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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767496

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Current guidelines do not sufficiently capture the heterogeneous nature of asthma; a more detailed molecular classification is needed. Metabolomics represents a novel and compelling approach to derive asthma endotypes, i.e., subtypes defined by functional/pathobiological mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To validate metabolomic-driven endotypes of asthma and explore their underlying biology. METHODS: In the Genetics of Asthma in Costa Rica Study (GACRS) untargeted metabolomic profiling, Similarity Network Fusion and spectral clustering was used to identify metabo-endotypes of asthma, and differences in asthma-relevant phenotypes across these metabo-endotypes were explored. The metabo-endotypes were recapitulated in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) and clinical differences determined. Metabolomic drivers of metabo-endotype membership were investigated meta-analyzing findings from GACRS and CAMP. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Five metabo-endotypes were identified in GACRS with significant differences in asthma-relevant phenotypes, including pre-bronchodilator (p-ANOVA=8.3x10-5) and post-bronchodilator (p-ANOVA=1.8x10-5) forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC). These differences were validated in the recapitulated metabo-endotypes in CAMP. Cholesterol esters, trigylcerides and fatty acids were among the most important drivers of metabo-endotype membership. The findings suggest dysregulation of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis may play a role in asthma severity. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically meaningful endotypes may be derived and validated using metabolomic data. Interrogating the drivers of these metabo-endotypes has the potential to help understand their pathophysiology.

2.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824054

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with poorly defined phenotypes. Severe asthmatics often receive multiple treatments including oral corticosteroids (OCS). Treatment may modify the observed metabotype, rendering it challenging to investigate underlying disease mechanisms. Here, we aimed to identify dysregulated metabolic processes in relation to asthma severity and medication. METHODS: Baseline urine was collected prospectively from healthy participants (n=100), mild-to-moderate asthmatics (n=87) and severe asthmatics (n=418) in the cross-sectional U-BIOPRED cohort; 12-18-month longitudinal samples were collected from severe asthmatics (n=305). Metabolomics data were acquired using high-resolution mass spectrometry and analysed using univariate and multivariate methods. RESULTS: Ninety metabolites were identified, with 40 significantly altered (p<0.05, FDR<0.05) in severe asthma and 23 by OCS use. Multivariate modelling showed that observed metabotypes in healthy participants and mild-to-moderate asthmatics differed significantly from severe asthmatics (p=2.6×10-20), OCS-treated asthmatics differed significantly from non-treated (p=9.5×10-4), and longitudinal metabotypes demonstrated temporal stability. Carnitine levels evidenced the strongest OCS-independent decrease in severe asthma. Reduced carnitine levels were associated with mitochondrial dysfunction via decreases in pathway enrichment scores of fatty acid metabolism and reduced expression of the carnitine transporter SLC22A5 in sputum and bronchial brushings. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale study to delineate disease- and OCS-associated metabolic differences in asthma. The widespread associations with different therapies upon the observed metabotypes demonstrate the necessity to evaluate potential modulating effects on a treatment- and metabolite-specific basis. Altered carnitine metabolism is a potentially actionable therapeutic target that is independent of OCS treatment, highlighting the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in severe asthma.

4.
J Pers Med ; 11(11)2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834499

RESUMO

Metabolomic indicators of asthma treatment responses have yet to be identified. In this study, we aimed to uncover plasma metabolomic profiles associated with asthma exacerbations while on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment. We determined whether these profiles change with age from adolescence to adulthood. We utilized data from 170 individuals with asthma on ICS from the Mass General Brigham Biobank to identify plasma metabolites associated with asthma exacerbations while on ICS and examined potential effect modification of metabolite-exacerbation associations by age. We used liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling. Sex-stratified analyses were also performed for the significant associations. The age range of the participating individuals was 13-43 years with a mean age of 33.5 years. Of the 783 endogenous metabolites tested, eight demonstrated significant associations with exacerbation after correction for multiple comparisons and adjusting for potential confounders (Bonferroni p value < 6.2 × 10-4). Potential effect modification by sex was detected for fatty acid metabolites, with males showing a greater reduction in their metabolite levels with ICS exacerbation. Thirty-eight metabolites showed suggestive interactions with age on exacerbation (nominal p-value < 0.05). Our findings demonstrate that plasma metabolomic profiles differ for individuals who experience asthma exacerbations while on ICS. The differentiating metabolites may serve as biomarkers of ICS response and may highlight metabolic pathways underlying ICS response variability.

