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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914664

RESUMO

AIM: MRI can provide fundamental tools in decoding physiological stressors stimulated by training paradigms. Acute physiological changes induced by three diverse exercise protocols known to elicit similar levels of muscle hypertrophy were evaluated using muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI). METHODS: The study was a cross-over study with participants (n=10) performing three acute unilateral knee extensor exercise protocols to failure and a work matched control exercise protocol. Participants were scanned after each exercise protocol; 70% 1 repetition maximum (RM) (FF70); 20% 1RM (FF20); 20% 1RM with blood flow restriction (BFR20); free-flow (FF) control work matched to BFR20 (FF20WM). Post exercise mfMRI scans were used to obtain interleaved measures of muscle R2 (indicator of edema), R2' (indicator of deoxyhemoglobin), muscle cross sectional area (CSA) blood flow and diffusion. RESULTS: Both BFR20 and FF20 exercise resulted in a larger acute decrease in R2, decrease in R2', and expansion of the extracellular compartment with slower rates of recovery. BFR20 caused greater acute increases in muscle CSA than FF20WM and FF70. Only BFR20 caused acute increases in intracellular volume. Post-exercise muscle blood flow was higher after FF70 and FF20 exercise than BFR20. Acute changes in mean diffusivity were similar across all exercise protocols. CONCLUSION: This study was able to differentiate the acute physiological responses between anabolic exercise protocols. Low-load exercise protocols, known to have relatively higher energy contributions from glycolysis at task failure, elicited a higher mfMRI response. Noninvasive mfMRI represents a promising tool for decoding mechanisms of anabolic adaptation in muscle.

2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial co-aggregation studies of eating disorders (EDs) and schizophrenia reveal shared genetic and environment factors, yet their etiological and clinical relationship remains unclear. We evaluate the influence of schizophrenia family history on clinical outcomes of EDs. METHODS: We conducted a cohort evaluation of the association between family history of schizophrenia and ED clinical features, psychiatric comorbidities, and somatic and mental health burden in individuals born in Sweden 1977-2003 with anorexia nervosa (AN) or other EDs (OED: bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and ED not otherwise specified). RESULTS: Of 12 424 individuals with AN and 20 716 individuals with OED, 599 (4.8%) and 1118 (5.4%), respectively, had a family history of schizophrenia (in up to third-degree relatives). Among individuals with AN, schizophrenia in first-degree relatives was significantly associated with increased comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [HR(95% CI) 2.26 (1.27-3.99)], substance abuse disorder (SUD) [HR (95% CI) 1.93 (1.25-2.98)], and anxiety disorders [HR (95% CI) 1.47 (1.08-2.01)], but higher lowest illness-associated body mass index (BMI) [1.14 kg/m2, 95% CI (0.19-2.10)]. Schizophrenia in any relative (up to third-degree) in AN was significantly associated with higher somatic and mental health burden, but lower ED psychopathology scores [-0.29, 95% CI (-0.54 to -0.04)]. Schizophrenia in first-degree relatives in individuals with OED was significantly associated with increased comorbid ADHD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, SUD, anxiety disorders, somatic and mental health burden, and suicide attempts. CONCLUSIONS: We observed different patterns of ED-related outcomes, psychiatric comorbidity, and illness burden in individuals with EDs with and without family histories of schizophrenia and provide new insights into the diverse manifestations of EDs.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 44(5): 1143-1150, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the association and coaggregation of eating disorders and childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in families. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using population samples from national registers in Sweden (n = 2,517,277) and Demark (n = 1,825,920), we investigated the within-individual association between type 1 diabetes and eating disorders and their familial coaggregation among full siblings, half siblings, full cousins, and half cousins. On the basis of clinical diagnoses, we classified eating disorders into any eating disorder (AED), anorexia nervosa (AN) and atypical AN, and other eating disorder (OED). Associations were determined with hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs from Cox regressions. RESULTS: Swedish and Danish individuals with a type 1 diabetes diagnosis had a greater risk of receiving an eating disorder diagnosis (HR [95% CI] Sweden: AED 2.02 [1.80-2.27], AN 1.63 [1.36-1.96], OED 2.34 [2.07-2.63]; Denmark: AED 2.19 [1.84-2.61], AN 1.78 [1.36-2.33], OED 2.65 [2.20-3.21]). We also meta-analyzed the results: AED 2.07 (1.88-2.28), AN 1.68 (1.44-1.95), OED 2.44 (2.17-2.72). There was an increased risk of receiving an eating disorder diagnosis in full siblings in the Swedish cohort (AED 1.25 [1.07-1.46], AN 1.28 [1.04-1.57], OED 1.28 [1.07-1.52]); these results were nonsignificant in the Danish cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with type 1 diabetes are at a higher risk of subsequent eating disorders; however, there is conflicting support for the relationship between having a sibling with type 1 diabetes and an eating disorder diagnosis. Diabetes health care teams should be vigilant about disordered eating behaviors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate estimation of daily dosage and duration of medication use is essential to pharmacoepidemiological studies using electronic healthcare databases. However, such information is not directly available in many prescription databases, including the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate an algorithm for predicting prescribed daily dosage and treatment duration from free-text prescriptions, and apply the algorithm to ADHD medication prescriptions. METHODS: We developed an algorithm to predict daily dosage from free-text prescriptions using 8000 ADHD medication prescriptions as the training sample, and estimated treatment periods while taking into account several features including titration, stockpiling and non-perfect adherence. The algorithm was implemented to all ADHD medication prescriptions from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register in 2013. A validation sample of 1000 ADHD medication prescriptions, independent of the training sample, was used to assess the accuracy for predicted daily dosage. FINDINGS: In the validation sample, the overall accuracy for predicting daily dosage was 96.8%. Specifically, the natural language processing model (NLP1 and NLP2) have an accuracy of 99.2% and 96.3%, respectively. In an application to ADHD medication prescriptions in 2013, young adult ADHD medication users had the highest probability of discontinuing treatments as compared with other age groups. The daily dose of methylphenidate use increased with age substantially. CONCLUSIONS: The algorithm provides a flexible approach to estimate prescribed daily dosage and treatment duration from free-text prescriptions using register data. The algorithm showed a good performance for predicting daily dosage in external validation. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The structured output of the algorithm could serve as basis for future pharmacoepidemiological studies evaluating utilization, effectiveness, and safety of medication use, which would facilitate evidence-based treatment decision-making.

