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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 5199-5211, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733745

RESUMO

Guaiacyl acetone (GA) is a phenolic carbonyl emitted in significant quantities by wood combustion that undergoes rapid aqueous-phase oxidation to produce aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA). We investigate the photosensitized oxidation of GA by an organic triplet excited state (3C*) and the formation and aging of the resulting aqSOA in wood smoke-influenced fog/cloud water. The chemical transformations of the aqSOA were characterized in situ using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. Additionally, aqSOA samples collected over different time periods were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector and a high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer (HPLC-PDA-HRMS) to provide details on the molecular composition and optical properties of brown carbon (BrC) chromophores. Our results show efficient formation of aqSOA from GA, with an average mass yield around 80%. The composition and BrC properties of the aqSOA changed significantly over the course of reaction. Three generations of aqSOA products were identified via positive matrix factorization analysis of the aerosol mass spectrometry data. Oligomerization and functionalization dominated the production of the first-generation aqSOA, whereas fragmentation and ring-opening reactions controlled the formation of more oxidized second- and third-generation products. Significant formation of BrC was observed in the early stages of the photoreaction, while organic acids were produced throughout the experiment. High-molecular weight molecules (m/z > 180) with high aromaticity were identified via HPLC-PDA-HRMS and were found to account for a majority of the UV-vis absorption of the aqSOA.


Assuntos
Evolução Química , Madeira , Aerossóis , Carbono , Água
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(5): 2878-2889, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596062

RESUMO

Nighttime oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) by nitrate radicals (NO3·) represents one of the most important interactions between anthropogenic and natural emissions, leading to substantial secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The direct climatic effect of such SOA cannot be quantified because its optical properties and atmospheric fate are poorly understood. In this study, we generated SOA from the NO3· oxidation of a series BVOCs including isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. The SOA were subjected to comprehensive online and offline chemical composition analysis using high-resolution mass spectrometry and optical properties measurements using a novel broadband (315-650 nm) cavity-enhanced spectrometer, which covers the wavelength range needed to understand the potential contribution of the SOA to direct radiative forcing. The SOA contained a significant fraction of oxygenated organic nitrates (ONs), consisting of monomers and oligomers that are responsible for the detected light absorption in the 315-400 nm range. The SOA created from ß-pinene and α-humulene was further photochemically aged in an oxidation flow reactor. The SOA has an atmospheric photochemical bleaching lifetime of >6.2 h, indicating that some of the ONs in the SOA may serve as atmosphere-stable nitrogen oxide sinks or reservoirs and will absorb and scatter incoming solar radiation during the daytime.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Monoterpenos , Nitratos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(4): 2511-2521, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499599

RESUMO

This study provides molecular insights into the light absorption properties of biomass burning (BB) brown carbon (BrC) through the chemical characterization of tar condensates generated from heated wood pellets at oxidative and pyrolysis conditions. Both liquid tar condensates separated into "darker oily" and "lighter aqueous" immiscible phases. The molecular composition of these samples was investigated using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector and a high-resolution mass spectrometer. The results revealed two sets of BrC chromophores: (1) common to all four samples and (2) specific to the "oily" fractions. The common BrC chromophores consist of polar, monoaromatic species. The oil-specific BrC chromophores include less-polar and nonpolar polyaromatic compounds. The most-light-absorbing pyrolysis oily phase (PO) was aerosolized and size-separated using a cascade impactor to compare the composition and optical properties of the bulk versus the aerosolized BrC. The mass absorption coefficient (MAC300-500 nm) of aerosolized PO increased compared to that of the bulk, due to gas-phase partitioning of more volatile and less absorbing chromophores. The optical properties of the aerosolized PO were consistent with previously reported ambient BB BrC measurements. These results suggest the darkening of atmospheric BrC following non-reactive evaporation that transforms the optical properties and composition of aged BrC aerosols.


