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1.
Leukemia ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542479

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify biomarkers for clinical outcomes in a phase 3 clinical study of blinatumomab or chemotherapy in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-negative relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive blinatumomab, a BiTE® therapy, for 4 weeks (9 µg/day cycle 1 week 1, 28 µg/day thereafter) every 6 weeks, or chemotherapy. Baseline blood samples were evaluated to identify biomarkers prognostic (both treatment groups) or predictive (either treatment groups) for overall survival, event-free survival, hematologic remission, minimal residual disease (MRD) response, duration of response, or adverse events. Baseline values were balanced between treatment groups. Prognostic biomarkers were platelets, tumor burden, and percentage of T cells: each 1-log increase in platelets at baseline was prognostic for improved 6-month survival; lower tumor burden was prognostic for hematologic remission; and a higher percentage of CD3+ T-cells was prognostic for MRD response. Consistent with the BiTE mechanism of action, higher percentage of CD45+ CD3+ CD8+ T cells was associated with hematologic remission following blinatumomab. No examined biomarkers were significant for the risk of grade ≥3 adverse events. Incorporating baseline biomarkers into future studies may help to identify subgroups most likely to benefit from blinatumomab.

2.
Blood ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598693

RESUMO

In the international randomized phase III RATIFY trial, the multi-kinase inhibitor midostaurin significantly improved overall and event-free survival in patients 18-59 years of age with FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, only 59% of patients on the midostaurin arm achieved protocol-specified complete remission (CR) and almost half of patients achieving CR relapsed. To explore underlying mechanisms of resistance, we studied patterns of clonal evolution in patients with FLT3-internal tandem duplications (ITD) positive AML who were entered on the RATIFY or the AMLSG 16-10 trial and received treatment with midostaurin. To this end, paired samples from 54 patients obtained at time of diagnosis and at time of either relapsed or refractory disease were analyzed using conventional Genescan-based testing for FLT3-ITD as well as whole exome sequencing. At the time of disease resistance or progression, almost half of the patients (46%) became FLT3-ITD negative, but acquired mutations in signaling pathways (e.g. MAPK), thereby providing a new proliferative advantage. In cases with FLT3-ITD persistence, the selection of resistant ITD-clones was found in 11% as potential drivers of disease. In 32% of cases, no FLT3-ITD mutational change was observed suggesting either resistance mechanisms bypassing FLT3-inhibition or loss of midostaurin inhibitory activity due to inadequate drug levels. In summary, our study provides novel insights into the clonal evolution and resistance mechanisms of FLT3-ITD mutated AML under treatment with midostaurin in combination with intensive chemotherapy.

3.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(2): 39, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602908

RESUMO

Ibrutinib inhibits Bruton tyrosine kinase while venetoclax is a specific inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL2. Both drugs are highly effective as monotherapy against chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and clinical trials using the combination therapy have produced remarkable results in terms of rate of complete remission and frequency of undetectable minimal residual disease. However, the laboratory rationale behind the success of the drug combination is still lacking. A better understanding of how these two drugs synergize would eventually help develop other rational combination strategies. Using an ex vivo model that promotes CLL proliferation, we show that modeled ibrutinib proliferative responses, but not viability responses, correlate well with patients' actual clinical responses. Importantly, we demonstrate for the first time that ibrutinib and venetoclax act on distinct CLL subpopulations that have different proliferative capacities. While the dividing subpopulation of CLL responds to ibrutinib, the resting subpopulation preferentially responds to venetoclax. The combination of these targeted therapies effectively reduced both the resting and dividing subpopulations in most cases. Our laboratory findings help explain several clinical observations and contribute to the understanding of tumor dynamics. Additionally, our proliferation model may be used to identify novel drug combinations with the potential of eradicating residual disease.

