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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819064

RESUMO

SOURCE CITATION: Lamb SE, Bruce J, Hossain A, et al. Screening and intervention to prevent falls and fractures in older people. N Engl J Med. 2020;383:1848-59. 33211928.

4.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 216, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research supports that moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) is key to prolonged health and function. Among older adults, substantial changes to MVPA may be infeasible, thus a growing literature suggests a shift in focus to whole-day activity patterns. METHODS: With data from 795 older adults aged 65-100 in the Adult Changes in Thought Activity Monitoring study, we used linear regression to estimate associations between ActiGraph and activPAL measured activity patterns - including light intensity physical activity, steps, standing, and sedentary behaviors - and physical function as measured by a short Performance-based Physical Function (sPPF) score (range 0-12), a composite score based on three standardized physical performance tasks: gait speed, timed chair stands, and grip strength. We examined whether relationships persisted when controlling for MVPA or differed across age, gender, or quartiles of MVPA. RESULTS: In models unadjusted for MVPA, a 1-standard deviation (SD) increment of daily sitting (1.9 h more), mean sitting bout duration (8 min longer average), or time spent in sedentary activity (1.6 h more) was associated with ~ 0.3-0.4 points lower mean sPPF score (all p < 0.05). A 1-SD increment in daily steps (~ 3500 more steps) was associated with ~ 0.5 points higher mean sPPF score (95% CI: 0.22 to 0.73). MVPA adjustment attenuated all relationships. The association between physical function and steps was strongest among adults aged 75+; associations of worse function with greater sedentary behavior were more pronounced in participants with the lowest levels of MVPA. CONCLUSIONS: We found associations between function and activity metrics other than MVPA in key subgroups, findings that support research on broader activity patterns and may offer ideas regarding practical intervention opportunities for improving function in older adults.

5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular disease is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementia in older adults. Retinal artery/vein occlusion (RAVO) is an ophthalmic complication of systemic vascular pathology. Whether there are associations between RAVO and dementia risk is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether RAVOs are associated with an increased risk of developing vascular dementia or AD. METHODS: Data from Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study participants were analyzed. This prospective, population-based cohort study followed older adults (age ≥65 years) who were dementia-free at enrollment for development of vascular dementia or AD based on research criteria. RAVO diagnoses were extracted from electronic medical records. Cox-regression survival analyses were stratified by APOEɛ4 genotype and adjusted for demographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: On review of 41,216 person-years (4,743 participants), 266 (5.6%) experienced RAVO. APOEɛ4 carriers who developed RAVO had greater than four-fold higher risk for developing vascular dementia (Hazard Ratio [HR] 4.54, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.86, 11.10, p = 0.001). When including other cerebrovascular disease (history of carotid endarterectomy or transient ischemic attack) in the model, the risk was three-fold higher (HR 3.06, 95% CI 1.23, 76.2). No other conditions evaluated in the secondary analyses were found to confound this relationship. There was no effect in non-APOEɛ4 carriers (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.37, 2.80). There were no significant associations between RAVO and AD in either APOE group. CONCLUSION: Older dementia-free patients who present with RAVO and carry the APOEɛ4 allele appear to be at higher risk for vascular dementia.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e211762, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729504

