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1.
Radiother Oncol ; 164: 216-222, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of dose-escalated image guided-intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) in osteosarcoma (OGS), chondrosarcoma (CS) and chordoma (CH) of head and neck (H&N) and pelvis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this prospective non-randomized study, 65 patients of H&N or pelvic OGS (24), CS (7) and CH (34) mandating definitive or post-operative radiotherapy from May 2013 to December 2018 were included. Radiotherapy doses in definitive setting were 72.0 Gy for CH and 70.2 Gy for OGS and CS; while in post-operative setting it was 66.6 Gy and 64.8 Gy respectively (at 1.8 Gy per fraction). RESULTS: Planned doses of radiotherapy could be completed in 61 (93.8%) patients; with grade III or higher acute and late toxicities of 3% and 0% respectively. With a median follow-up of 52 (range 6-92) months, the five-year actuarial local control (LC) rates were 66% in OGS, 38.1% in CS and 75.9% in CH; while cause-specific survival (CSS) rates were 54.7%, 64.3% and 92.2% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in outcomes for patients receiving definitive and post-operative radiotherapy. Locally controlled disease at first follow-up after radiotherapy was associated with improved CSS and OS in CS (p = 0.014) and CH (p < 0.001). Radiotherapy resulted in significant and sustained improvement in Musculoskeletal tumour society (MSTS) score and reduction in pain score. Salvage re-irradiation was feasible in local progression after radiotherapy, with good outcomes and tolerability. CONCLUSION: Dose-escalated IG-IMRT results in good LC & functional improvement with minimal toxicity in OGS, CS and CH.

2.
Front Oncol ; 11: 710585, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568037

RESUMO

Background: Treatment of malignant melanoma has undergone a paradigm shift with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and targeted therapies. However, access to ICI is limited in low-middle income countries (LMICs). Patients and Methods: Histologically confirmed malignant melanoma cases registered from 2013 to 2019 were analysed for pattern of care, safety, and efficacy of systemic therapies (ST). Results: There were 659 patients with a median age of 53 (range 44-63) years; 58.9% were males; 55.2% were mucosal melanomas. Most common primary sites were extremities (36.6%) and anorectum (31.4%). Nearly 10.8% of the metastatic cohort were BRAF mutated. Among 368 non-metastatic patients (172 prior treated, 185 de novo, and 11 unresectable), with a median follow-up of 26 months (0-83 months), median EFS and OS were 29.5 (95% CI: 22-40) and 33.3 (95% CI: 29.5-41.2) months, respectively. In the metastatic cohort, with a median follow up of 24 (0-85) months, the median EFS for BSC was 3.1 (95% CI 1.9-4.8) months versus 3.98 (95% CI 3.2-4.7) months with any ST (HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.52-0.92; P = 0.011). The median OS was 3.9 (95% CI 3.3-6.4) months for BSC alone versus 12.0 (95% CI 10.5-15.1) months in any ST (HR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.28-0.50; P < 0.001). The disease control rate was 51.55%. Commonest grade 3-4 toxicity was anemia with chemotherapy (9.5%) and ICI (8.8%). In multivariate analysis, any ST received had a better prognostic impact in the metastatic cohort. Conclusions: Large real-world data reflects the treatment patterns adopted in LMIC for melanomas and poor access to expensive, standard of care therapies. Other systemic therapies provide meaningful clinical benefit and are worth exploring especially when the standard therapies are challenging to administer.

3.
Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus ; 37(3): 379-385, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267455