4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 72, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452400

RESUMO

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a clinically distinct and highly aggressive form of breast cancer with rapid onset and a strong propensity to metastasize. The molecular mechanisms underlying the aggressiveness and metastatic propensity of IBC are largely unknown. Herein, we report that decorin (DCN), a small leucine-rich extracellular matrix proteoglycan, is downregulated in tumors from patients with IBC. Overexpression of DCN in IBC cells markedly decreased migration, invasion, and cancer stem cells in vitro and inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in IBC xenograft mouse models. Mechanistically, DCN functioned as a suppressor of invasion and tumor growth in IBC by destabilizing E-cadherin and inhibiting EGFR/ERK signaling. DCN physically binds E-cadherin in IBC cells and accelerates its degradation through an autophagy-linked lysosomal pathway. We established that DCN inhibits tumorigenesis and metastasis in IBC cells by negatively regulating the E-cadherin/EGFR/ERK axis. Our findings offer a potential therapeutic strategy for IBC, and provide a novel mechanism for IBC pathobiology.

5.
Blood Adv ; 5(2): 504-512, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496745

RESUMO

Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia have improved outcomes when treated with pediatric-inspired regimens. CALGB 10403 was the largest prospective study to evaluate the feasibility of using a pediatric regimen in AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia up to 40 years of age. This article presents the toxicity events observed in the CALGB 10403 study and compares these toxicities vs those observed among AYAs treated on the same arm of the companion Children's Oncology Group (COG) AALL0232 study. Toxicities in CALGB 10403 were similar to those observed in COG AALL0232. Some grade 3 to 4 adverse events were more often reported in CALGB 10403 compared with COG AALL0232 (hyperglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, transaminase elevation, and febrile neutropenia). Adverse events correlated with body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 and some with increasing age. The mortality rate in CALGB 10403 was low (4%) and similar to that in the COG AALL0232 trial. A caveat to this analysis is that only 39% of CALGB 10403 patients completed all planned protocol treatment. In COG AALL0232, although 74% of patients aged <18 years completed treatment, only 57% of patients aged ≥18 years completed treatment. This scenario suggests that issues associated with age and treating physician may be a factor. Due to its improved survival rates compared with historical controls, the CALGB 10403 regimen is now a standard of care. The hope is that the rate of protocol completion will increase as more familiarity is gained with this regimen. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00558519 (CALGB 10403) and #NCT00075725 (COG AALL0232).

6.
Leukemia ; 35(2): 440-453, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414482

RESUMO

In the ENESTnd study, with ≥10 years follow-up in patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase, nilotinib demonstrated higher cumulative molecular response rates, lower rates of disease progression and CML-related death, and increased eligibility for treatment-free remission (TFR). Cumulative 10-year rates of MMR and MR4.5 were higher with nilotinib (300 mg twice daily [BID], 77.7% and 61.0%, respectively; 400 mg BID, 79.7% and 61.2%, respectively) than with imatinib (400 mg once daily [QD], 62.5% and 39.2%, respectively). Cumulative rates of TFR eligibility at 10 years were higher with nilotinib (300 mg BID, 48.6%; 400 mg BID, 47.3%) vs imatinib (29.7%). Estimated 10-year overall survival rates in nilotinib and imatinib arms were 87.6%, 90.3%, and 88.3%, respectively. Overall frequency of adverse events was similar with nilotinib and imatinib. By 10 years, higher cumulative rates of cardiovascular events were reported with nilotinib (300 mg BID, 16.5%; 400 mg BID, 23.5%) vs imatinib (3.6%), including in Framingham low-risk patients. Overall efficacy and safety results support the use of nilotinib 300 mg BID as frontline therapy for optimal long-term outcomes, especially in patients aiming for TFR. The benefit-risk profile in context of individual treatment goals should be carefully assessed.