5.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749704

RESUMO

Importance: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) have been associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring, but the role of familial confounding in these associations is unclear. Objective: To investigate associations of maternal HDP with risks in offspring of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intellectual disability (ID), as well as variation in overall cognitive performance in offspring. Design, Setting, and Participants: This Swedish register-based study used data from a birth cohort divided into 1 085 024 individuals born between 1987 and 1996 and followed up until December 31, 2014, and 285 901 men born between 1982 and 1992 who attended assessments for military conscription, including a cognitive function test. Statistical analysis was performed from April 1, 2019, to June 1, 2020. Exposures: Diagnoses of HDP, which were provided by the Medical Birth Register. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnoses of ASDs, ADHD, and ID were extracted from the National Patient Register. Cognitive function was assessed using written tests and summarized as a single 9-point score. Whole-cohort and within-sibship analyses were performed; the latter accounted for unmeasured familial confounding factors shared by siblings. Results: The study included 1 085 024 individuals (556 912 male participants [51.3%]) born between 1987 and 1996 and 285 901 men born between 1982 and 1992 who attended assessments for military conscription. The prevalence of maternal HDP was 4.0% in the 1987-1996 birth cohort (n = 42 980) and 5.1% in the military conscription cohort (n = 14 515). A total of 15 858 participants received a diagnosis of ASD, 36 852 received a diagnosis of ADHD, and 8454 received a diagnosis of ID. The mean (SD) cognitive score among the men in the conscription cohort was 5.1 (1.9). In whole-cohort analyses with multivariable adjustment, HDP were associated with offspring ASDs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.13-1.31), ADHD (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.05-1.16), and ID (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.27-1.53). Analyses comparing siblings discordant for HDP were less statistically powered but indicated estimates of similar magnitude for ASDs (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.00-1.42) and possibly ADHD (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.95-1.24), but not for ID (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.83-1.29). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were associated with somewhat lower cognitive scores in whole-cohort analysis (mean difference comparing offspring exposed with those unexposed, -0.10; 95% CI, -0.13 to -0.07), but in within-sibship analysis, the association was null (mean difference, 0.00; 95% CI, -0.09 to 0.08). Conclusions and Relevance: The study results suggest that HDP are associated with small increased risks of ASDs and possibly ADHD in offspring, whereas associations with ID and cognitive performance are likely confounded by shared familial (environmental or genetic) factors.

