), and a group with multiple relatively impaired domains (AD-Multiple Domains). Our previous analysis demonstrated that genetic factors vary across cognitively-defined LOAD groups. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether risks associated with depression and traumatic brain injury with loss of consciousness (TBI) for cognitively defined LOAD subgroups are similar. METHODS: We used cognitive data at LOAD diagnosis from three prospective cohort studies to determine cognitively-defined subgroups. We compared subgroups in endorsement of items from the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and history of TBI. RESULTS: Among 1,505 people with LOAD from the three studies, there were substantial differences across subgroups in total CES-D score, with lower scores (less depression) for people with AD with relative impairments in memory (AD-Memory) compared to those in other groups. Differences were noteworthy for the sleep-related item of the CES-D, as people with AD-Memory were less likely to report restless sleep than people in other groups. There were no differences in TBI history across groups. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in risk factor associations across subgroups such as differences in endorsement of depression symptoms and restless sleep provide support for the hypothesis that there are biologically coherent subgroups of AD.

4.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 135, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver illness with a genetically heterogeneous background that can be accompanied by considerable morbidity and attendant health care costs. The pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD is complex with many unanswered questions. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWASs) using both adult and pediatric participants from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network to identify novel genetic contributors to this condition. METHODS: First, a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm was developed, tested, and deployed at each site to identify 1106 NAFLD cases and 8571 controls and histological data from liver tissue in 235 available participants. These include 1242 pediatric participants (396 cases, 846 controls). The algorithm included billing codes, text queries, laboratory values, and medication records. Next, GWASs were performed on NAFLD cases and controls and case-only analyses using histologic scores and liver function tests adjusting for age, sex, site, ancestry, PC, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Consistent with previous results, a robust association was detected for the PNPLA3 gene cluster in participants with European ancestry. At the PNPLA3-SAMM50 region, three SNPs, rs738409, rs738408, and rs3747207, showed strongest association (best SNP rs738409 p = 1.70 × 10- 20). This effect was consistent in both pediatric (p = 9.92 × 10- 6) and adult (p = 9.73 × 10- 15) cohorts. Additionally, this variant was also associated with disease severity and NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) (p = 3.94 × 10- 8, beta = 0.85). PheWAS analysis link this locus to a spectrum of liver diseases beyond NAFLD with a novel negative correlation with gout (p = 1.09 × 10- 4). We also identified novel loci for NAFLD disease severity, including one novel locus for NAS score near IL17RA (rs5748926, p = 3.80 × 10- 8), and another near ZFP90-CDH1 for fibrosis (rs698718, p = 2.74 × 10- 11). Post-GWAS and gene-based analyses identified more than 300 genes that were used for functional and pathway enrichment analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this study demonstrates clear confirmation of a previously described NAFLD risk locus and several novel associations. Further collaborative studies including an ethnically diverse population with well-characterized liver histologic features of NAFLD are needed to further validate the novel findings.

5.
Ann Epidemiol ; 35: 42-47.e1, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200987

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Depression strongly predicts stroke incidence, suggesting that treating depression may reduce stroke risk. Antidepressant medications, however, may increase stroke risk via direct pathways. Previous evidence on antidepressant medication and stroke incidence is mixed. We evaluated associations between antidepressant use and incident stroke. METHODS: For 2302 Adult Changes in Thought cohort participants with no stroke at study entry, we characterized antidepressant use from pharmacy records, biennial depressive symptoms with a 10-item Centers for Epidemiologic Study-Depression scale, and incident strokes from ICD codes. We used discrete-time survival models with inverse probability weighting to compare stroke risk associated with filling antidepressant prescriptions and by medication category: tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or other. RESULTS: Over an average 8.4-year follow-up, 441 incident strokes occurred. Filling antidepressant medications 3+ times versus 0-2 times predicted 35% increased odds of stroke (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.66). Use of TCAs was associated with stroke onset (OR per 10 fills = 1.28; CI: 1.04, 1.57), but use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (OR = 0.98; CI: 0.80, 1.20) or other antidepressants (OR = 0.99; CI: 0.67, 1.45) was not. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients who received antidepressant medication were at higher risk of stroke, this association appeared specific to TCA prescriptions.