7.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; : 1-6, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166483

RESUMO

It has been almost 3 years since the opioid epidemic was declared a national public health emergency under federal law. Solutions have focused on supply-reduction strategies. These approaches, however, have failed to significantly curtail opioid overdose and related death. Demand for opioid use arising from social networks and environment is an important contributing factor to the current opioid epidemic. Adoption of existing underused methods is needed to drive further progress. This Perspective proposes the social contagion model as a promising framework through which to operationalize evaluation of the influence of social networks and environment in the opioid epidemic and argues for its greater application. Comparing the current epidemic with previous opioid epidemics reiterates the utility of the social contagion model. This model acknowledges social network influence on individual behavior. It leverages tools from epidemiology, permits evaluation of interpersonal influence, facilitates consideration of disproportionate and collateral effects, and overcomes limitations of traditional models and geographic assumptions inherent to many approaches surrounding the current opioid epidemic. Analyzing the opioid epidemic within a social contagion framework will enhance evaluation methods and enable the design of interventions to reflect the actual demands of the current crisis. If the influence of social networks and environment is not considered, the devastating toll of the opioid epidemic could grow.

8.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180106

RESUMO

Importance: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been associated with improved survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) but are also associated with adverse effects, especially fatigue and diarrhea. Discontinuation of TKIs is safe and is associated with the successful achievement of treatment-free remission (TFR) for some patients. Objective: To evaluate molecular recurrence (MRec) and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after TKI discontinuation for US patients with CML. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Life After Stopping TKIs (LAST) study was a prospective single-group nonrandomized clinical trial that enrolled 172 patients from 14 US academic medical centers from December 18, 2014, to December 12, 2016, with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Participants were adults with chronic-phase CML whose disease was well controlled with imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, or bosutinib. Statistical analysis was performed from August 13, 2019, to March 23, 2020. Intervention: Discontinuation of TKIs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Molecular recurrence, defined as loss of major molecular response (BCR-ABL1 International Scale ratio >0.1%) by central laboratory testing, and PROs (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System computerized adaptive tests) were monitored. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) was performed on samples with undetectable BCR-ABL1 by standard real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). Results: Of 172 patients, 89 were women (51.7%), and the median age was 60 years (range, 21-86 years). Of 171 patients evaluable for molecular analysis, 112 (65.5%) stayed in major molecular response, and 104 (60.8%) achieved TFR. Undetectable BCR-ABL1 by either ddPCR or RQ-PCR at the time of TKI discontinuation (hazard ratio, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.99-6.50; P < .001) and at 3 months (hazard ratio, 5.86; 95% CI, 3.07-11.1; P < .001) was independently associated with MRec. Molecular recurrence for patients with detectable BCR-ABL1 by RQ-PCR was 50.0% (14 of 28), undetectable BCR-ABL1 by RQ-PCR but detectable by ddPCR was 64.3% (36 of 56), and undetectable BCR-ABL1 by both ddPCR and RQ-PCR was 10.3% (9 of 87) (P ≤ .001). Of the 112 patients in TFR at 12 months, 90 (80.4%) had a clinically meaningful improvement in fatigue, 39 (34.8%) had a clinically meaningful improvement in depression, 98 (87.5%) had a clinically meaningful improvement in diarrhea, 24 (21.4%) had a clinically meaningful improvement in sleep disturbance, and 5 (4.5%) had a clinically meaningful improvement in pain interference. Restarting a TKI resulted in worsening of PROs. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, TKI discontinuation was safe, and 60.8% of patients remained in TFR. Discontinuation of TKIs was associated with improvements in PROs. These findings should assist patients and physicians in their decision-making regarding discontinuation of TKIs. Detectable BCR-ABL1 by RQ-PCR or ddPCR at the time of TKI discontinuation was associated with higher risk of MRec; clinical application of this finding should be confirmed in other studies. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02269267.