6.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric and somatic problems in young adulthood have been found to be main drivers of costs in individuals with childhood ADHD. However, knowledge of the patterns of healthcare utilization and costs of comorbidities in middle-aged adults with newly diagnosed ADHD is very limited. METHOD: We studied individuals born 1966-1978 (from the Swedish Total Population Register) with newly diagnosed ADHD between the ages of 30-45 years and individuals without ADHD matched on birthdate, birth county, and sex. Healthcare utilization and expenditure for psychiatric and somatic disorders were obtained over four years (two years pre- and post-initial ADHD diagnosis). RESULTS: Middle-aged adults with newly diagnosed ADHD showed higher levels of healthcare utilization and costs (outpatient, inpatient, medications) for psychiatric and somatic comorbidities relative to adults without ADHD, both before and after the initial diagnosis. Females showed greater average group differences across the study period for medication prescriptions than males. Total incremental annual costs per capita were €2478.76 in adults with ADHD relative to those without, and costs were mainly driven by inpatient care. Psychiatric outpatient visits were statistically significantly higher the year before the ADHD diagnosis compared with two years before and after the diagnosis. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the substantial burden of psychiatric and somatic comorbidities in middle-aged adults newly diagnosed with ADHD. Psychiatric outpatient visits peaked in the year leading up to the ADHD diagnosis. Findings further suggested that females with ADHD may seek more treatment for comorbidities than males, which may reflect a general female tendency.

7.
Neuroimage ; 233: 117950, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716159

RESUMO

In present study we aimed to validate the use of image-derived input functions (IDIF) in the kinetic modeling of cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by [15O]H2O PET by comparing with the accepted reference standard arterial input function (AIF). Additional comparisons were made to mean cohort AIF and CBF values acquired by methodologically independent phase-contrast mapping (PCM) MRI. Using hybrid PET/MRI an IDIF was generated by measuring the radiotracer concentration in the internal carotid arteries and correcting for partial volume effects using the intravascular volume measured from MRI-angiograms. Seven patients with carotid steno-occlusive disease and twelve healthy controls were examined at rest, after administration of acetazolamide, and, in the control group, during hyperventilation. Agreement between the techniques was examined by linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Global CBF values modeled using IDIF correlated with values from AIF across perfusion states in both patients (p<10-6, R2=0.82, 95% limits of agreement (LoA)=[-11.3-9.9] ml/100 g/min) and controls (p<10-6, R2=0.87, 95% LoA=[-17.1-13.7] ml/100 g/min). The reproducibility of gCBF using IDIF was identical to AIF (15.8%). Values from IDIF and AIF had equally good correlation to measurements by PCM MRI, R2=0.86 and R2=0.84, (p<10-6), respectively. Mean cohort AIF performed substantially worse than individual IDIFs (p<10-6, R2=0.63, LoA=[-12.8-25.3] ml/100 g/min). In the patient group, use of IDIF provided similar reactivity maps compared to AIF. In conclusion, global CBF values modeled using IDIF correlated with values modeled by AIF and similar perfusion deficits could be established in a patient group.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e210837, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666663