5.
Thorax ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650005

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The biochemical mechanisms underlying lung function are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: To identify and validate the plasma metabolome of lung function using two independent adult cohorts: discovery-the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk, n=10 460) and validation-the VA Normative Aging Study (NAS) metabolomic cohort (n=437). METHODS: We ran linear regression models for 693 metabolites to identify associations with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), in EPIC-Norfolk then validated significant findings in NAS. Significance in EPIC-Norfolk was denoted using an effective number of tests threshold of 95%; a metabolite was considered validated in NAS if the direction of effect was consistent and p<0.05. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 156 metabolites that associated with FEV1 in EPIC-Norfolk after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, height, smoking and asthma status, 34 (21.8%) validated in NAS, including several metabolites involved in oxidative stress. When restricting the discovery sample to men only, a similar percentage, 18 of 79 significant metabolites (22.8%) were validated. A smaller number of metabolites were validated for FEV1/FVC, 6 of 65 (9.2%) when including all EPIC-Norfolk as the discovery population, and 2 of 34 (5.9%) when restricting to men. These metabolites were characterised by involvement in respiratory track secretants. Interestingly, no metabolites were validated for both FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. CONCLUSIONS: The validation of metabolites associated with respiratory function can help to better understand mechanisms of lung health and may assist the development of biomarkers.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19959, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620889

RESUMO

Electronic health records (EHR) provide an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large, cost-efficient, population-based studies. However, the studies of heterogeneous diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), often require labor-intensive clinical review and testing, limiting widespread use of these important resources. To develop a generalizable and efficient method for accurate identification of large COPD cohorts in EHRs, a COPD datamart was developed from 3420 participants meeting inclusion criteria in the Mass General Brigham Biobank. Training and test sets were selected and labeled with gold-standard COPD classifications obtained from chart review by pulmonologists. Multiple classes of algorithms were built utilizing both structured (e.g. ICD codes) and unstructured (e.g. medical notes) data via elastic net regression. Models explicitly including and excluding spirometry features were compared. External validation of the final algorithm was conducted in an independent biobank with a different EHR system. The final COPD classification model demonstrated excellent positive predictive value (PPV; 91.7%), sensitivity (71.7%), and specificity (94.4%). This algorithm performed well not only within the MGBB, but also demonstrated similar or improved classification performance in an independent biobank (PPV 93.5%, sensitivity 61.4%, specificity 90%). Ancillary comparisons showed that the classification model built including a binary feature for FEV1/FVC produced substantially higher sensitivity than those excluding. This study fills a gap in COPD research involving population-based EHRs, providing an important resource for the rapid, automated classification of COPD cases that is both cost-efficient and requires minimal information from unstructured medical records.