RESUMO

Introduction: Primary Mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is a biologically and clinically distinct subset of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We analysed the outcomes of our cohort of PMBCL patients treated with Dose adjusted (DA)-R-EPOCH regimen. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of consecutive PMBCL patients who received chemotherapy consisting of DA-R-EPOCH with filgrastim support. Survival analysis was done using Kaplan-Meier method. All calculations were performed using SPSS version 20 for windows. Results: A total of 43 consecutive suspected PMBCL patients were reviewed for this study, 6 patients were excluded as diagnosis of PMBCL could not be established. All patients except one (97.3%) received 6 cycles of R-DA-EPOCH regimen. Median age of the patients was 27 years (range 15-58). Bulky disease (> 7 cm) was present in 97% patients and 54% patients had extranodal disease. With a median follow up of 40 months, 3-year overall survival was 80.6% (95% CI: 74.0-87.2). The 3-year event free survival was 78.4% (95% CI: 71.6-85.2). There were 6 (16.2%) relapses, 1 (2.7%) primary progression and 7 (23%) deaths. Mediastinal radiotherapy was administered to 17 (45.9%) patients. All the deaths were due to disease progression. Grade III/IV toxicities were seen in 28 (75.7%) patients, febrile neutropenia being the most common one. Conclusions: DA-R-EPOCH regimen is an effective and tolerable regimen in PMBCL patients even with adverse features.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074567

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck (H&N) region is critical in the management of various pediatric malignancies; however, it may result in late toxicity. This comprehensive review from the Pediatric Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (PENTEC) initiative focused on salivary dysfunction and dental abnormalities in survivors who received RT to the H&N region as children. MATERIALS & METHODS: This systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method. RESULTS: Of the 2,164 articles identified through a literature search, 40 were included in a qualitative synthesis and 3 were included in a quantitative synthesis. The dose-toxicity data regarding salivary function demonstrate that a mean parotid dose of 35 to 40 Gy is associated with a risk of acute and chronic grade ≥2 xerostomia of approximately 32% and 13% to 32%, respectively, in patients treated with chemo-radiation therapy. This risk increases with parotid dose; however, rates of xerostomia after lower dose exposure have not been reported. Dental developmental abnormalities are common after RT to the oral cavity. Risk factors include higher radiation dose to the developing teeth and younger age at RT. CONCLUSIONS: This PENTEC task force considers adoption of salivary gland dose constraints from the adult experience to be a reasonable strategy until more data specific to children become available; thus, we recommend limiting the parotid mean dose to ≤26 Gy. The minimum toxic dose for dental developmental abnormalities is unknown, suggesting that the dose to the teeth should be kept as low as possible particularly in younger patients, with special effort to keep doses <20 Gy in patients <4 years old.

5.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(9): e29081, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcome and toxicity data in adolescent-adult Ewing sarcoma (AA-ES) patients are sparse and merits exploration. METHODS: Histopathologically confirmed, nonmetastatic AA-ES patients, who received standard institutional combination chemotherapy regimen (Ewing's family of tumors-2001 [EFT-2001]) comprising of ifosfamide plus etoposide and vincristine, doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide, lasting a total of 12 months between 2013 and 2018, were analyzed for treatment-related toxicities, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: There were 235 patients (primary safety cohort [PSC]) with median age of 23 (15-61) years; 159 (67.7%) were males, 155 (65.9%) had skeletal primary and 114 (48.5%) had extremity tumors. One hundred ninety-six (83.4%) were treatment naïve (primary efficacy cohort [PEC]) and of these 119 (60.7%) had surgery. In PEC, at a median follow-up of 36.4 (interquartile range [IQR] 20-55) months, estimated 3-year EFS and OS were 67.3% (95% CI 60.3-75.1%) and 91.1% (95% CI 86.7-95.7%), respectively. Of these, 158 (80.6%) complying with intended treatment, at a median follow-up of 39 (IQR 26-57) months had an estimated 3-year EFS of 68.2% (95% CI 60.3-76.1%). In multivariable analysis, good prognostic factors included longer symptom(s) duration (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86-0.994), ≥99% necrosis (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.77), and treatment completion (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14-0.74). Among PSC, grade 3-4 toxicities were febrile neutropenia (119, 50.6%), anemia (130, 55.3%), peripheral neuropathy (37, 15.7%), with three (1.3%) chemo-toxic deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes of AA nonmetastatic ES patients treated with EFT-2001 regimen were comparable to those reported by others, with acceptable toxicity. This regimen can be considered a standard of care in AA-ES.