6.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 91, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174609

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change (ADNC) is defined by progressive accumulation of ß-amyloid plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau (pTau) neurofibrillary tangles across diverse regions of brain. Non-demented individuals who reach advanced age without significant ADNC are considered to be resistant to AD, while those burdened with ADNC are considered to be resilient. Understanding mechanisms underlying ADNC resistance and resilience may provide important clues to treating and/or preventing AD associated dementia. ADNC criteria for resistance and resilience are not well-defined, so we developed stringent pathologic cutoffs for non-demented subjects to eliminate cases of borderline pathology. We identified 14 resistant (85+ years old, non-demented, Braak stage ≤ III, CERAD absent) and 7 resilient (non-demented, Braak stage VI, CERAD frequent) individuals out of 684 autopsies from the Adult Changes in Thought study, a long-standing community-based cohort. We matched each resistant or resilient subject to a subject with dementia and severe ADNC (Braak stage VI, CERAD frequent) by age, sex, year of death, and post-mortem interval. We expanded the neuropathologic evaluation to include quantitative approaches to assess neuropathology and found that resilient participants had lower neocortical pTau burden despite fulfilling criteria for Braak stage VI. Moreover, limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy neuropathologic change (LATE-NC) was robustly associated with clinical dementia and was more prevalent in cases with high pTau burden, supporting the notion that resilience to ADNC may depend, in part, on resistance to pTDP-43 pathology. To probe for interactions between tau and TDP-43, we developed a C. elegans model of combined human (h) Tau and TDP-43 proteotoxicity, which exhibited a severe degenerative phenotype most compatible with a synergistic, rather than simply additive, interaction between hTau and hTDP-43 neurodegeneration. Pathways that underlie this synergy may present novel therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of AD.

7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 68(4): 1439-1451, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909213

RESUMO

Lack of a unitary operational definition of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has resulted in mixed prevalence rates and unclear predictive validity regarding conversion to dementia and likelihood of reversion. We examined 1,721 nondemented participants aged 65 and older from the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) community-based cohort. Participants were followed longitudinally through biennial visits (average years assessed = 5.38). Categorization of MCI was based on: 1) deviation of neuropsychological test scores from a benchmark based on either standard or individualized expectations of a participant's mean premorbid cognitive ability, and 2) cutoff for impairment (1.0 versus 1.5 standard deviations [sd] below benchmark). MCI prevalence ranged from 56-92%; using individualized benchmarks and less stringent cutoffs produced higher rates. During follow-up, 17% of the cohort developed dementia. Examination of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive validity revealed that the criterion of 1.5 sd from the standardized benchmark was optimal, but still had limited predictive validity. Participants meeting this criterion at their first visit were three times more likely to develop dementia and this increased to seven times if participants had this diagnosis at the second timepoint as well. Those who did not have an MCI diagnosis at their first visit, but did at their second, had a significant increase of risk (but to a lesser extent than those diagnosed at both visits), while those who had an MCI diagnosis at their first visit, but not their second, did not have a significantly increased risk. These results highlight how assessing MCI stability greatly improves prediction of risk.

8.
Health Serv Res ; 54(4): 773-781, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate dementia's incremental cost to the traditional Medicare program. DATA SOURCES: Health and Retirement Study (HRS) survey-linked Medicare part A and B claims from 1991 to 2012. STUDY DESIGN: We compared Medicare expenditures for 60 months following a claims-based dementia diagnosis to those for a randomly selected, matched comparison group. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: We used a cost estimator that accounts for differential survival between individuals with and without dementia and decomposes incremental costs into survival and cost intensity components. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Dementia's five-year incremental cost to the traditional Medicare program is approximately $15 700 per patient, nearly half of which is incurred in the first year after diagnosis. Shorter survival with dementia mitigates the incremental cost by about $2650. Increased costs for individuals with dementia were driven by more intensive use of Medicare part A covered services. The incremental cost of dementia was about $7850 higher for females than for males because of sex-specific differential mortality associated with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Dementia's cost to the traditional Medicare program is significant. Interventions that target early identification of dementia and preventable inpatient and post-acute care services could produce substantial savings.