RESUMO

Importance: Decreasing use of low-value care is a major goal for Medicare given the potential to decrease costs and harms. Compared with traditional fee-for-service Medicare (TM), Medicare Advantage (MA) is more strongly financially incentivized to decrease use of low-value care. Objectives: To compare use of low-value care among individuals enrolled in TM and those enrolled in MA overall and to examine trends in use of low-value care in both programs from 2006 to 2015. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed individuals enrolled in TM and MA using data from the 2006 to 2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. To account for differences in characteristics between individuals enrolled in TM and those enrolled in MA, a propensity score-based approach was used. Data were analyzed from August 2020 through January 2021. Exposures: Being enrolled in MA or TM. Main Outcomes and Measures: Binary measures of use were collected for 13 low-value services in 4 categories (ie, [1] cancer screening: cervical, colorectal, and prostate cancer screening in older adults; [2] antibiotic use: antibiotic for acute upper respiratory infection and antibiotic for influenza; [3] medication: anxiolytic, sedative, or hypnotic in an adult older than 65 years; benzodiazepine for depression; opioid for headache; opioid for back pain; and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug [NSAID] for hypertension, heart failure, or chronic kidney disease; and [4] imaging: magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] or computed tomography [CT] for back pain, radiograph for back pain, and MRI or CT for headache) and 4 low-value composites corresponding to the categories (ie, cancer screening composite, antibiotic use composite, medication composite, and imaging composite). Results: Among 11 677 individuals enrolled in TM and 5164 individuals enrolled in MA, 9429 (56.0%) were women and the mean (SD) age was 74.5 (6.3) years. Of 13 low-value services and 4 low-value composites, statistically significant differences were found in 2 measures. For the low-value medication composite, 2054 of 11 636 eligible individuals enrolled in TM (adjusted mean, 17.6%; 95% CI, 16.8%-18.3%) received the care, and 981 of 5141 eligible individuals enrolled in MA (adjusted mean, 19.7%; 95% CI, 18.3%-21.2%) received the care, for a rate of use that was significantly higher among individuals enrolled in MA, by 2.2 percentage points (95% CI, 0.5-3.8 percentage points; P = .02). For the NSAID use for hypertension, heart failure, or kidney disease metric, 807 of 7832 individuals enrolled in TM (adjusted mean, 10.0%; 95% CI, 9.2%-10.8%) received the care, and 447 of 3566 individuals enrolled in MA (adjusted mean, 12.9%; 95% CI, 19.7%-27.1%) received the care, for a rate of use that was significantly higher among individuals enrolled in MA, by 2.9 percentage points (95% CI, 1.3-4.6 percentage points; P = .001). Overall, there were no decreases in use of low-value care in TM or MA over time. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that use of low-value care was similarly prevalent in MA and TM, suggesting that MA enrollment was not associated with decreased provision of low-value care compared with TM.

7.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(5): 483-492, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591484

RESUMO

As genetics gains favor in clinical oncology, it is important to address patient concerns around confidentiality, privacy, and security of genetic information that might otherwise limit its utilization. We designed a randomized controlled trial to assess the social impact of an online educational tool (FamilyTalk) to increase family communication about colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and screening. Of 208 randomized participants, 149 (71.6%) returned six-month surveys. Overall, there was no difference in CRC screening between the study arms. Privacy and confidentiality concerns about medical and genetic information, reactions to genetic test results, and lifestyle changes did not differ between arms. Participants with pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) and variant of uncertain significance (VUS) results were more likely than those with negative results to report that the results accurately predicted their disease risks (OR 5.37, p = 0.02 and OR 3.13, p = 0.02, respectively). This trial demonstrated no evidence that FamilyTalk impacted patient-reported outcomes. Low power, due to the limited number of participants with P/LP results in the overall sample, as well as the short follow-up period, could have contributed to the null findings.

8.
Genet Med ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603197

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to determine preferences of biobank participants whose samples were tested for clinically actionable variants but did not respond to an initial invitation to receive results. METHODS: We recontacted a subsample of participants in the Kaiser Permanente Washington/University of Washington site of the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE3) Network. The subsample had provided broad consent for their samples to be used for research but had not responded to one initial mailed invitation to receive their results. We sent a letter from the principal investigators with phone outreach. If no contact was made, we sent a certified letter stating our assumption that participant had actively refused. We collected reasons for declining. RESULTS: We recontacted 123 participants. Response rate was 70.7% (n = 87). Of these, 62 (71.3%) declined the offer of returned results and 25 (28.7%) consented. The most common reasons provided for refusal included not wanting to know (n = 22) and concerns about insurability (n = 28). CONCLUSION: Efforts to recontact biobank participants can yield high response. Though active refusal upon recontact was common, our data do not support assuming initial nonresponse to be refusal. Future research can work toward best practices for reconsenting, especially when clinically actionable results are possible.