6.
Eur Spine J ; 30(10): 2881-2886, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106943

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Giant cell tumors of sacrum in which surgery could endanger important neural components were treated with short term denosumab, angioembolisation and radiotherapy in different combinations to provide a non-operative function preserving treatment option. METHODS: Between April 2013 and April 2017, 13 sacral GCTs [proximal extent of disease-S1 (10), S2 (2) and S3 (1)] were treated. Age ranged from 20 to 50 years. One patient had loss of bladder control at presentation. Treatment protocol included short term denosumab, angioembolisation and radiotherapy in different combinations. Patients were evaluated every 10-12 weeks. If disease ceased to progress no further treatment was advised. In case of progress, patient was advised additional denosumab and/or angioembolisation and/or radiotherapy till disease stopped progressing. RESULTS: 10 patients have non-progressive disease and are asymptomatic, 2 have non-progressive disease with occasional pain, 1 patient died. Follow-up duration (since final non-progression of disease) ranged from 15 to 54 months (mean 31 months). Total number of angio embolisation sessions ranged from 0 to 12 (mean = 4), total number of denosumab doses ranged from 5 to 16 (mean = 9). Five patients did not receive any radiotherapy, 5 received 50.4 Gy and one patient each received 50.4 + 30 + 12 Gy, 50.4 + 30 Gy and 50.4 + 12 Gy. The patient with loss of bladder control at presentation recovered. There were no other long-term complications. CONCLUSION: This study offers a non-surgical management option that provides good mid-term local control while preserving neurological function in these complex lesions.

7.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol ; 10(2): 185-192, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706630

RESUMO

Purpose: About 30%-35% of nonmetastatic and 60%-80% of metastatic Ewing Sarcoma (ES) will relapse post-treatment and outcomes after relapse continue to be poor over last several decades. Prognostic factors affecting survival after relapse of ES are also not robustly known. We present outcomes using a novel hybrid salvage protocol of four active chemotherapeutic agents in our cohort of patients after relapse of ES. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of all consecutive relapsed ES patients treated with curative intent over 4 years (January 2012 to December 2015). All received 12-cycles of hybrid chemotherapy regimen with surgery/radiotherapy done after first 4 cycles. Event-free survival (EFS)/overall survival (OS) estimates were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimator. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors predicting outcome in relapsed ES. Results: Salvage regimen was given to 53/108 relapsed ES patients with the rest having opted for palliation upfront. Median age of the treated patients was 19 years (range: 4-40); male:female ratio was 2.7:1. Median time to first relapse was 18.8 months (range: 2.2-91). While 41/53 patients (77%) completed salvage therapy, 6 (11.3%) progressed and 6 (11.3%) abandoned treatment. Median follow-up of the study cohort is 31 months (range: 4-81). Of the analyzable cohort (n = 47), 30 (64%) had a second relapse or progression on salvage treatment. At last follow-up, 31 patients had died (including one due to toxicity and rest due to disease) and 16 patients were alive (14 with no active disease and 2 with disease). The 4-year EFS and OS are 28% and 37%, respectively, for the entire cohort. While adolescents and young adult patients (AYA) had a better survival (p-0.041), relapsed ES patients with shorter disease-free interval (DFI) (<24 months) had a poorer survival (p-0.004). The type of relapse (local or metastatic or combined) after primary treatment did not affect outcome after salvage therapy. Conclusions: We have used a novel hybrid chemotherapy protocol using four active agents in relapsed ES, which is well tolerated and shows promising results. Older age (≥15 years) and longer DFI (>24 months) portend better survival post-relapse. In our cohort of relapsed ES, AYAs fared better than others and type of relapse after primary treatment did not affect outcome after salvage therapy.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090916