Assuntos
Carbono , Madeira , Aerossóis , Biomassa , Água
4.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143586, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218800

RESUMO

Environmental implications of climate change are complex and exhibit regional variations both within and between the polar regions. The increase of solar UV radiation flux over Antarctica due to stratospheric ozone depletion creates the optimal conditions for photochemical reactions on the snow. Modeling, laboratory, and indirect field studies suggest that snowpack process release gases to the atmosphere that can react on sea salt particles in remote regions such as Antarctica, modifying aerosol composition and physical properties of aerosols. Here, we present evidence of photochemical processing in West Antarctica aerosols using microscopic and chemical speciation of individual atmospheric particles. Individual aerosol particles collected at the Brazilian module Criosfera 1 were analyzed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) combined with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. The displacement of chlorine relative to sodium was observed over most of the sea salt particles. Particles with a chemical composition consistent with NaCl-NO3 contributed up to 30% of atmospheric particles investigated. Overall, this study provides evidence that the snowpack and particulate nitrate photolysis should be considered in dynamic partition equilibrium in the troposphere. These findings may assist in reducing modeling uncertainties and present new insights into the aerosol chemical composition in the polar environment.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115906, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120333

RESUMO

Fluorescence spectroscopy is a commonly used technique to analyze dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments. Given the high sensitivity and non-destructive analysis, fluorescence has recently been used to study water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in atmospheric aerosols, which have substantial abundance, various sources and play an important role in climate change. Yet, current research on WSOC characterization is rather sparse and limited to a few isolated sites, making it challenging to draw fundamental and mechanistic conclusions. Here we presented a review of the fluorescence properties of atmospheric WSOC reported in various field and laboratory studies, to discuss the current advances and limitations of fluorescence applications. We highlighted that photochemical reactions and relevant aging processes have profound impacts on fluorescence properties of atmospheric WSOC, which were previously unnoticed for organic matter in aquatic environments. Furthermore, we discussed the differences in sources and chemical compositions of fluorescent components between the atmosphere and hydrosphere. We concluded that the commonly used fluorescence characteristics derived from aquatic environments may not be applicable as references for atmospheric WSOC. We emphasized that there is a need for more systematic studies on the fluorescence properties of atmospheric WSOC and to establish a more robust reference and dataset for fluorescence studies in atmosphere based on extensive source-specific experiments.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(19): 11827-11837, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870663

RESUMO

Transformations of biomass burning brown carbon aerosols (BB-BrC) over their diurnal lifecycle are currently not well studied. In this study, the aging of BB tar proxy aerosols processed by NO3• under dark conditions followed by the photochemical OH• reaction and photolysis were investigated in tandem flow reactors. The results show that O3 oxidation in the dark diminishes light absorption of wood tar aerosols, resulting in higher particle single-scattering albedo (SSA). NO3• reactions augment the mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of the aerosols by a factor of 2-3 by forming secondary chromophores, such as nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) and organonitrates. Subsequent OH• oxidation and direct photolysis both decompose the organic nitrates (ONs, representing bulk functionalities of NACs and organonitrates) in the NO3•-aged wood tar aerosols, thus decreasing particle absorption. Moreover, NACs degrade faster than organonitrates by photochemical aging. The NO3•-aged wood tar aerosols are more susceptible to photolysis than to OH• reactions. The photolysis lifetimes for the ONs and for the absorbance of the NO3•-aged aerosols are on the order of hours under typical solar irradiation, while the absorption and ON lifetimes toward OH• oxidation are substantially longer. Overall, nighttime aging via NO3• reactions increases the light absorption of wood tar aerosols and shortens their absorption lifetime under daytime conditions.