9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 80(1): 79-90, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher glucose levels are associated with dementia risk in people with and without diabetes. However, little is known about how this association might vary by hypertension status and antihypertensive treatment. Most studies on modifiable dementia risk factors consider each factor in isolation. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that hypertension and antihypertensive treatments may modify associations between glucose levels and dementia. METHODS: Analyses of data generated from a research study and clinical care of participants from a prospective cohort of dementia-free older adults, including glucose measures, diabetes and antihypertensive treatments, and blood pressure data. We defined groups based on blood pressure (hypertensive versus not, ≥140/90 mmHg versus <140/90 mmHg) and antihypertensive treatment intensity (0, 1, or ≥2 classes of antihypertensives). We used Bayesian joint models to jointly model longitudinal exposure and time to event data. RESULTS: A total of 3,056 participants without diabetes treatment and 480 with diabetes treatment were included (mean age at baseline, 75.1 years; mean 7.5 years of follow-up). Higher glucose levels were associated with greater dementia risk among people without and with treated diabetes. Hazard ratios for dementia were similar across all blood pressure/antihypertensive treatment groups (omnibus p = 0.82 for people without and p = 0.59 for people with treated diabetes). CONCLUSION: Hypertension and antihypertensive treatments do not appear to affect the association between glucose and dementia risk in this population-based longitudinal cohort study of community-dwelling older adults. Future studies are needed to examine this question in midlife and by specific antihypertensive treatments.

10.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 11, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated triglycerides (TG) are associated with, and may be causal for, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and co-morbidities such as type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Pathogenic variants in APOA5 and APOC3 as well as risk SNVs in other genes [APOE (rs429358, rs7412), APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster (rs964184), INSR (rs7248104), CETP (rs7205804), GCKR (rs1260326)] have been shown to affect TG levels. Knowledge of genetic causes for elevated TG may lead to early intervention and targeted treatment for CVD. We previously identified linkage and association of a rare, highly conserved missense variant in SLC25A40, rs762174003, with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in a single large family, and replicated this association with rare, highly conserved missense variants in a European American and African American sample. METHODS: Here, we analyzed a longitudinal mixed-ancestry cohort (European, African and Asian ancestry, N = 8966) from the Electronic Medical Record and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. We tested associations between median TG and the genes of interest, using linear regression, adjusting for sex, median age, median BMI, and the first two principal components of ancestry. RESULTS: We replicated the association between TG and APOC3, APOA5, and risk variation at APOE, APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster, and GCKR. We failed to replicate the association between rare, highly conserved variation at SLC25A40 and TG, as well as for risk variation at INSR and CETP. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis using data from electronic health records presents challenges that need to be overcome. Although large amounts of genotype data is becoming increasingly accessible, usable phenotype data can be challenging to obtain. We were able to replicate known, strong associations, but were unable to replicate moderate associations due to the limited sample size and missing drug information.

11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(4): 1761-1773, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence links fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to Alzheimer's disease (AD), but no community-based prospective cohort studies in older adults have evaluated the association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and markers of AD neuropathology at autopsy. OBJECTIVE: Using a well-established autopsy cohort and new spatiotemporal predictions of air pollution, we evaluated associations of 10-year PM2.5 exposure prior to death with Braak stage, Consortium to Establish a Registry for AD (CERAD) score, and combined AD neuropathologic change (ABC score). METHODS: We used autopsy specimens (N = 832) from the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study, with enrollment ongoing since 1994. We assigned long-term exposure at residential address based on two-week average concentrations from a newly developed spatiotemporal model. To account for potential selection bias, we conducted inverse probability weighting. Adjusting for covariates with tiered models, we performed ordinal regression for Braak and CERAD and logistic regression for dichotomized ABC score. RESULTS: 10-year average (SD) PM2.5 from death across the autopsy cohort was 8.2 (1.9) µg/m3. Average age (SD) at death was 89 (7) years. Each 1µg/m3 increase in 10-year average PM2.5 prior to death was associated with a suggestive increase in the odds of worse neuropathology as indicated by CERAD score (OR: 1.35 (0.90, 1.90)) but a suggestive decreased odds of neuropathology as defined by the ABC score (OR: 0.79 (0.49, 1.19)). There was no association with Braak stage (OR: 0.99 (0.64, 1.47)). CONCLUSION: We report inconclusive associations between PM2.5 and AD neuropathology at autopsy among a cohort where 94% of individuals experienced 10-year exposures below the current EPA standard. Prior studies of AD risk factors and AD neuropathology are similarly inconclusive, suggesting alternative mechanistic pathways for disease or residual confounding.