RESUMO

Importance: Recent studies suggest that cesarean delivery (CD) is associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, although they were unable to control for indications for CD or familial confounding beyond full siblings. Objective: To examine the association between CD and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in children. Design, Setting, and Participants: This Swedish register-based cohort study included 1 179 341 term-birth singletons born between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2003, and followed up through December 31, 2013. All individuals were linked to their full siblings, maternal and paternal half siblings, and maternal full cousins. Statistical analyses were performed from September 26, 2019, to January 16, 2021. Exposures: Birth by CD recorded at birth, stratified into planned and intrapartum CD. Main Outcomes and Measures: Registered diagnoses of neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disability, tic disorders, communication disorders, learning disorders, and any neurodevelopmental disorder; and psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depressive disorders, eating disorders, bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, and any psychiatric disorder. Results: Of 1 179 341 individuals, 1 048 838 (533 140 boys [50.8%]) were delivered vaginally, 59 514 (30 138 boys [50.6%]) were delived via planned CD, and 70 989 (39 191 boys [55.2%]) were delivered via intrapartum CD. Mean (SD) age at follow-up was 17.7 (4.1) years for vaginal delivery, 16.6 (4.2) years for planned CD, and 16.8 (4.1) years for intrapartum CD. Compared with vaginal delivery, and after controlling for measured covariates (parental and neonatal characteristics, maternal comorbidities, and pregnancy complications), CD was associated with higher risk in children of any neurodevelopmental disorder (planned CD, hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% CI, 1.13-1.22; intrapartum CD, HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.05-1.14), ADHD (planned CD, HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.12-1.23; intrapartum CD, HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.05-1.15), and intellectual disability (planned CD, HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.14-1.39; intrapartum CD, HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06-1.28). Only planned CD was associated with a higher risk of ASD (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.31), communication disorders (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02-1.28), and learning disorders (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.30). Cesarean delivery was not associated with the remaining disorders. The associations between CD and any neurodevelopmental disorder, ADHD, ASD, and intellectual disability attenuated in full cousins and paternal half siblings, and further attenuated (became nonsignificant) in maternal half siblings and full siblings (risk of any neurodevelopmental disorder in full siblings, planned CD, HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.81-1.06; intrapartum CD, HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.96-1.21). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that the association between CD and increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in the children was most likely explained by unmeasured familial confounding.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247724, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with ADHD are at increased risk for poor occupational outcomes. Educational attainment and psychiatric comorbidity may be important contributing factors for these outcomes, but the role of these factors is not well characterized. This study aimed to investigate the associations between ADHD and occupational outcomes, and to examine the influence of educational attainment, comorbid developmental disorders and intellectual disability on these associations. METHODS: We linked the Swedish population graduating from compulsory school 1998-2008 (N = 1.2 millions) to population-wide register-based data on clinical psychiatric diagnoses and medications, objective annual measures of educational, and occupational outcomes. Individuals were followed for between 6 to 16 years after graduation. RESULTS: Individuals with ADHD had annually on average 17 percent lower income, ratio = 0.83 (95% CI 0.83-0.84), 12.19 (11.89-12.49) more days of unemployment, and a higher likelihood of receiving disability pension, odds-ratio = 19.0 (18.4-19.6), compared to controls. Comorbid diagnoses of intellectual disability and developmental disorder explained most of the association between ADHD and disability pension, while lifetime educational attainment partially explained associations between ADHD and all occupational outcomes. Analyses of occupational trajectories found that income was lower and unemployment elevated relative to controls with the same educational attainment. Higher educational attainment correlated with higher income similarly among individuals with ADHD and controls after accounting for individual background factors. CONCLUSIONS: The occupational burden associated with ADHD is substantial. Comorbid developmental disorders, intellectual disability and educational difficulties (e.g., failing grades) from childhood to adulthood are important factors to consider when designing interventions to improve occupational outcomes in individuals with ADHD.

10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 163, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723211

RESUMO

Individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) have a 2-3-fold higher risk of mortality than the general population. Heritability of mortality in psychiatric disorders has been proposed; however, few have investigated SCZ family history and genetic variation, with all-cause and specific causes of death. We aimed to identify correlates of SCZ mortality using genetic epidemiological and genetic modelling in two samples: a Swedish national population sample and a genotyped subsample. In the Swedish national population sample followed from the first SCZ treatment contact until emigration, death or end of the follow-up, we investigated a standardised measure of SCZ family history. In a subgroup with comprehensive genetic data, we investigated the impact of common and rare genetic variation. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the association between various factors and mortality (all and specific causes). A total of 13727 SCZ cases fulfilled criteria for the population-based analyses (1268 deaths, 9.2%). The genomic subset contained 4991 cases (1353 deaths, 27.1%). Somatic mutations associated with clonal hematopoiesis with unknown drivers were associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.26-2.49). No other heritable measures were associated with all-cause mortality nor with any specific causes of death. Future studies in larger, comparable cohorts are warranted to further understand the association between hereditary measures and mortality in SCZ.