9.
Blood Adv ; 4(19): 4945-4954, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049054

RESUMO

The results from the RATIFY trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00651261; CALGB 10603) showed that midostaurin combined with standard chemotherapy significantly improved outcomes in patients with FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML), compared with placebo. In this post hoc subgroup analysis from the trial, we evaluated the impact of midostaurin in 163 patients with FLT3-tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) mutations. At a median follow-up of 60.7 months (95% CI, 55.0-70.8), the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rate was significantly higher in patients treated with midostaurin than in those treated with placebo (45.2% vs 30.1%; P = .044). A trend toward improved disease-free survival was also observed with midostaurin (67.3% vs 53.4%; P = .089), whereas overall survival (OS) was similar in the 2 groups. Patients with AML and NPM1mut/FLT3-TKDmut or core binding factor (CBF)-rearranged/FLT3-TKDmut genotypes had significantly prolonged OS with or without censoring at hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), compared with NPM1WT/CBF-negative AMLs. The multivariable model for OS and EFS adjusted for allogeneic HCT in first complete remission as a time-dependent covariable, revealed NPM1 mutations and CBF rearrangements as significant favorable factors. These data show that NPM1 mutations or CBF rearrangements identify favorable prognostic groups in patients with FLT3-TKD AMLs, independent of other factors, also in the context of midostaurin treatment.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017438

RESUMO

About 50% of individuals infected with the novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) suffer from intestinal infection as well as respiratory infection. They shed virus in their stool. Municipal sewage systems carry the virus and its genetic remnants. These viral traces can be detected in the sewage entering a wastewater treatment plant (WTP). Such virus signals indicate community infections but not locations of the infection within the community. In this paper, we frame and formulate the problem in a way that leads to algorithmic procedures homing in on locations and/or neighborhoods within the community that are most likely to have infections. Our data source is wastewater sampled and real-time tested from selected manholes. Our algorithms dynamically and adaptively develop a sequence of manholes to sample and test. The algorithms are often finished after 5 to 10 manhole samples, meaning that-in the field-the procedure can be carried out within one day. The goal is to provide timely information that will support faster more productive human testing for viral infection and thus reduce community disease spread. Leveraging the tree graph structure of the sewage system, we develop two algorithms, the first designed for a community that is certified at a given time to have zero infections and the second for a community known to have many infections. For the first, we assume that wastewater at the WTP has just revealed traces of SARS-CoV-2, indicating existence of a "Patient Zero" in the community. This first algorithm identifies the city block in which the infected person resides. For the second, we home in on a most infected neighborhood of the community, where a neighborhood is usually several city blocks. We present extensive computational results, some applied to a small New England city.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Fezes/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Características de Residência , Esgotos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Massachusetts , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
11.
J Law Med Ethics ; 48(2): 249-258, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631181

RESUMO

Overdose deaths involving prescription opioids killed more than 17,000 Americans in 2017, marking a five-fold increase since 1999. High prescribing rates of opioid analgesics have been a substantial contributor to prescription opioid misuse, dependence, overdose and heroin use. There was recognition approximately ten years ago that opioid prescribing patterns were contributing to this startling increase in negative opioid-related outcomes, and federal actions, including Medicare reimbursement reform and regulatory actions, were initiated to restrict opioid prescribing. The current manuscript is a description of those actions, the effect of those actions on opioid prescribing and related patient outcomes. We also describe our proposal of methods of expanding these efforts as an important piece to further reduce opioid-related misuse, dependence, and overdose death.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8537, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444778