12.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and synthesize the evidence on differential associations between antihypertensive medication (AHM) classes and the risk of incident dementia. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects frequentist network meta-analysis. Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane library were searched from origin to December 2019. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies that compared associations of different AHM classes with incident all-cause dementia and/or Alzheimer's disease over at least 1 year of follow-up. MEASURES: All cause dementia and/or Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: Fifteen observational studies and 7 RCTs were included. Data on AHM classes were available for 649,790 participants and dementia occurred in 19,600 (3.02%). Network meta-analysis showed that in observational studies, treatment with either calcium channel blockers (CCBs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) was associated with lower dementia risks than treatment with other antihypertensives: CCBs vs angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) (HR=0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.95), beta blockers (HR=0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.95) and diuretics (HR=0.89, 95% CI 0.78-1.01) and ARBs vs ACE inhibitors (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.97), beta blockers (HR=0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99), and diuretics (HR=0.93, 95% CI 0.83-1.05). There were insufficient RCTs to create a robust network based on randomized data alone. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Recommending CCBs or ARBs as preferred first-line antihypertensive treatment may significantly reduce the risk of dementia. If corroborated in a randomized setting, these findings reflect a low-cost and scalable opportunity to reduce dementia incidence worldwide.

13.
J Affect Disord ; 281: 376-383, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and military service are common lifetime exposures among current older adults that may affect late-life mental health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) and military employment and late-life depressive symptom severity trajectory. METHODS: 1445 males and 2096 females adults at least 65 years old without dementia or recent TBI were enrolled and followed biennially for up to 10 years in the Adult Changes in Thought study from Kaiser Permanente Washington in Seattle, Washington. RESULTS: Using group-based trajectory modeling, we documented four distinct depressive symptom severity trajectories that followed a similar course in males and females (Minimal, Decreasing, Increasing, and Persistent). In multinomial regression analyses, TBI with LOC in males was associated with greater likelihood of Persistent versus Minimal depressive symptom severity compared to individuals without TBI (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.27; p=0.046). Males reporting past military employment had greater likelihood of Decreasing versus Minimal depressive symptom severity compared to individuals without past military employment (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.31; p=0.035). There was no association between TBI or military employment and depression trajectories in females, and no evidence of effect modification by age or between exposures. LIMITATIONS: Lifetime history of TBI was ascertained retrospectively and may be subject to recall bias. Also, past military employment does not presuppose combat exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Remote TBI and past military employment are relevant to late-life trajectories of depressive symptom severity in dementia-free older males.

14.
Neurology ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether angiotensin-II stimulating antihypertensives (thiazides, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin-1 receptor blockers) convey a lower risk of incident dementia compared to angiotensin-II inhibiting antihypertensives (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers, and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers), in accordance with the "angiotensin hypothesis." METHODS: Cox regression analyses of incident dementia (and/or mortality as competing risk) during 6-8 years of follow-up, in a population sample of 1909 non-demented community-dwelling individuals (54% women), aged 70-78 (mean: 74.5 ± 2.5) years. RESULTS: After a median of 6.7 years of follow-up, dementia status was available for 1,870 (98%) and mortality for 1,904 (>99%) participants. Dementia incidence was 5.6% (27/480) in angiotensin-II stimulating, 8.2% (59/721) in angiotensin-II inhibiting, and 6.9% (46/669) in both antihypertensive type users. Adjusted for dementia risk factors including blood pressure and medical history, angiotensin-II stimulating antihypertensive users had a 45% lower incident dementia rate (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.34-0.89) without excess mortality (HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.64-1.16), and individuals using both types had a non-significant 20% lower dementia rate (HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.53-1.20) without excess mortality (HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.76-1.24), compared to angiotensin-II inhibiting antihypertensive users. Results were consistent for subgroups based on diabetes and stroke history, but may be specific for individuals without a history of cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: Users of angiotensin-II stimulating antihypertensives had lower dementia rates compared to angiotensin-II inhibiting antihypertensive users, supporting the "angiotensin hypothesis." Confounding by indication must be examined further, although sub-analyses suggest this did not influence results. If replicated, dementia prevention could become a compelling indication for older individuals receiving antihypertensive treatment.