7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low levels of circulating 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] have been shown to associate with prevalent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but few studies have examined the association between 25(OH)D during fetal development and risk of childhood ADHD. METHODS: Maternal plasma 25(OH)D was measured at 10-18 and 32-38 weeks of gestation, with sufficiency defined as 25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/ml. Offspring ADHD status between ages 6-9 years was measured by parent report of clinical ADHD diagnosis among 680 mother-child pairs from the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial. Association between maternal 25(OH)D and child ADHD was assessed using logistic regression, adjusting for maternal age, race and ethnicity. Effect modification by offspring sex was also assessed. RESULTS: No associations between maternal 25(OH)D at 10-18 weeks of gestation and offspring ADHD were observed. In the third trimester, we observed associations between maternal vitamin D sufficiency and offspring ADHD [odds ratio (OR) 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26-0.84], in addition to maternal 25(OH)D sufficiency category, comparing the deficient (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.12-0.94), insufficient (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.15-1.10) and sufficient (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.08-0.54) categories against highly deficient 25(OH)D, respectively. Stratified analyses revealed a protective association for sufficient maternal 25(OH)D and child ADHD among males (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23-0.94); the synergy index for additive effect modification of risk was 1.78 (95% CI 0.62-5.08). CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of maternal vitamin D in the third trimester are associated with lower risk of ADHD in offspring, with modest evidence for a stronger effect among male offspring. However, larger studies will be necessary to confirm these findings.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total serum IgE (tIgE) is an important intermediate phenotype of allergic disease. Whole genome genetic association studies across ancestries may identify important determinants of IgE. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to increase understanding of genetic variants affecting tIgE production across the ancestry and allergic disease spectrum by leveraging data from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine program; the Consortium on Asthma among African-ancestry Populations in the Americas (CAAPA); and the Atopic Dermatitis Research Network (N = 21,901). METHODS: We performed genome-wide association within strata of study, disease, and ancestry groups, and we combined results via a meta-regression approach that models heterogeneity attributable to ancestry. We also tested for association between HLA alleles called from whole genome sequence data and tIgE, assessing replication of associations in HLA alleles called from genotype array data. RESULTS: We identified 6 loci at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-9), including 4 loci previously reported as genome-wide significant for tIgE, as well as new regions in chr11q13.5 and chr15q22.2, which were also identified in prior genome-wide association studies of atopic dermatitis and asthma. In the HLA allele association study, HLA-A∗02:01 was associated with decreased tIgE level (Pdiscovery = 2 × 10-4; Preplication = 5 × 10-4; Pdiscovery+replication = 4 × 10-7), and HLA-DQB1∗03:02 was strongly associated with decreased tIgE level in Hispanic/Latino ancestry populations (PHispanic/Latino discovery+replication = 8 × 10-8). CONCLUSION: We performed the largest genome-wide association study and HLA association study of tIgE focused on ancestrally diverse populations and found several known tIgE and allergic disease loci that are relevant in non-European ancestry populations.

9.
Ophthalmol Sci ; 1(1)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382031

RESUMO

Purpose: Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reported important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significant associations with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, their role in disease development remains elusive. This study aimed to assess SNP-metabolite associations (i.e., metabolite quantitative trait loci [met-QTL]) and to provide insights into the biological mechanisms of AMD risk SNPs. Design: Cross-sectional multicenter study (Boston, Massachusetts, and Coimbra, Portugal). Participants: Patients with AMD (n = 388) and control participants (n = 98) without any vitreoretinal disease (> 50 years). Methods: Age-related macular degeneration grading was performed using color fundus photographs according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study classification scheme. Fasting blood samples were collected and evaluated with mass spectrometry for metabolomic profiling and Illumina OmniExpress for SNPs profiling. Analyses of met-QTL of endogenous metabolites were conducted using linear regression models adjusted for age, gender, smoking, 10 metabolite principal components (PCs), and 10 SNP PCs. Additionally, we analyzed the cumulative effect of AMD risk SNPs on plasma metabolites by generating genetic risk scores and assessing their associations with metabolites using linear regression models, accounting for the same covariates. Modeling was performed first for each cohort, and then combined by meta-analysis. Multiple comparisons were accounted for using the false discovery rate (FDR). Main Outcome Measures: Plasma metabolite levels associated with AMD risk SNPs. Results: After quality control, data for 544 plasma metabolites were included. Meta-analysis of data from all individuals (AMD patients and control participants) identified 28 significant met-QTL (ß = 0.016-0.083; FDR q-value < 1.14 × 10-2), which corresponded to 5 metabolites and 2 genes: ASPM and LIPC. Polymorphisms in the LIPC gene were associated with phosphatidylethanolamine metabolites, which are glycerophospholipids, and polymorphisms in the ASPM gene with branched-chain amino acids. Similar results were observed when considering only patients with AMD. Genetic risk score-metabolite associations further supported a global impact of AMD risk SNPs on the plasma metabolome. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that genomic-metabolomic associations can provide insights into the biological relevance of AMD risk SNPs. In particular, our results support that the LIPC gene and the glycerophospholipid metabolic pathway may play an important role in AMD, thus offering new potential therapeutic targets for this disease.