7.
ACS Cent Sci ; 6(5): 684-694, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490185

RESUMO

Inland sources of particulate chloride for atmospheric nitryl chloride (ClNO2) formation remain unknown and unquantified, hindering air quality assessments. Globally each winter, tens of millions of tons of road salt are spread on roadways for deicing. Here, we identify road salt aerosol as the primary chloride aerosol source, accounting for 80-100% of ClNO2 formation, at an inland urban area in the wintertime. This study provides experimental evidence of the connection between road salt and air quality through the production of this important reservoir for nitrogen oxides and chlorine radicals, which significantly impact atmospheric composition and pollutant fates. A numerical model was employed to quantify the contributions of chloride sources to ClNO2 production. The traditional method for simulating ClNO2 considers chloride to be homogeneously distributed across the atmospheric particle population; yet, we show that only a fraction of the particulate surface area contains chloride. Our new single-particle parametrization considers this heterogeneity, dramatically lowering overestimations of ClNO2 levels that have been routinely reported using the prevailing methods. The identification of road salt as a ClNO2 source links this common deicing practice to atmospheric composition and air quality in the urban wintertime environment.

8.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 22(5): 1201-1213, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083622

RESUMO

The Arctic is rapidly transforming due to sea ice loss, increasing shipping activity, and oil and gas development. Associated marine and combustion emissions influence atmospheric aerosol composition, impacting complex aerosol-cloud-climate feedbacks. To improve understanding of the sources and processes determining Arctic aerosol composition, atmospheric particles were collected aboard the Korean icebreaker R/V Araon cruising within the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea during August 2016. Offline analyses of individual particles by microspectroscopic techniques, including scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy with infrared spectroscopy, provided information on particle size, morphology, and chemical composition. The most commonly observed particle types were sea spray aerosol (SSA), comprising ∼60-90%, by number, of supermicron particles, and organic aerosol (OA), comprising ∼50-90%, by number, of submicron particles. Sulfate and nitrate were internally mixed within both SSA and OA particles, consistent with particle multiphase reactions during atmospheric transport. Within the Bering Strait, SSA and OA particles were more aged, with greater number fractions of particles containing sulfate and/or nitrate, compared to particles collected over the Chukchi Sea. This is indicative of greater pollution influence within the Bering Strait from coastal and inland sources, while the Chukchi Sea is primarily influenced by marine sources.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Camada de Gelo , Nitratos , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Regiões Árticas , Tamanho da Partícula
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(5): 2595-2605, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994876

RESUMO

The diffusivity of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the bulk particle phase of a viscous atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can have a profound impact on aerosol growth and size distribution dynamics. Here, we investigate the bulk diffusivity of SVOCs formed from photo-oxidation of isoprene as they partition to a bimodal aerosol consisting of an Aitken (potassium sulfate) and accumulation mode (aged α-pinene SOA) particles as a function of relative humidity (RH). The model analysis of the observed size distribution evolution shows that liquid-like diffusion coefficient values of Db > 10-10 cm2 s-1 fail to explain the growth of the Aitken mode. Instead, much lower values of Db between 2.5 × 10-15 cm2 s-1 at 32% RH and 8 × 10-15 cm2 s-1 at 82% RH were needed to successfully reproduce the growth of both modes. The diffusivity within the aged α-pinene SOA remains appreciably slow even at 80% RH, resulting in hindered partitioning of SVOCs to large viscous particles and allowing smaller and relatively less viscous particles to effectively absorb the available SVOCs and grow much faster than would be possible otherwise. These results have important implications for modeling SOA formation and growth in the ambient atmosphere.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Orgânicos , Aerossóis , Atmosfera , Difusão , Monoterpenos
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1395-1405, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730747

RESUMO

Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is an important contributor to the radiative forcing of climate by organic aerosols. Because of the molecular diversity of BrC compounds and their dynamic transformations, it is challenging to predictively understand BrC optical properties. OH radical and O3 reactions, together with photolysis, lead to diminished light absorption and lower warming effects of biomass burning BrC. The effects of night-time aging on the optical properties of BrC aerosols are less known. To address this knowledge gap, night-time NO3 radical chemistry with tar aerosols from wood pyrolysis was investigated in a flow reactor. This study shows that the optical properties of BrC change because of transformations driven by reactions with the NO3 radical that form new absorbing species and lead to significant absorption enhancement over the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) range. The overnight aging increases the mass absorption coefficients of the BrC by a factor of 1.3-3.2 between 380 nm and 650 nm. Nitrated organic compounds, particularly nitroaromatics, were identified as the main products that contribute to the enhanced light absorption in the secondary BrC. Night-time aging of BrC aerosols represents an important source of secondary BrC and can have a pronounced effect on atmospheric chemistry and air pollution.