9.
Pharmacotherapy ; 39(5): 530-543, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between central nervous system (CNS)-active medication use and the risk of fall-related injury in community-dwelling older adults following dementia onset. Further, to evaluate increased risk at higher doses or with a greater number of CNS-active medication classes. METHODS: Participants included community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older with a dementia diagnosis participating in the Adult Changes in Thought Study. From automated pharmacy data, a time-varying composite measure of CNS-active medication use was created. Central nervous system-active medication use was classified as current (use within prior 30 days), recent (prior 31-90 days), past (prior 91-365 days), and nonuse (no exposure in prior year). For current users, standardized daily doses (SDDs) were calculated for each CNS-active medication and summed across medications, and the number of CNS-active medication classes used was also measured. The outcome was fall-related injury based on emergency department, inpatient, and outpatient International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) and external cause of injury (E) codes. RESULTS: Among 793 subjects, 303 fall-related injuries occurred over a mean follow-up of 3.7 years (2907 total person-years). Relative to nonuse, fall risk was significantly higher for current use (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.59, 95% confidence internal [CI] 1.19-2.12) but not for past or recent use. Among current users, increased risk was seen across SDD levels: HRs (95% CI): 1.77 (1.19-2.62), 1.79 (1.25-2.56), and 1.35 (0.96-1.92) for less than 1 SDD, 1 to less than 2 SDDs, and 2 or more SDDs, respectively (trend test, p=0.14). A trend was seen for increasing risk with a greater number of CNS-active medication classes; however, this was not statistically significant (trend test, p=0.084). CONCLUSIONS: Current use of CNS-active medications was associated with fall-related injury in community-dwelling older adults followed from time of dementia onset, with increased risk even with use of low doses.

10.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 68(3): 1071-1083, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Past research has focused on risk factors for developing dementia, with increasing recognition of "resilient" people who live to old age with intact cognitive function despite pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate demographic factors, mid-life characteristics, and non-AD neuropathology findings that may be associated with cognitive resilience to AD pathology. METHODS: We analyzed data from 276 autopsy cases with intermediate or high levels of AD pathology from the Adult Changes in Thought study. We defined cognitive resilience as having Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument scores ≥86 within two years of death and no clinical dementia diagnosis; non-resilient people had dementia diagnoses from AD or other causes before death. We compared mid-life characteristics, demographics, and additional neuropathology findings between resilient and non-resilient people. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for being resilient compared to not being resilient adjusting for demographic and neuropathology factors. RESULTS: We classified 68 (25%) people as resilient and 208 (75%) as not resilient. A greater proportion of resilient people had a college degree (50%) compared with non-resilient (32%, p = 0.01). The odds of being resilient were significantly increased among people with a college education (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.01-3.99) and significantly reduced among people with additional non-AD neuropathology findings such as hippocampal sclerosis (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.09-0.89) and microinfarcts (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.15-0.78). CONCLUSION: Increased education and absence of non-AD pathology may be independently associated with cognitive resilience, highlighting the importance of evaluating co-morbid factors in future research on mechanisms of cognitive resilience.

12.
J Community Genet ; 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843145

RESUMO

Assess the feasibility and acceptability of health system-led genetic risk notification in a US integrated health system. We conducted semi-structured phone interviews with individuals age 40-64 years who had undergone genetic sequencing, but had not yet received their results, assessing attitudes to direct outreach to relatives. During each interview, we collected contact information for adult relatives identified as members of the same system and attempted to identify each relative in administrative data. We conducted 20 interviews. Most participants expressed support for Kaiser Permanente Washington involvement in familial risk notification. Direct outreach to relatives received the most unqualified support; outreach to the relatives' physician or interaction with the relatives' electronic medical record received more tempered support. Support was motivated by the desire to have risk communicated accurately and quickly. The most common caveat was a desire to alert relatives before the health system contacted them. Of 57 named relatives who were members of the same health system, we retrieved a single match for 40 (70.2%) based on name or birthdate. Health system involvement in familial risk notification received support in a sample of patients in a US integrated health system, and identification of relatives is feasible.