RESUMO

Purpose: There is lack of consensus on management of adolescent and young adult (AYA) Hodgkin lymphoma with respect to chemotherapy approach (adult or pediatric). Hence we sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine and Dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy in AYA Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients and Methods: It is a retrospective, observational, single-center study. From January 2013 to December 2016, all consecutive patients with AYA (15-25 years, all stages) were analyzed. The primary endpoint of the study was event-free survival (EFS). Secondary endpoints were complete response rates (CR) and overall survival (OS). Results: A total of 220 patients (70% men) with median age 20 years were evaluated. A significant proportion of patients had adverse features such as stage III/IV disease (63%), bulky disease (63%), extranodal involvement (37%), and marrow involvement (22%). After two cycles and end of therapy, 77% patients achieved complete response. Primary progressive disease was seen in 6% patients. With a median follow-up of 2.6 years, 19 (8.6%) patients relapsed, 1 patient developed second malignancy, and 6 patients died. Three-year EFS and OS were 81.3% and 97%, respectively. Bleomycin-induced lung injury was seen in 16% patients. On multivariate analysis stage at presentation, bone marrow involvement, partial response at interim positron emission tomography and International prognosis score (IPS) >3 were predictors of poor EFS. Conclusion: ABVD is an effective and safe regimen in AYA Hodgkin lymphoma. Advanced disease with high IPS (>3) score needs an early escalation approach to escBEACOPP regimen.

9.
Front Mol Biosci ; 7: 205, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102516

RESUMO

Cancer therapy using immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is a promising clinical strategy for patients with multiple types of cancer. The expression of programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), an immune-suppressor ligand, in cancer cells is a factor that influences the efficacy of ICI therapy, particularly in the anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 antibody therapy. PD-L1 expression in cancer cells are associated with tumor mutation burden including microsatellite instability because the accumulation of mutations in the cancer genome can produce abnormal proteins via mutant mRNAs, resulting in neoantigen production and HLA-neoantigen complex presentation in cancer cells. HLA-neoantigen presentation promotes immune activity within tumor environment; therefore, known as hot tumor. Thus, as the fidelity of DNA repair affects the generation of genomic mutations, the status of DNA repair and signaling in cancer cells can be considered prior to ICI therapy. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and The Cancer Immunome Atlas (TCIA) database analysis showed that tumor samples harboring mutations in any non-homologous end joining, homologous recombination, or DNA damage signaling genes exhibit high neoantigen levels. Alternatively, an urgent task is to understand how the DNA damage-associated cancer treatments change the status of immune activity in patients because multiple clinical trials on combination therapy are ongoing. Recent studies demonstrated that multiple pathways regulate PD-L1 expression in cancer cells. Here, we summarize the regulation of the immune response to ICI therapy, including PD-L1 expression, and also discuss the potential strategies to improve the efficacy of ICI therapy for poor responders from the viewpoint of DNA damage response before or after DNA damage-associated cancer treatment.

10.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 49: 151625, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932018

RESUMO

To analyze clinicopathological features, including treatment profile of 34 cases of Ewing sarcomas with epithelial differentiation, including 6 cases with adamantinoma-like features. EWSR1 gene rearrangement was tested by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Thirty-four tumors occurred in 19 males and 15 females (M:F = 1.26:1), with age ranging from 7 to 61 years (average = 24.2); in extremities (17), pelvis (5), paraspinal region (6), head and neck region (3), abdomen (2) and lung (1). Prior to molecular testing, 20/34(58.8%) cases were unequivocally diagnosed as Ewing sarcomas. Histopathologically, the most commonly observed pattern was nesting-type, comprising malignant round cells, including adamantinoma-like features, seen in 6 tumors. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were diffusely positive (cytoplasmic membranous staining) for CD99/MIC2 (34/34), Fli1 (30/30); focally for synaptophysin (4/16) (25%); variably positive for AE1/AE3(31/32)(96.8%), including diffuse immunoexpression in 4 cases; EMA(6/8) and p40(3/8). All 34 (100%) tumors, tested for EWSR1 rearrangement, displayed positive results. According to the treatment details (available in 24/34 cases, 70.5%), most patients (13/24)(54.1%) were treated with surgical resection and a specific chemotherapy(CT) regimen (neoadjuvant or adjuvant settings), including 7 patients, who received adjuvant radiotherapy. During follow-up (16 cases, 47%), 5 patients developed recurrences and 8 developed metastasis, including a single, who developed recurrence. Finally, 10 patients were alive-with-disease (2-22 months); 6 free-of-disease (5-36 months). This constitutes one of the largest documentation of these rare tumors from our subcontinent, which are diagnostically challenging; require molecular confirmation and associated with treatment implications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Sarcoma de Ewing/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína EWS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Sarcoma de Ewing/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 61(13): 3217-3225, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729791