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive form of breast cancer characterized by metastasis, drug resistance and high rates of recurrence. With a lack or targeted therapies, TNBC is challenging to treat and carries a poor prognosis. Patients with TNBC tumors expressing high levels of ERK2 have a poorer prognosis than those with low ERK2-expressing tumors. The MAPK pathway is often found to be highly activated in TNBC, however the precise functions of the ERK isoforms (ERK1 and ERK2) in cancer progression have not been well defined. We hypothesized that ERK2, but not ERK1, promotes the cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype and metastasis in TNBC. Stable knockdown clones of the ERK1 and ERK2 isoforms were generated in SUM149 and BT549 TNBC cells using shRNA lentiviral vectors. ERK2 knockdown significantly inhibited anchorage-independent colony formation and mammosphere formation, indicating compromised self-renewal capacity. This effect correlated with a reduction in migration and invasion. SCID-beige mice injected via the tail vein with ERK clones were employed to determine metastatic potential. SUM149 shERK2 cells had a significantly lower lung metastatic burden than control mice or mice injected with SUM149 shERK1 cells. The Affymetrix HGU133plus2 microarray platform was employed to identify gene expression changes in ERK isoform knockdown clones. Comparison of gene expression levels between SUM149 cells with ERK2 or ERK1 knockdown revealed differential and in some cases opposite effects on mRNA expression levels. Those changes associated with ERK2 knockdown predominantly altered regulation of CSCs and metastasis. Our findings indicate that ERK2 promotes metastasis and the CSC phenotype in TNBC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 11(8): 1199-1209, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273246

RESUMO

Approximately one third of patients diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) are above the age of sixty. It is important to ensure older adults receive optimal diagnosis and management since this subtype of acute myeloid leukemia - given appropriate treatment - is highly curable with lower risk of adverse events compared to other types of leukemia. Historically, older age has been a risk factor for early death and poorer overall survival. However, prospects have changed with the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). APL is curable in the majority of patients regardless of age, and the threshold of fitness that makes ATRA/ATO therapy possible is likely to be lower than for cytotoxic chemotherapy. APL frequently presents as a medical emergency and rapid diagnosis and intervention - typically involving referral to a specialist centre - is a major determinant of outcome. After diagnosis, management of APL in older adults presents particular challenges. Geriatric assessment, including evaluation of frailty, comorbidities and polypharmacy can assist in providing optimal supportive care for older adults during remission induction and may help individualize therapy in the post-remission phase. Here, we review the available evidence, highlighting areas of consensus, gaps in evidence and opportunities for research to enhance diagnosis, management and survivorship for older patients.

17.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(5): 1025-1027, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018063

RESUMO

Treatment options are limited for patients with hematologic malignancies who relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). We conducted a pilot study to assess the tolerability and efficacy of low-dose nivolumab, a PD-1 inhibitor, as maintenance therapy after allo-SCT. Of the 4 patients enrolled in the study, all rapidly developed immune-related adverse events (irAEs); 2 patients experienced serious adverse events, including grade 4 neutropenia and grade 3 autoimmune encephalopathy. As a result of these unexpected severe toxicities, the study was closed to further enrollment. Even at low doses, nivolumab maintenance in the post allo-SCT setting can cause serious irAEs beyond graft-versus-host disease, and further studies of dosage and timing after allo-SCT are needed.

18.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(6): e464-e475, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048933

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with acute myeloid leukemia with high-risk cytogenetics in first complete remission (CR1) achieve better outcomes if they undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) compared with consolidation chemotherapy alone. However, only approximately 40% of such patients typically proceed to HCT. METHODS: We used a prospective organized approach to rapidly identify donors to improve the allogeneic HCT rate in adults with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia in CR1. Newly diagnosed patients had cytogenetics obtained at enrollment, and those with high-risk cytogenetics underwent expedited HLA typing and were encouraged to be referred for consultation with a transplantation team with the goal of conducting an allogeneic HCT in CR1. RESULTS: Of 738 eligible patients (median age, 49 years; range, 18-60 years of age), 159 (22%) had high-risk cytogenetics and 107 of these patients (67%) achieved CR1. Seventy (65%) of the high-risk patients underwent transplantation in CR1 (P < .001 compared with the historical rate of 40%). Median time to HCT from CR1 was 77 days (range, 20-356 days). In landmark analysis, overall survival (OS) among patients who underwent transplantation was significantly better compared with that of patients who did not undergo transplantation (2-year OS, 48% v 35%, respectively [P = .031]). Median relapse-free survival after transplantation in the high-risk cohort who underwent transplantation in CR1 (n = 70) was 11.5 months (range, 4-47 months), and median OS after transplantation was 14 months (range, 4-44 months). CONCLUSION: Early cytogenetic testing with an organized effort to identify a suitable allogeneic HCT donor led to a CR1 transplantation rate of 65% in the high-risk group, which, in turn, led to an improvement in OS when compared with the OS of patients who did not undergo transplantation.