13.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 68(2): 647-655, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aging eye offers unique opportunities to study and understand the aging brain, in particular related to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia. However, little is known about relationships between eye diseases and dementia-related neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential association between three age-related eye diseases and AD and dementia-related neuropathology. METHODS: We reviewed autopsy data from the prospective longitudinal Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) cohort. ICD-9 codes were used to identify diagnoses of diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Multivariate regression models were used to determine odds ratios (OR) of neuropathology features associated with dementia, including Braak stage, Consortium to Establish a Registry for AD (CERAD score), Lewy bodies, hippocampal sclerosis, and microvascular brain injury, in addition to quantitative paired helical filament (PHF)-tau levels for people with and without each eye condition. We also evaluated interactions between eye conditions and dementia related neuropathologic findings were evaluated. RESULTS: 676 autopsies were included. Diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with increased risk of deep cerebral microinfarcts (OR = 1.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11, 3.27], p = 0.02). No other significant association or interaction between eye diseases and neuropathology was found. When PHF-tau quantity was evaluated in 124 decedents, the OR for the association between PHF-tau in the occipital cortex and glaucoma was 1.36 (95% CI 0.91, 2.03, p = 0.13). No statistical correction was made for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSION: Increased risk of deep cerebral microinfarcts was found in participants diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy. Eye diseases such as glaucoma may increase susceptibility to neurofibrillary tangles in the occipital cortex.

14.
Pac Symp Biocomput ; 24: 272-283, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864329

RESUMO

The link between cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders has been widely observed in the aging population. Disease prevention and treatment rely on understanding the potential genetic nexus of multiple diseases in these categories. In this study, we were interested in detecting pleiotropy, or the phenomenon in which a genetic variant influences more than one phenotype. Marker-phenotype association approaches can be grouped into univariate, bivariate, and multivariate categories based on the number of phenotypes considered at one time. Here we applied one statistical method per category followed by an eQTL colocalization analysis to identify potential pleiotropic variants that contribute to the link between cardiovascular and neurological diseases. We performed our analyses on ~530,000 common SNPs coupled with 65 electronic health record (EHR)-based phenotypes in 43,870 unrelated European adults from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network. There were 31 variants identified by all three methods that showed significant associations across late onset cardiac- and neurologic- diseases. We further investigated functional implications of gene expression on the detected "lead SNPs" via colocalization analysis, providing a deeper understanding of the discovered associations. In summary, we present the framework and landscape for detecting potential pleiotropy using univariate, bivariate, multivariate, and colocalization methods. Further exploration of these potentially pleiotropic genetic variants will work toward understanding disease causing mechanisms across cardiovascular and neurological diseases and may assist in considering disease prevention as well as drug repositioning in future research.

15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 68(2): 523-529, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814348

RESUMO

We administered a mixed-method survey to 1,661 patients in a large health system to assess preferences toward antihypertensive use for dementia prevention. If a specific antihypertensive medication was shown to prevent or delay dementia, the vast majority (>90%) of respondents currently taking an antihypertensive reported that they would be willing to take that specific antihypertensive starting as early as mid-life. Concerns reported were potential side effects, lack of evidence of effectiveness, blood pressure being normal or low, and medication cost. Analysis of free-text responses revealed themes of concerns regarding evidence of effectiveness and health priorities.

16.
Am J Health Behav ; 43(2): 300-310, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808470

RESUMO

Objective: In this study, we assessed patient knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about brain health and strategies for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) prevention. Methods: We administered a Web-based survey consisting of 17 questions about brain health and strategies for ADRD prevention in a convenience sample of 1661 patients in an integrated healthcare delivery system in Washington state between February and March 2018. We calculated frequency distributions of the quantitative data and conducted inductive content analysis of qualitative data. Results: Most respondents were female (77%), 51-70 years of age (64%), and white (89%). Although most agreed it is possible to improve brain health and reduce personal ADRD risk, one- third lacked confidence that they could take action to reduce personal ADRD risk. Participants' responses to open-ended questions revealed 10 themes grouped into 3 organizing categories regarding their perceptions about how to prevent ADRD onset: (1) understand ADRD; (2) stay engaged; and (3) manage one's own health and healthcare. Conclusions: Survey respondents were engaged and aware of dementia prevention, but they lacked access to personally action- able evidence..