RESUMO

Indian studies on EBV in childhood classic Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL) have mainly analyzed the epidemiology of EBV-positive [EBV(+)HL] or negative HL [EBV(-)HL], with limited data on outcomes. We studied a large cohort of children with intermediate and high-Risk cHL for tumor EBV status and its impact on outcomes retrospectively. Of evaluable 189 patients, 84.7% had EBV(+)HL. Positive status was significantly associated with age ≤ 10 years (p < .001), males (p = .015), non-Nodular Sclerosis (NS) histology (p = .004) and inversely with bulky-mediastinal disease (p < .001). At a median follow-up of 29-months (range1-75), 3-year Event-Free Survival (EFS) for EBV(+)HL and EBV(-)HL was 93.6%(95%CI:89.8%-97.5%), 81.1%(95%CI:67.2%-97.9%), (p = .048) and Overall Survival (OS) was 94.9%(95%CI:91.6%-98.4%), 84.6%(95%CI:71.5%-100%), (p = .075) respectively. Three-year EFS was better in males (HR-0.267,95%CI:0.078-0.916, p = .036) in EBV(+)HL and in patients with serum-albumin > 3g/dL (HR-0.117,95%CI:0.019-0.705, p = .019) in EBV(-)HL. EBV is associated with most of intermediate and high-risk childhood cHL, occurs in younger male patients with non-NS histology, with reduced incidence of bulky-mediastinal disease and favorable survival in childhood cHL.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Doença de Hodgkin , Criança , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Doença de Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Doença de Hodgkin/terapia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(11): e28604, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of Ewing sarcoma has improved cure rates, with contemporary dose-dense chemotherapy attaining 5-year event-free survival (EFS) of 73% in localized cases. Dose-intense and dose-dense chemotherapy is difficult in the majority of resource-limited settings with limited access to optimal supportive care. We report on patients with Ewing sarcoma treated on EFT-2001, a nondose-dense chemotherapy protocol. PROCEDURE: A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients (<15 years) with Ewing sarcoma treated with curative intent during January 2013-June 2017 with an institutional ethics committee-approved nondose-dense protocol (EFT-2001). Local therapy was planned after 9-12 weeks of chemotherapy with metastatic sites addressed with radiotherapy. The study assessed outcomes and prognostic factors. RESULTS: We analysed 200 patients with M:F ratio of 1.27:1 and metastases in 41 patients (20.5%). At a median follow up of 41.5 months (range 4.5-81.8 months), respective 3-year EFS and overall survival (OS) of the whole cohort is 65.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 58.1-71.7%) and 79.3% (95% CI: 72.8-84.5%); for localized and metastatic cohort, 70.9% (95% CI: 62.9-77.5%) and 82.8% (95% CI: 75.7-89.0%); and for metastatic cohort, 42.8% (95% CI: 28.0-58.6%) and 65.3% (95% CI: 47.7-78.3%). Presence of residual disease (morphologic/metabolic) on positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan done 3 months post definitive radiotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] 7.92 [95% CI: 3.46-18.14]) and delay in any form of local control >4 months (HR 3.42 [95% CI: 1.32-8.89]) affected outcomes. Nonrelapse mortality during treatment was 6.5%, mainly due to cardiomyopathy (3.0%) and bacterial sepsis (1.5%). Cardiotoxicity was seen in 11.5% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Nondose-dense chemotherapy provides good outcomes with manageable toxicities in a multidisciplinary treatment approach, while reducing cumulative drug exposures in the developing world where dose-intense or dose-dense chemotherapy could potentially increase toxicity, and hence seems a feasible approach in resource-limited settings. Presence of any residual disease post definitive radiotherapy or delay in local control portends poor outcome.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Sarcoma de Ewing/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma de Ewing/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma de Ewing/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Indian J Cancer ; 57(3): 262-266, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594075