15.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074286

RESUMO

Importance: Compared with non-Hispanic White individuals, African American individuals from the same community are approximately twice as likely to develop Alzheimer disease. Despite this disparity, the largest Alzheimer disease genome-wide association studies to date have been conducted in non-Hispanic White individuals. In the largest association analyses of Alzheimer disease in African American individuals, ABCA7, TREM2, and an intergenic locus at 5q35 were previously implicated. Objective: To identify additional risk loci in African American individuals by increasing the sample size and using the African Genome Resource panel. Design, Setting, and Participants: This genome-wide association meta-analysis used case-control and family-based data sets from the Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium. There were multiple recruitment sites throughout the United States that included individuals with Alzheimer disease and controls of African American ancestry. Analysis began October 2018 and ended September 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. Results: A total of 2784 individuals with Alzheimer disease (1944 female [69.8%]) and 5222 controls (3743 female [71.7%]) were analyzed (mean [SD] age at last evaluation, 74.2 [13.6] years). Associations with 4 novel common loci centered near the intracellular glycoprotein trafficking gene EDEM1 (3p26; P = 8.9 × 10-7), near the immune response gene ALCAM (3q13; P = 9.3 × 10-7), within GPC6 (13q31; P = 4.1 × 10-7), a gene critical for recruitment of glutamatergic receptors to the neuronal membrane, and within VRK3 (19q13.33; P = 3.5 × 10-7), a gene involved in glutamate neurotoxicity, were identified. In addition, several loci associated with rare variants, including a genome-wide significant intergenic locus near IGF1R at 15q26 (P = 1.7 × 10-9) and 6 additional loci with suggestive significance (P ≤ 5 × 10-7) such as API5 at 11p12 (P = 8.8 × 10-8) and RBFOX1 at 16p13 (P = 5.4 × 10-7) were identified. Gene expression data from brain tissue demonstrate association of ALCAM, ARAP1, GPC6, and RBFOX1 with brain ß-amyloid load. Of 25 known loci associated with Alzheimer disease in non-Hispanic White individuals, only APOE, ABCA7, TREM2, BIN1, CD2AP, FERMT2, and WWOX were implicated at a nominal significance level or stronger in African American individuals. Pathway analyses strongly support the notion that immunity, lipid processing, and intracellular trafficking pathways underlying Alzheimer disease in African American individuals overlap with those observed in non-Hispanic White individuals. A new pathway emerging from these analyses is the kidney system, suggesting a novel mechanism for Alzheimer disease that needs further exploration. Conclusions and Relevance: While the major pathways involved in Alzheimer disease etiology in African American individuals are similar to those in non-Hispanic White individuals, the disease-associated loci within these pathways differ.

16.
J Alzheimers Dis Rep ; 4(1): 255-260, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904663

RESUMO

We administered a web-based survey to a convenience sample of 561 patients in a large health system to assess patient attitudes toward dementia prevention in the context of designing a multi-domain Alzheimer's risk reduction intervention. The majority of respondents reported being very concerned about Alzheimer's disease, wanted to know their personal risk factors, and were highly motivated to make healthy lifestyle changes to lower dementia risk. The areas they were most interested in targeting to reduce dementia risk included physical activity, cognitive stimulation, nutrition, and sleep. These results provided strong support for our conceptual framework to target higher-risk patients with a personalized risk reduction strategy.