17.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 41, 2019 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detecting patients with undiagnosed dementia is an important clinical challenge. Changes in medication adherence might represent an early sign of cognitive impairment. We sought to examine antihypertensive and statin adherence trajectories in community-dwelling older adults, comparing people who went on to develop dementia to those who did not. METHODS: We analyzed data from Adult Changes in Thought (ACT), a population-based cohort study embedded within an integrated healthcare delivery system. Analyses included 4368 participants aged ≥65 years who had at least one follow-up visit. Research-quality dementia diagnoses were used to identify cases. We selected non-dementia control visits matched on age, sex, and study cohort that occurred at similar ACT follow-up time as the case's dementia onset; we treated this as the index date. Participants were included if they were prevalent users of either a statin or antihypertensive medication on the first day of follow up - 3 years prior to the index date. Using prescription fill dates and days supply, we calculated daily binary medication availability measures for each participant ('days covered') over 3 years leading up to the index date. We used group-based trajectory models to identify patterns of antihypertensive and statin adherence, and used conditional logistic regression to examine associations between adherence trajectories and dementia. RESULTS: Four trajectories were identified for antihypertensive users (292 cases, 3890 control visits), including near perfect (n = 1877, 36.6% cases, 45.5% controls), high (n = 1840, 43.2% cases, 44.1% controls), moderate (n = 365, 18.5% cases, 8.0% controls) and early poor adherence (n = 100, 1.7% cases, 2.4% controls). Odds of dementia was 3 times greater for those with moderate antihypertensive adherence compared to those with near perfect adherence (adjusted OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0, 4.3). Four trajectories were identified for statin users (148 cases, 1131 control visits), including high (n = 1004, 75.0% cases, 79.0% controls), moderate (n = 192, 19.6% cases, 14.4% controls), early poor (n = 43, 2.0% cases, 3.5% controls), and delayed poor adherence (n = 40, 3.4% cases, 3.1% controls). No association was detected between statin adherence trajectories and dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of medication adherence may be useful to identify a subset of people at higher likelihood of developing dementia.

19.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(2): 136-143, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673079

RESUMO

Importance: Thyroid hormone levels are tightly regulated through feedback inhibition by thyrotropin, produced by the pituitary gland. Hyperthyroidism is overwhelmingly due to thyroid disorders and is well recognized to contribute to a wide spectrum of cardiovascular morbidity, particularly the increasingly common arrhythmia atrial fibrillation (AF). Objective: To determine the association between genetically determined thyrotropin levels and AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This phenome-wide association study scanned 1318 phenotypes associated with a polygenic predictor of thyrotropin levels identified by a previously published genome-wide association study that included participants of European ancestry. North American individuals of European ancestry with longitudinal electronic health records were analyzed from May 2008 to November 2016. Analysis began March 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical diagnoses associated with a polygenic predictor of thyrotropin levels. Exposures: Genetically determined thyrotropin levels. Results: Of 37 154 individuals, 19 330 (52%) were men. The thyrotropin polygenic predictor was positively associated with hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% CI, 1.07-1.14; P = 5 × 10-11) and inversely associated with diagnoses related to hyperthyroidism (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.54-0.74; P = 2 × 10-8 for toxic multinodular goiter). Among nonthyroid associations, the top association was AF/flutter (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.9-0.95; P = 9 × 10-7). When the analyses were repeated excluding 9801 individuals with any diagnoses of a thyroid-related disease, the AF association persisted (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.88-0.95; P = 2.9 × 10-6). To replicate this association, we conducted an inverse-variance weighted average meta-analysis using AF single-nucleotide variant weights from a genome-wide association study of 17 931 AF cases and 115 142 controls. As in the discovery analyses, each SD increase in predicted thyrotropin was associated with a decreased risk of AF (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.93; P = 4.7 × 10-4). In a set of AF cases (n = 745) and controls (n = 1680) older than 55 years, directly measured thyrotropin levels that fell within the normal range were inversely associated with AF risk (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests a role for genetically determined variation in thyroid function within a physiologically accepted normal range as a risk factor for AF. The clinical decision to treat subclinical thyroid disease should incorporate the risk for AF as antithyroid medications to treat hyperthyroidism may reduce AF risk and thyroid hormone replacement for hypothyroidism may increase AF risk.

20.
Healthc (Amst) ; 7(1): 51-57, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594497

RESUMO

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Health Care Systems (HCS) Research Collaboratory hosted a workshop to explore challenges and strategies for the dissemination, implementation, and sustainability of findings from pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs) embedded in HCS. PCTs are designed to assess the impact of interventions delivered in usual or real-world conditions and leverage existing infrastructure to answer important clinical questions. The goal of the workshop was to discuss strategies for conducting impactful future PCTs that bridge the gap between evidence, practice, and policy. This paper summarizes presentations about how to design and conduct PCTs embedded in HCS and use dissemination and implementation strategies during the planning and conduct of projects, emphasizing the ever-changing world of care delivery and the need for pragmatic trial operations to adapt at various levels of operation.

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