Assuntos
Carbono , Compostos Orgânicos , Aerossóis , Biomassa , Madeira
11.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(12): 3419-3431, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714061

RESUMO

Airborne particles are very dynamic and highly reactive components of the Earth's atmosphere. Their high surface area and water content provide a unique reaction environment for multiphase chemistry that continually modifies particle composition and properties that consequently impact air quality as well as concentrations of gas-phase species. By absorbing and scattering solar and terrestrial radiation, particles directly influence the planet's radiative balance. Their indirect effects include modifying the nucleation, lifetime, and physical properties of clouds. Due to the sensitivity of the atmospheric environment to all these variables, fundamental studies of chemical transformations of atmospheric particles, their sources, continuously evolving composition, and physical properties are of highest research priority. Accurate descriptions of particles and their effects in the atmosphere require comprehensive information not only on the particle-type populations and their size distributions and concentrations, but also on the diversity and the spatial heterogeneity of chemical components within individual particles. Developments and applications of modern chemical imaging approaches for off-line characterization of atmospheric particles have been at the forefront of modern experimental studies and have resulted in a transformative impact in atmospheric chemistry and physics. This Account presents a synopsis of recent advances in chemical imaging of atmospheric particles collected on substrates during field and laboratory experiments. The unique advantage of chemical imaging methods is that they simultaneously provide two analytical measurements: imaging of particles to assess variability in their individual sizes and morphology, as well as particle-specific speciation of their composition and spatial heterogeneity of different chemical components within individual particles. We also highlight analytical chemistry approaches that enable chemical imaging of particles with different levels of elemental and molecular specificity, including applications of multimodal methodologies where the same or similar groups of particles are probed by two or more complementary techniques. These approaches provide unique experimental insights on the nature and sources of particles, understanding their physical properties, atmospheric reactivity, and transformations. Chemical imaging data provide unique experimental input for atmospheric models that simulate aging and changes in particle-type populations, internal composition, and their associated optical and cloud forming properties. We highlight applications of chemical imaging in selected recent studies, discuss their existing limitations, and forecast future research directions for this area.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4793, 2018 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451836

RESUMO

In the Amazon basin, particles containing mixed sodium salts are routinely observed and are attributed to marine aerosols transported from the Atlantic Ocean. Using chemical imaging analysis, we show that, during the wet season, fungal spores emitted by the forest biosphere contribute at least 30% (by number) to sodium salt particles in the central Amazon basin. Hydration experiments indicate that sodium content in fungal spores governs their growth factors. Modeling results suggest that fungal spores account for ~69% (31-95%) of the total sodium mass during the wet season and that their fractional contribution increases during nighttime. Contrary to common assumptions that sodium-containing aerosols originate primarily from marine sources, our results suggest that locally-emitted fungal spores contribute substantially to the number and mass of coarse particles containing sodium. Hence, their role in cloud formation and contribution to salt cycles and the terrestrial ecosystem in the Amazon basin warrant further consideration.