12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675447

RESUMO

To investigate whether physical and cognitive fitness measured in late adolescence was associated with future risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). The cohort included 1,259,485 Swedish men with physical fitness, body mass index (BMI), resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, intelligence quotient (IQ), and stress resilience measured at the age of 17-20 in relation to conscription. Incident cases of PD were ascertained from the Swedish Patient Register. Hazard ratios were estimated from Cox models, after controlling for multiple confounders. We further performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to assess the causality of the associations, using GWAS summary statistics with > 800,000 individuals. During follow-up, we identified 1,034 cases of PD (mean age at diagnosis = 53). Men with an RHR > 100 beats per minute had a higher risk of PD compared to men with an RHR of 60-100 beats per minute (HR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.08-1.99). Men with IQ above the highest tertile had a higher risk of PD compared to men with an IQ below the lowest tertile (HR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.19-1.79). We found no association for physical fitness, BMI, blood pressure, or stress resilience. A causal relationship was suggested by the MR analysis between IQ and PD, but not between RHR and PD. RHR and IQ in late adolescence were associated with a higher risk of PD diagnosed at relatively young age. The association of IQ with PD is likely causal, whereas the association of RHR with PD suggests that altered cardiac autonomic function might start before 20 years of age in PD.

13.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(5): 519-527, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine psychotropic and pain medication use in a population-based cohort of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and compare them with controls from similar backgrounds. METHODS: We assessed Swedish nationwide registers to include all individuals diagnosed with incident TBI between 2006 and 2012 in hospitals or specialist outpatient care. Full siblings never diagnosed with TBI acted as controls. We examined dispensed prescriptions for psychotropic and pain medications for the 12 months before and after the TBI. RESULTS: We identified 239 425 individuals with incident TBI, and 199 658 unaffected sibling controls. In the TBI cohort, 36.6% had collected at least one prescription for a psychotropic or pain medication in the 12 months before the TBI. In the 12 months after, medication use increased to 45.0%, an absolute rate increase of 8.4% (p<0.001). The largest post-TBI increases were found for opioids (from 16.3% to 21.6%, p<0.001), and non-opioid pain medications (from 20.3% to 26.6%, p<0.001). The majority of prescriptions were short-term; 20.6% of those prescribed opioids and 37.3% of those with benzodiazepines collected prescriptions for more than 6 months. Increased odds of any psychotropic or pain medication were associated with individuals before (OR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.59 to 1.65), and after the TBI (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 2.26 to 2.34) as compared with sibling controls, and ORs were consistently increased for all medication classes. CONCLUSION: High rates of psychotropic and pain medications after a TBI suggest that medical follow-up should be routine and review medication use.

14.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 125: 582-591, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582234