17.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964493

RESUMO

Carotid artery atherosclerotic disease (CAAD) is a risk factor for stroke. We used a genome-wide association (GWAS) approach to discover genetic variants associated with CAAD in participants in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. We identified adult CAAD cases with unilateral or bilateral carotid artery stenosis and controls without evidence of stenosis from electronic health records at eight eMERGE sites. We performed GWAS with a model adjusting for age, sex, study site, and genetic principal components of ancestry. In eMERGE we found 1793 CAAD cases and 17,958 controls. Two loci reached genome-wide significance, on chr6 in LPA (rs10455872, odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]) = 1.50 (1.30-1.73), p = 2.1 × 10-8 ) and on chr7, an intergenic single nucleotide variant (SNV; rs6952610, OR (95% CI) = 1.25 (1.16-1.36), p = 4.3 × 10-8 ). The chr7 association remained significant in the presence of the LPA SNV as a covariate. The LPA SNV was also associated with coronary heart disease (CHD; 4199 cases and 11,679 controls) in this study (OR (95% CI) = 1.27 (1.13-1.43), p = 5 × 10-5 ) but the chr7 SNV was not (OR (95% CI) = 1.03 (0.97-1.09), p = .37). Both variants replicated in UK Biobank. Elevated lipoprotein(a) concentrations ([Lp(a)]) and LPA variants associated with elevated [Lp(a)] have previously been associated with CAAD and CHD, including rs10455872. With electronic health record phenotypes in eMERGE and UKB, we replicated a previously known association and identified a novel locus associated with CAAD.

18.
Med Care ; 58(11): 1004-1012, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine differences in health care utilization, process of diabetes care, care satisfaction, and health status for Medicare Advantage (MA) and traditional Medicare (TM) beneficiaries with and without diabetes. METHODS: Using the 2010-2016 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, we identified MA and TM beneficiaries with and without diabetes. To address the endogenous plan choice between MA and TM, we used an instrumental variable approach. Using marginal effects, we estimated differences in the outcomes between MA and TM beneficiaries with and without diabetes. RESULTS: Our instrumental variable analysis showed that compared with TM beneficiaries with diabetes, MA beneficiaries with diabetes had less annual health care utilization, including -22.4 medical provider visits [95% confidence interval (CI): -23.6 to -21.1] and -3.4 outpatient hospital visits (95% CI: -3.8 to -3.0). A significant difference between MA and TM beneficiaries without diabetes was only observed in medical provider visits and the difference was greater among beneficiaries with diabetes than beneficiaries without diabetes (-12.5 medical provider visits; 95% CI: -15.9 to -9.2). While we did not detect significant differences in 5 measures of the process of diabetes care between MA and TM beneficiaries with diabetes, there were inconsistent results in the other 3 measures. There were no or marginal differences in care satisfaction and health status between MA and TM beneficiaries with and without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: MA enrollment was associated with lower health care utilization without compromising care satisfaction and health status, particularly for beneficiaries with diabetes. MA may have a more efficient care delivery system for beneficiaries with diabetes.

19.
Gerontol Geriatr Med ; 6: 2333721420945922, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913883

RESUMO

Objectives: Sociodemographic trends in the United States may influence future dementia-associated mortality, yet there is little evidence about their potential impact. Our study objective was to estimate the effect of dementia on survival in adults stratified by sex, education, and marital status. Methods: Using survey data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) linked to Medicare claims from 1991 to 2012, we identified a retrospective cohort of adults with at least one International Classification of Diseases-ninth revision-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) dementia diagnosis code (n = 3,714). For each case, we randomly selected up to five comparators, matching on sex, birth year, education, and HRS entry year (n = 9,531), and assigned comparators the diagnosis date of their matched case. Participants were followed for up to 60 months following diagnosis. We estimated a survival function for the entire study population and then within successive strata defined by sex, education, and marital status. Results: On average, dementia cases were 80.5 years old at diagnosis. Most were female, had less than college-level education, and approximately 40% were married at diagnosis. In multivariate analyses, dementia diagnosis was associated with earlier mortality for women (predicted median survival of 54.5 months vs. 62.5 months; dementia coefficient = -0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [-0.22, -0.04]; p = .003), but even more so among men (predicted median survival of 35.5 months vs. 54.5 months; dementia coefficient = -0.42; 95% CI = [-0.52, -0.31]; p < .001). We found substantial heterogeneity in the relationship between dementia and survival, associated with both education and marital status. Conclusion: Both sex and level of education moderate the relationship between dementia diagnosis and length of survival.

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