10.
Hepatol Commun ; 5(8): 1348-1361, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34430780

RESUMO

The serpin family A member 1 (SERPINA1) Z allele is present in approximately one in 25 individuals of European ancestry. Z allele homozygosity (Pi*ZZ) is the most common cause of alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency and is a proven risk factor for cirrhosis. We examined whether heterozygous Z allele (Pi*Z) carriers in United Kingdom (UK) Biobank, a population-based cohort, are at increased risk of liver disease. We replicated findings in Massachusetts General Brigham Biobank, a hospital-based cohort. We also examined variants associated with liver disease and assessed for gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. In UK Biobank, we identified 1,493 cases of cirrhosis, 12,603 Z allele heterozygotes, and 129 Z allele homozygotes among 312,671 unrelated white British participants. Heterozygous carriage of the Z allele was associated with cirrhosis compared to noncarriage (odds ratio [OR], 1.53; P = 1.1×10-04); homozygosity of the Z allele also increased the risk of cirrhosis (OR, 11.8; P = 1.8 × 10-09). The OR for cirrhosis of the Z allele was comparable to that of well-established genetic variants, including patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) I148M (OR, 1.48; P = 1.1 × 10-22) and transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) E167K (OR, 1.34; P = 2.6 × 10-06). In heterozygotes compared to noncarriers, the Z allele was associated with higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT; P = = 4.6 × 10-46), aspartate aminotransferase (AST; P = 2.2 × 10-27), alkaline phosphatase (P = 3.3 × 10-43), gamma-glutamyltransferase (P = 1.2 × 10-05), and total bilirubin (P = 6.4 × 10-06); Z allele homozygotes had even greater elevations in liver biochemistries. Body mass index (BMI) amplified the association of the Z allele for ALT (P interaction = 0.021) and AST (P interaction = 0.0040), suggesting a gene-environment interaction. Finally, we demonstrated genetic interactions between variants in PNPLA3, TM6SF2, and hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13); there was no evidence of epistasis between the Z allele and these variants. Conclusion: SERPINA1 Z allele heterozygosity is an important risk factor for liver disease; this risk is amplified by increasing BMI.

11.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 51(11): 1410-1420, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) will have important utility for asthma and other chronic diseases as a tool for predicting disease incidence and subphenotypes. OBJECTIVE: We utilized findings from a large multiancestry GWAS of asthma to compute a PRS for asthma with relevance for racially diverse populations. METHODS: We derived two PRSs for asthma using a standard approach (based on genome-wide significant variants) and a lasso sum regression approach (allowing all genetic variants to potentially contribute). We used data from the racially diverse Kaiser Permanente GERA cohort (68 638 non-Hispanic Whites, 5874 Hispanics, 6870 Asians and 2760 Blacks). Race was self-reported by questionnaire. RESULTS: For the standard PRS, non-Hispanic Whites showed the highest odds ratio for a standard deviation increase in PRS for asthma (OR = 1.16 (95% CI 1.14-1.18)). The standard PRS was also associated with asthma in Hispanic (OR = 1.12 (95% CI 1.05-1.19)) and Asian (OR = 1.10 (95% CI 1.04-1.17)) subjects, with a trend towards increased risk in Blacks (OR = 1.05 (95% CI 0.97-1.15)). We detected an interaction by sex, with men showing a higher risk of asthma with an increase in PRS as compared to women. The lasso sum regression-derived PRS showed stronger associations with asthma in non-Hispanic White subjects (OR = 1.20 (95% CI 1.18-1.23)), Hispanics (OR = 1.17 (95% 1.10-1.26)), Asians (OR = 1.18 (95% CI 1.10-1.27)) and Blacks (OR = 1.10 (95% CI 0.99-1.22)). CONCLUSION: Polygenic risk scores across multiple racial/ethnic groups were associated with increased asthma risk, suggesting that PRSs have potential as a tool for predicting disease development.

12.
Hepatology ; 74(6): 3394-3408, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Most of the genetic basis of chronic liver disease remains undiscovered. APPROACH AND RESULTS: To identify genetic loci that modulate the risk of liver injury, we performed genome-wide association studies on circulating levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin across 312,671 White British participants in the UK Biobank. We focused on variants associated with elevations in all four liver biochemistries at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8 ) and that replicated using Mass General Brigham Biobank in 19,323 European ancestry individuals. We identified a genetic locus in mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAM rs10787429) associated with increased levels of ALT (P = 1.4 × 10-30 ), AST (P = 3.6 × 10-10 ), ALP (P = 9.5 × 10-30 ), and total bilirubin (P = 2.9 × 10-12 ). This common genetic variant was also associated with an allele dose-dependent risk of alcohol-associated liver disease (odd ratio [OR] = 1.34, P = 2.6 × 10-5 ) and fatty liver disease (OR = 1.18, P = 5.8 × 10-4 ) by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes. We identified significant interactions between GPAM rs10787429 and elevated body mass index in association with ALT and AST (P = 7.1 × 10-9 and 3.95 × 10-8 , respectively), as well as between GPAM rs10787429 and weekly alcohol consumption in association with ALT, AST, and alcohol-associated liver disease (P = 4.0 × 10-2 , 1.6 × 10-2 , and 1.3 × 10-2 , respectively). Unlike previously described genetic variants that are associated with an increased risk of liver injury but confer a protective effect on circulating lipids, GPAM rs10787429 was associated with an increase in total cholesterol (P = 2.0 × 10-17 ), LDL cholesterol (P = 2.0 × 10-10 ), and HDL cholesterol (P = 6.6 × 10-37 ). Single-cell RNA-sequencing data demonstrated hepatocyte-predominant expression of GPAM in cells that co-express genes related to VLDL production (P = 9.4 × 10-103 ). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in GPAM is associated with susceptibility to liver injury. GPAM may represent a therapeutic target in chronic liver disease.