RESUMO

Studies have demonstrated an increased risk of accidents and injuries in children, adolescents and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about how accident risk may alter over the lifespan. Additionally, it would be important to know if the most common types of accidents and injuries differ in ADHD patients over different age groups. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence of an ameliorating effect of ADHD medication on accident risk. Lastly, the underlying risk factors and causal mechanisms behind increased accident risk remain unclear. We therefore conducted a systematic review focusing on the above described research questions. Our results suggested that accident/injury type and overall risk changes in ADHD patients over the lifespan. ADHD medication appeared to be similarly effective at reducing accident risk in all age groups. However, studies with direct comparisons of accident/injuries and effects of medication at different age groups or in old age are still missing. Finally, comorbidities associated with ADHD such as substance abuse appear to further increase the accident/injury risk.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Misconceptions about ADHD stigmatize affected people, reduce credibility of providers, and prevent/delay treatment. To challenge misconceptions, we curated findings with strong evidence base. METHODS: We reviewed studies with more than 2000 participants or meta-analyses from five or more studies or 2000 or more participants. We excluded meta-analyses that did not assess publication bias, except for meta-analyses of prevalence. For network meta-analyses we required comparison adjusted funnel plots. We excluded treatment studies with waiting-list or treatment as usual controls. From this literature, we extracted evidence-based assertions about the disorder. RESULTS: We generated 208 empirically supported statements about ADHD. The status of the included statements as empirically supported is approved by 80 authors from 27 countries and 6 continents. The contents of the manuscript are endorsed by 366 people who have read this document and agree with its contents. CONCLUSIONS: Many findings in ADHD are supported by meta-analysis. These allow for firm statements about the nature, course, outcome causes, and treatments for disorders that are useful for reducing misconceptions and stigma.

16.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is linked to psychiatric morbidity, but few studies have assessed general population comparators. We aimed to investigate the risk of psychiatric morbidity and suicide in adult-onset IBD patients. METHODS: Nationwide population-based cohort study in Sweden (1973-2013). We studied the risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide in 69,865 adult-onset IBD patients (ulcerative colitis, UC: n=43,557; Crohn's disease, CD: n=21,245; and IBD-unclassified: n=5063) compared to 3,472,913 general population references and 66,292 siblings. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11 years, we found 7,465 (10.7%) first psychiatric disorders in IBD (incidence rate, IR/1000 person-years 8.4) and 306,911 (9.9%) in the general population (IR 6.6), resulting in 1.8 extra psychiatric morbidity per 100 patients followed-up for 10 years and a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval, 95%CI=1.2-1.3). The highest risk of overall psychiatric morbidity was seen in the first year after IBD diagnosis (HR=1.4, 95%CI=1.2-1.6) and in patients with extraintestinal manifestations (HR=1.6, 95%CI=1.5-1.7). Psychiatric morbidity was more common in all IBD subtypes (HRs 1.3 to 1.5). An increased risk of suicide attempts was observed among all IBD types (HRs=1.2 to 1.4), whereas completed suicide was explicitly associated with CD (HR=1.5) and elderly-onset (diagnosed at the age of >60 years) IBD (HR=1.7). CONCLUSION: Adult-onset IBD was associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts. Psychological follow-up should be provided to patients with IBD, especially those with extraintestinal manifestations and elderly-onset IBD. This follow-up should transpire within the first year after IBD diagnosis.

17.
Elife ; 102021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507148

RESUMO

Twins suffering a co-twin loss at birth have reported feelings of loneliness and grief while it remains unexplored if they suffer increased risk of psychiatric disorders. We contrasted rate of first-onset psychiatric disorders among all Swedish-born twins whose co-twin died within 60 days after birth between 1973 and 2011 (n = 787) to that of 3935 matched unexposed twins, 3935 matched singletons (both matched to the exposed twins by birth year, sex, and birth characteristics), and 880 full siblings of the exposed twins. During a median of 19-year follow-up, exposed twins were at increased risk of first-onset psychiatric disorders (hazard ratio = 1.56, 95%CI 1.30-1.87) compared with unexposed twins. We observed the strongest association for emotional disorders and for psychiatric disorders diagnosed before the age of 25. Comparisons with matched singletons and the twin's full siblings rendered similar results, corroborating an association of loss of a co-twin at birth with subsequent risk of psychiatric disorders.

18.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-7, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441038