Assuntos
Material Particulado/análise , Sódio/análise , Esporos Fúngicos/química , Aerossóis , Brasil , Ecossistema , Floresta Úmida , Estações do Ano
13.
Anal Chem ; 90(21): 12493-12502, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293422

RESUMO

Light-absorbing components of atmospheric organic aerosols, which are collectively termed "brown carbon" (BrC), are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. They affect absorption of solar radiation by aerosols in the atmosphere and human health as some of them have been identified as potential toxins. Understanding the sources, formation, atmospheric evolution, and environmental effects of BrC requires molecular identification and characterization of light-absorption properties of BrC chromophores. Identification of BrC components is challenging due to the complexity of atmospheric aerosols. In this study, we employ two complementary ionization techniques, atmospheric pressure photo ionization (APPI) and electrospray ionization (ESI), to obtain broad coverage of both polar and nonpolar BrC components using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). These techniques are combined with chromatographic separation of BrC compounds with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), characterization of their light absorption with a photodiode array (PDA) detector, and chemical composition with HRMS. We demonstrate that this approach enables more comprehensive characterization of BrC in biomass burning organic aerosols (BBOAs) emitted from test burns of sage brush biofuel. In particular, we found that nonpolar BrC chromophores such as PAHs are only detected using positive mode APPI. Meanwhile, negative mode ESI results in detection of polar compounds such as nitroaromatics, aromatic acids, and phenols. For the BrC material examined in this study, over 40% of the solvent-extractable BrC light absorption is attributed to water insoluble, nonpolar to semipolar compounds such as PAHs and their derivatives, which require APPI for their identification. In contrast, the polar, water-soluble BrC compounds, which are detected in ESI, account for less than 30% of light absorption by BrC.

14.
Anal Chem ; 90(16): 9761-9768, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008222

RESUMO

Environmental transmission electron microscopy was employed to probe transformations in the size, morphology, and composition of individual atmospheric particles as a function of temperature. Two different heating devices were used and calibrated in this work: a furnace heater and a Micro Electro Mechanical System heater. The temperature calibration used sublimation temperatures of NaCl, glucose, and ammonium sulfate particles, and the melting temperature of tin. Volatilization of Suwanee River Fulvic Acid was further used to validate the calibration up to 800 °C. The calibrated furnace holder was used to examine both laboratory-generated secondary organic aerosol particles and field-collected atmospheric particles. Chemical analysis by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge fine-structure spectroscopy of the organic particles at different heating steps showed that above 300 °C particle volatilization was accompanied by charring. These methods were then applied to ambient particles collected in the central Amazon region. Distinct categories of particles differed in their volatilization response to heating. Spherical, more-viscous particles lost less volume during heating than particles that spread on the imaging substrate during impaction, due to either being liquid upon impaction or lower viscosity. This methodology illustrates a new analytical approach to accurately measure the volume fraction remaining for individually tracked atmospheric particles at elevated temperatures.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 956, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511168

RESUMO

The importance of organic aerosol particles in the environment has been long established, influencing cloud formation and lifetime, absorbing and scattering sunlight, affecting atmospheric composition and impacting on human health. Conventionally, ambient organic particles were considered to exist as liquids. Recent observations in field measurements and studies in the laboratory suggest that they may instead exist as highly viscous semi-solids or amorphous glassy solids under certain conditions, with important implications for atmospheric chemistry, climate and air quality. This review explores our understanding of aerosol particle phase, particularly as identified by measurements of the viscosity of organic particles, and the atmospheric implications of phase state.

16.
Anal Chem ; 90(1): 166-189, 2018 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29087178
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(2): 397-405, 2018 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169236

RESUMO

In freshwater lakes, harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that impact human health. However, little is known about the lake spray aerosol (LSA) produced from wave-breaking in freshwater HABs. In this study, LSA were produced in the laboratory from freshwater samples collected from Lake Michigan and Lake Erie during HAB and nonbloom conditions. The incorporation of biological material within the individual HAB-influenced LSA particles was examined by single-particle mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. Freshwater with higher blue-green algae content produced higher number fractions of individual LSA particles that contained biological material, showing that organic molecules of biological origin are incorporated in LSA from HABs. The number fraction of individual LSA particles containing biological material also increased with particle diameter (greater than 0.5 µm), a size dependence that is consistent with previous studies of sea spray aerosol impacted by phytoplankton blooms. Similar to sea spray aerosol, organic carbon markers were most frequently observed in individual LSA particles less than 0.5 µm in diameter. Understanding the transfer of biological material from freshwater to the atmosphere via LSA is crucial for determining health and climate effects of HABs.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Lagos , Aerossóis , Humanos , Michigan , Fitoplâncton
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(3): 1191-1199, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29244949