RESUMO

Background: The management of T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) in adults poses uncertainties, including optimal chemotherapy regimen, need for radiotherapy, and the benefit of stem cell transplant. This retrospective case series investigated the efficacy of the pediatric BFM-90 regimen in adult patients and evaluated the role of early response assessment by positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET-CT) in predicting outcomes. Methods: Patients aged 15 years or older with T-LBL diagnosed at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India were given chemotherapy according to the European BFM-90 protocol (n = 38). The patients were evaluated for early response by interim PET-CT, post-induction and monitored for toxicity and long-term outcomes. Results: Thirty-eight consecutive patients (median age 23.5 years) were analyzed. After a median follow-up of 33.5 (1-77) months, following induction, 35 out of 38 patients (92.1%) had achieved complete response (CR) on PET-CT. Thirty (78.9%) patients treated according to BFM-90 were alive in first remission. Three-year event-free survival for those with CR on PET-CT was 78%, against no survivors for those who remained PET-positive. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility and efficacy of BFM-90 approach in adults with T-LBL. We found an early PET response to be highly predictive of outcome.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Neurol India ; 68(2): 489-492, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415033

RESUMO

Intracranial Rosai-Dorfman Destombes (RDD) disease is a rare entity. Lesions can lead to cranial nerve palsies and visual loss, especially in suprasellar location. Resection is considered to be definitive treatment; however, complete excision is difficult to achieve in view of the close proximity of critical structures. Radiotherapy (RT) is sometimes used for refractory or progressive disease for local tumor control and amelioration of symptoms. We report two patients with suprasellar RDD's with progressive symptoms treated with conformal RT after subtotal excision. These patients were treated with high precision conformal techniques to a dose of 45 Gy with significant and durable improvement in vision.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/radioterapia , Histiocitose Sinusal/radioterapia , Radioterapia Conformacional , Adulto , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/patologia , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Histiocitose Sinusal/diagnóstico por imagem , Histiocitose Sinusal/patologia , Histiocitose Sinusal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia
15.
Mol Cancer Res ; 18(4): 657-668, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996468

RESUMO

Immune dysfunction is critical in pathogenesis of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Few studies have reported abnormal cytokine profile and dysregulated T-cell functions during the onset and progression of certain types of lymphoma. However, the presence of IL9-producing Th9 cells and their role in tumor cell metabolism and survival remain unexplored. With this clinical study, we performed multidimensional blood endotyping of CTCL patients before and after standard photo/chemotherapy and revealed distinct immune hallmarks of the disease. Importantly, there was a higher frequency of "skin homing" Th9 cells in CTCL patients with early (T1 and T2) and advanced-stage disease (T3 and T4). However, advanced-stage CTCL patients had severely impaired frequency of skin-homing Th1 and Th17 cells, indicating attenuated immunity. Treatment of CTCL patients with standard photo/chemotherapy decreased the skin-homing Th9 cells and increased the Th1 and Th17 cells. Interestingly, T cells of CTCL patients express IL9 receptor (IL9R), and there was negligible IL9R expression on T cells of healthy donors. Mechanistically, IL9/IL9R interaction on CD3+ T cells of CTCL patients and Jurkat cells reduced oxidative stress, lactic acidosis, and apoptosis and ultimately increased their survival. In conclusion, coexpression of IL9 and IL9R on T cells in CTCL patients indicates the autocrine-positive feedback loop of Th9 axis in promoting the survival of malignant T cells by reducing the oxidative stress. IMPLICATIONS: The critical role of Th9 axis in CTCL pathogenesis indicates that strategies targeting Th9 cells might harbor significant potential in developing robust CTCL therapy.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Interleucina-9/metabolismo , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo
16.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(2): e28058, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has excellent survival rates, but late effects are an issue and dictate modern approaches. We analyzed the clinical profile and outcome of cHL treated on a risk-adapted approach aimed at reducing late effects while improving historical outcomes at our center. PROCEDURE: Children (≤15 years) consecutively treated for cHL from January 2013 through December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. 18 FDG-PET-CT-based staging and response assessment was done after two cycles for early response (ERA) and end of chemotherapy (late-response assessment [LRA]) if not in complete response (CR; Deauville < 4) at ERA. Stages IA/IB/IIA were low risk (LR) and received two cycles of ABVD (adriamycin/bleomycin/vinblastine/dacarbazine). Stages IAX/IBX/IIAX/IIB/IIIA were intermediate risk (IR), and stages IIBE/IIBX/IIIAE/IIIAX/IIIB/IVA/IVB were high risk (HR). Both received two cycles of OEPA (oncocristine/etoposide/prednisolone/adriamycin). Those in ERA-CR received two cycles of ABVD if LR, and two and four cycles of COPDac (cyclophosphamide/oncocristine/prednisolone/dacarbazine), respectively, for IR and HR. Involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) was given to bulky sites and ERA < CR. Those at LRA < CR (Deauville < 3) or progression at any stage received salvage regimens. RESULTS: In the study period, 126 patients were identified who received the above protocol. There were 12 LR, and 114 advanced staged Hodgkin lymphoma (AHL) (18, IR; 96, HR) of which 91 (79.8%) had bulky sites. Eight (66.6%) LR and 93 (83%) AHL patients achieved ERA-CRs. IFRT was given to 4 (33.3%) LR patients with ERA < CR, and 92 (80.7%) of AHL (91 bulky sites; 1 ERA < CR). At a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 17-62), three-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were both 100% for LR, and 94.4% (95% CI, 66.0%-99.2%) for IR, whereas for HR it was 90.3% (95% CI, 82.2%-94.8%) and 92.6% (95% CI, 85.2%-96.4%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Children with HL have favorable outcomes with manageable toxicities when treated on a risk-stratified and adapted approach. A high proportion of AHL have bulky disease necessitating IFRT, a concern that will have to be factored in future strategies.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Doença de Hodgkin/mortalidade , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Oncol Rep ; 42(6): 2293-2302, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578593