19.
Blood Adv ; 4(4): 696-705, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092139

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with either t(8;21)(q22;q22) or inv(16)(p13q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22) is referred to as core binding factor (CBF) AML. Although categorized as favorable risk, long-term survival for these patients is only ∼50% to 60%. Mutated (mut) or overexpressed KIT, a gene encoding a receptor tyrosine kinase, has been found almost exclusively in CBF AML and may increase the risk of disease relapse. We tested the safety and clinical activity of dasatinib, a multi-kinase inhibitor, in combination with chemotherapy. Sixty-one adult patients with AML and CBF fusion transcripts (RUNX1/RUNX1T1 or CBFB/MYH11) were enrolled on Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 10801. Patients received cytarabine/daunorubicin induction on days 1 to 7 and oral dasatinib 100 mg/d on days 8 to 21. Upon achieving complete remission, patients received consolidation with high-dose cytarabine followed by dasatinib 100 mg/d on days 6 to 26 for 4 courses, followed by dasatinib 100 mg/d for 12 months. Fifteen (25%) patients were older (aged ≥60 years); 67% were CBFB/MYH11-positive, and 19% harbored KITmut. There were no unexpected or dose-limiting toxicities. Fifty-five (90%) patients achieved complete remission. With a median follow-up of 45 months, only 16% have relapsed. The 3-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were 75% and 77% (79% and 85% for younger patients [aged <60 years], and 60% and 51% for older patients). Patients with KITmut had comparable outcome to those with wild-type KIT (3-year rates: disease-free survival, 67% vs 75%; overall survival, 73% vs 76%), thereby raising the question of whether dasatinib may overcome the negative impact of these genetic lesions. CALGB 10801 was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01238211.

20.
Blood Adv ; 4(4): 599-606, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074275

RESUMO

In this phase 1 study, azacitidine (AZA) was given before high-dose cytarabine (HiDAC) and mitoxantrone (mito) based on the hypothesis that epigenetic priming with a hypomethylating agent before cytotoxic chemotherapy would improve response rates in patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML), including relapsed/refractory disease. The primary objective was to establish the recommended phase 2 dose of AZA given before standard HiDAC/mito. In a dose escalation scheme, 46 patients (median age, 66 years) received AZA at 37.5, 50, or 75 mg/m2 subcutaneously or IV once daily on days 1 to 5 followed by HiDAC (3000 mg/m2) and mitoxantrone (30 mg/m2) once each on days 6 and 10 (the HiDAC/mito dose was reduced 33% in elderly subjects). Two dose-limiting toxicities occurred (both in the same patient): acute liver failure and kidney injury at the 50 mg/m2 dose. The 30-day induction death rate was 2.2% (1 of 46). The overall response rate, including complete remission and complete remission with incomplete count recovery, was 61% (28 of 46). Previously untreated patients aged ≥60 years with therapy-related AML and de novo AML were more likely to respond than untreated patients with AML progressing from an antecedent hematologic disorder (myelodysplastic syndrome and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia). Patients with favorable European Leukemia Network risk (P = .008), NPM1 mutations (P = .007), or IDH2 mutations (P = .03) were more likely to respond, and those with TP53 mutations (P = .03) were less likely to respond. The recommended phase 2 dose of AZA is 75 mg/m2 per day on days 1 to 5 followed by HiDAC (3000 mg/m2) and mitoxantrone (30 mg/m2) once each on days 6 and 10. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01839240.

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