RESUMO

Low bulk diffusivity inside viscous semisolid atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can prolong equilibration time scale, but its broader impacts on aerosol growth and size distribution dynamics are poorly understood. Here, we present quantitative insights into the effects of bulk diffusivity on the growth and evaporation kinetics of SOA formed under dry conditions from photooxidation of isoprene in the presence of a bimodal aerosol consisting of Aitken (ammonium sulfate) and accumulation (isoprene or α-pinene SOA) mode particles. Aerosol composition measurements and evaporation kinetics indicate that isoprene SOA is composed of several semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), with some reversibly reacting to form oligomers. Model analysis shows that liquid-like bulk diffusivities can be used to fit the observed evaporation kinetics of accumulation mode particles but fail to explain the growth kinetics of bimodal aerosol by significantly under-predicting the evolution of the Aitken mode. In contrast, the semisolid scenario successfully reproduces both evaporation and growth kinetics, with the interpretation that hindered partitioning of SVOCs into large viscous particles effectively promotes the growth of smaller particles that have shorter diffusion time scales. This effect has important implications for the growth of atmospheric ultrafine particles to climatically active sizes.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos , Aerossóis , Difusão , Cinética , Viscosidade
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(19): 11048-11056, 2017 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28858499

RESUMO

Reactions of ammonia or ammonium sulfate (AS) with carbonyls in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced from limonene are known to form brown carbon (BrC) with a distinctive absorption band at 505 nm. This study examined the browning processes in aqueous solutions of AS and 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA), which has a 1,4-dicarbonyl structural motif present in many limonene SOA compounds. Aqueous reactions of 4-OPA with AS were found to produce 2-methyl pyrrole (2-MP), which was detected by gas chromatography. While 2-MP does not absorb visible radiation, it can further react with 4-OPA eventually forming BrC compounds. This was demonstrated by reacting 2-MP with 4-OPA or limonene SOA, both of which produced BrC with absorption bands at 475 and 505 nm, respectively. The formation of BrC in the reaction of 4-OPA with AS and ammonium nitrate was greatly accelerated by evaporation of the solution suggesting an important role of the dehydration processes in BrC formation. 4-OPA was also found to produce BrC in aqueous reactions with a broad spectrum of amino acids and amines. These results suggest that 4-OPA may be the smallest atmospherically relevant compound capable of browning by the same mechanism as limonene SOA.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Cicloexenos , Terpenos , Aldeídos , Cetonas , Limoneno , Pirróis
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(20): 11561-11570, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28759227

RESUMO

Lag Ba'Omer, a nationwide bonfire festival in Israel, was chosen as a case study to investigate the influence of a major biomass burning event on the light absorption properties of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC). The chemical composition and optical properties of BrC chromophores were investigated using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) platform coupled to photo diode array (PDA) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) detectors. Substantial increase of BrC light absorption coefficient was observed during the night-long biomass burning event. Most chromophores observed during the event were attributed to nitroaromatic compounds (NAC), comprising 28 elemental formulas of at least 63 structural isomers. The NAC, in combination, accounted for 50-80% of the total visible light absorption (>400 nm) by solvent extractable BrC. The results highlight that NAC, in particular nitrophenols, are important light absorption contributors of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), suggesting that night time chemistry of •NO3 and N2O5 with particles may play a significant role in atmospheric transformations of BrC. Nitrophenols and related compounds were especially important chromophores of BBOA. The absorption spectra of the BrC chromophores are influenced by the extraction solvent and solution pH, implying that the aerosol acidity is an important factor controlling the light absorption properties of BrC.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Carbono , Biomassa , Israel , Espectrometria de Massas
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