RESUMO

Ribosomes are important cellular components that maintain cellular homeostasis through overall protein synthesis. The nucleolus is a prominent subnuclear structure that contains ribosomal DNA (rDNA) encoding ribosomal RNA (rRNA), an essential component of ribosomes. Despite the significant role of the rDNA­rRNA­ribosome axis in cellular homeostasis, the stability of rDNA in the context of the DNA damage response has not been fully investigated. In the present study, the number and morphological changes of nucleolin, a marker of the nucleolus, were examined following ionizing radiation (IR) in order to investigate the impact of DNA damage on nucleolar stability. An increase in the number of nucleoli per cell was found in HCT116 and U2OS cells following IR. Interestingly, the IR­dependent increase in nucleolar fragmentation was enhanced by p53 deficiency. In addition, the morphological analysis revealed several distinct types of nucleolar fragmentation following IR. The pattern of nucleolar morphology differed between HCT116 and U2OS cells, and the p53 deficiency altered the pattern of nucleolar morphology. Finally, a significant decrease in rRNA synthesis was observed in HCT116 p53­/­ cells following IR, suggesting that severe nucleolar fragmentation downregulates rRNA transcription. The findings of the present study suggest that p53 plays a key role in protecting the transcriptional activity of rDNA in response to DNA damage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Nucléolo Celular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Osteossarcoma/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/deficiência , Apoptose , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Nucléolo Celular/genética , Nucléolo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Dano ao DNA , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Humanos , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Fosfoproteínas/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Radiação Ionizante , Transcrição Genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
18.
Phys Med ; 64: 166-173, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515016

RESUMO

Amongst the scientific frameworks powered by the Monte Carlo (MC) toolkit Geant4 (Agostinelli et al., 2003), the TOPAS (Tool for Particle Simulation) (Perl et al., 2012) is one. TOPAS focuses on providing ease of use, and has significant implementation in the radiation oncology space at present. TOPAS functionality extends across the full capacity of Geant4, is freely available to non-profit users, and is being extended into radiobiology via TOPAS-nBIO (Ramos-Mendez et al., 2018). A current "grand problem" in cancer therapy is to convert the dose of treatment from physical dose to biological dose, optimized ultimately to the individual context of administration of treatment. Biology MC calculations are some of the most complex and require significant computational resources. In order to enhance TOPAS's ability to become a critical tool to explore the definition and application of biological dose in radiation therapy, we chose to explore the use of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips to speedup the Geant4 calculations at the heart of TOPAS, because this approach called "Reconfigurable Computing" (RC), has proven able to produce significant (around 90x) (Sajish et al., 2012) speed increases in scientific computing. Here, we describe initial steps to port Geant4 and TOPAS to be used on FPGA. We provide performance analysis of the current TOPAS/Geant4 code from an RC implementation perspective. Baseline benchmarks are presented. Achievable performance figures of the subsections of the code on optimal hardware are presented; Aspects of practical implementation of "Monte Carlo on a chip" are also discussed.