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research has consistently shown individuals with mental health conditions are more likely to be prescribed opioid analgesic medications and to engage in heavier utilization. However, it is unclear whether these findings apply to pregnant women. STUDY DESIGN: We explored opioid analgesic prescription in 689,400 pregnancies occurring in Sweden between 2007 and 2013. We investigated prescription patterns across time and type of source clinic for any opioid analgesic and for strong and weak opioid analgesics. We further evaluated the extent to which receipt of opioid analgesic medications was associated with previous mental health diagnoses and prescriptions of other psychoactive medications. RESULTS: The prevalence of pregnant women who filled prescriptions for opioid analgesics (4.5%) was relatively stable across the assessed years. However, among pregnant women who filled opioid analgesic prescriptions, there was a large increase in strong opioid analgesic prescriptions-from 6.1% in 2007 to 17.1% in 2013. The main source of opioid analgesic prescriptions were primary care and obstetrics and gynecology clinics-38.7% of all filled prescriptions originated from primary care providers and 25.3% from obstetrics and gynecology practitioners. Compared to pregnant women who did not fill any opioid analgesic prescriptions, those who did were more likely to have a wide range of preexisting mental health diagnoses (e.g. anxiety disorder odds ratio [OR] = 3.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]:2.98,3.29) and to utilize a wide range of other psychoactive medications (e.g. benzodiazepines OR = 4.26, 95% CI:4.10,4.43). Similarly, those who received strong opioids were more likely to have a wide range of mental health diagnoses and be prescribed a wide range of psychoactive medications compared to those who received weak opioids. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the need for physicians treating pregnant women and women of childbearing age for painful conditions to obtain detailed histories of mental health problems, screen for symptoms of mental health problems, and facilitate integrated care and evidence-based mental health interventions if needed.

19.
J Psychiatr Res ; 135: 189-196, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493948

RESUMO

Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but evidence for specific types of CVD is limited. This population-based, sibling-controlled cohort study investigated the risk of specific CVD in individuals with OCD. Linking data from various Swedish population-based registers, we explored the risk of a range of CVD in a cohort of individuals diagnosed with OCD between 1973 and 2013 (n = 33,561), compared to matched (1:10) unaffected individuals (n = 335,610). Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusting for history of somatic diseases. To control for familial confounders, we analyzed 23,263 clusters of full siblings discordant for OCD. Individuals with psychiatric comorbidities were systematically excluded to assess the impact of these comorbidities. Over an average follow-up time of 27 years, OCD was associated with an increased risk of a broad range of CVD (adjusted HR [aHR] for any CVD = 1.25 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.29]). These associations were strongest for the subtypes venous thrombo-embolism (aHR = 1.48 [95% CI, 1.38-1.58]) and heart failure (aHR = 1.37 [95% CI, 1.28-1.46]). When comparing OCD-exposed individuals with their non-exposed full siblings, results were largely similar. Exclusion of several groups of psychiatric comorbidities resulted in comparable results, albeit attenuated. Individuals with OCD have a moderately increased risk of CVD-related morbidity, independent from history of somatic diseases, familial confounders, and psychiatric comorbidities. The time may be ripe for the development and evaluation of lifestyle interventions to help reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity in OCD.

20.
J Adolesc Health ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478917

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the magnitude of an independent association between bullying victimization and self-harm and suicide attempt in adolescence after adjusting for unmeasured and measured confounding factors. METHODS: Using the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, we examined twins born between 1994 and 1999 (n = 13,852). Twins self-reported bullying victimization at age 15 years and self-harm and suicide attempt at age 18 years. We created a factor score of 13 bullying items, on which self-harm and suicide attempt items were regressed in three models: (1) among unrelated individuals; (2) among co-twins, in which a twin exposed to more bullying was compared with his/her co-twin who was exposed to less; and (3) among co-twins while adjusting for indicators of childhood psychopathology. RESULTS: Among unrelated individuals, a one standard deviation increase in bullying victimization was associated with increased odds for self-harm (odds ratio [OR], 1.29 [95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.36]) and suicide attempt (OR, 1.68 [1.53-1.85]). Among co-twins, the odds attenuated for self-harm (OR, 1.19 [1.09-1.30]) and suicide attempt (OR, 1.39 [1.17-1.66]). Finally, when accounting for childhood psychopathology, there was a 14% (1.04-1.25) and 25% (1.03-1.52) relative increase in odds of self-harm and suicide attempt, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that bullying victimization was uniquely associated with self-harm and suicide attempt over and above the confounding because of unmeasured and measured factors (i.e., familial vulnerability and pre-existing psychopathy). However, magnitudes were small, suggesting that additional interventions and screenings are needed to address suicidality apart from bullying interventions.

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