Assuntos
Método de Monte Carlo , Radiobiologia/instrumentação , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66 Suppl 3: e27815, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The availability of robust, equivalent data regarding outcomes for upfront or delayed surgery for renal tumors in children leads to a dilemma in selecting the initial treatment. Imaging criteria associated with the probability of rupture or incomplete resection may provide a more objective assessment for customization for the timing of surgery. PROCEDURE: Eighty-three children with unilateral, nonmetastatic renal tumors were enrolled between January 2012 and April 2018. Upfront nephrectomy was performed in the absence or delayed surgery (after a biopsy and chemotherapy) in the presence of one or more imaging-based high-risk features, including perinephric spread or adjacent organ infiltration, tumors crossing the midline, intravascular thrombus, and extensive adenopathy. Post hoc analysis for interobserver concordance for high-risk imaging features was also performed. RESULTS: The upfront surgery group (19) had predominantly stage I or II diseases (89%) and the histological types were Wilms (13), non-Wilms (5) renal tumor, and an inflammatory lesion. The delayed surgery group had 60% with stage I or II diseases and the histological types were Wilms (60) and non-Wilms (4) tumor. In addition, high-risk pathology was identified in nine patients. Overall, 27 patients with Wilms tumors required radiotherapy and anthracycline because of stage III disease, including one in the immediate surgery group. The event-free and overall survival (OS) at a median follow-up of 39 months for Wilms tumor are 88% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 78.5-94.9%) and 89% (95% CI: 81.4-96.6%), 85.1% (95% CI: 73.8-93.4%) and 86.5% (95% CI: 77.4-95.8%) for the delayed, and 100% event-free survival as well as OS (P = .1) in the upfront surgery group. CONCLUSION: A customized approach pivoted on image-based high-risk features facilitates identification of patients with early-stage renal tumor when the timing of surgery is tailored. Moreover, non-Wilms tumor and high-risk pathology are also identified.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Nefrectomia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tumor de Wilms/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Tumor de Wilms/diagnóstico por imagem , Tumor de Wilms/patologia
20.
Indian J Cancer ; 55(1): 9-15, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30147087

RESUMO

Introduction: There is paucity of data from India about the outcomes of patients with various hematological malignancies. Since its formation in 2009, the adult hematolymphoid disease management group of the Tata Memorial Centre is dedicated to the treatment of hematological malignancies alone. In this report, we present the outcomes of patients treated at our centre over a 5 year period for various haematological malignancies in both transplant and non-transplant setting. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of all patients registered in adult hematolymphoid disease management group between 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2014. Patients not treated at our centre were excluded from survival analysis. The cut off date for survival analysis was 31st January 2016. Results: Overall, 1869, 3633 and 544 patients with acute leukemias, various lymphomas and myeloma respectively were registered at our centre from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2014. Of these, 1178 (63%), 3091 (85%) and 454 (83%) respectively received treatment at our centre. The cumulative probability of 5 year overall survival for patients with acute leukemias, Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and myeloma treated at our centre is 40%, 85%, 78% and 40% respectively. Four hundred and fifteen stem cell transplants were done between 14th November 2007 to 31st December 2014 with 46% being allogeneic and 54% being autologous. The 5 year overall survival of patients with allogenic and autologous transplant was 52% and 63% respectively. Conclusions: This is the largest single centre data on outcomes of various haematological malignancies from India. This real world data identifies areas which need further attention to improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Transplante Autólogo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Doença de Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Doença de Hodgkin/terapia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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