13.
Environ Res ; 201: 111553, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short-term exposures to air pollution and temperature have been reported to be associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. However, mechanistic understanding of the affected metabolic pathways is still lacking and literature on the short-term exposure of air-pollution on the metabolome is limited. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine changes in the plasma metabolome and associated metabolic pathways related to short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and temperature. METHODS: We performed mass-spectrometry based untargeted metabolomic profiling of plasma samples from a large and well-characterized cohort of men (Normative Aging Study) to identify metabolic pathways associated with short-term exposure to PM2.5, NO2, O3, and temperature (one, seven-, and thirty-day average of address-specific predicted estimates). We used multivariable linear mixed-effect regression and independent component analysis (ICA) while simultaneously adjusting for all exposures and correcting for multiple testing. RESULTS: Overall, 456 white men provided 648 blood samples, in which 1158 metabolites were quantified, between 2000 and 2016. Average age and body mass index were 75.0 years and 27.7 kg/m2, respectively. Only 3% were current smokers. In the adjusted models, NO2, and temperature showed statistically significant associations with several metabolites (19 metabolites for NO2 and 5 metabolites for temperature). We identified six metabolic pathways (sphingolipid, butanoate, pyrimidine, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, propanoate, and pyruvate metabolisms) perturbed with short-term exposure to air pollution and temperature. These pathways were involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, immunity, and nucleic acid damage and repair. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report an untargeted metabolomic signature of temperature exposure, the largest to report an untargeted metabolomic signature of air pollution, and the first to use ICA. We identified several significant plasma metabolites and metabolic pathways associated with short-term exposure to air pollution and temperature; using an untargeted approach. Those pathways were involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, immunity, and nucleic acid damage and repair. These results need to be confirmed by future research.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Metabolômica , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Temperatura
14.
Metabolomics ; 17(5): 45, 2021 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33937923

RESUMO

Metabolomic Epidemiology is a growing area of research within the metabolomics research community. In response to this, we describe the establishment of the Metabolomics Society Metabolomic Epidemiology Task Group. The overall mission of this group is to promote the growth and understanding of metabolomic epidemiology as an independent research discipline and to drive collaborative efforts that can shape the field. In this article we define metabolomic epidemiology and identify the key challenges that need to be addressed in order to advance population-based scientific discovery in metabolomics.

15.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889934

RESUMO

Consortium-based research is crucial for producing reliable high-quality findings but existing tools for consortium studies have important drawbacks with respect to data protection, ease of deployment, and analytical rigor. To address these concerns, we developed COnsortium of METabolomics Studies (COMETS) Analytics to support and streamline consortium-based analyses of metabolomics and other omics data. The application requires no specialized expertise and can be run locally to guarantee data protection or through a web-based server for convenience and speed. Unlike other web-based tools, COMETS Analytics enables standardized models to be run across all cohorts, using an algorithmic, reproducible approach to diagnose, document, and fix model issues. This eliminates the time-consuming and potentially error-prone step of manually customizing models by cohort, helping to accelerate consortium-based projects and enhancing analytical reproducibility. We demonstrated that the application scales well by performing two data analyses in 45 cohort studies that together comprised measurements of 4,647 metabolites in up to 134,742 participants. COMETS Analytics performed well in this test, as judged by the minimal errors that analysts had in preparing data inputs and the successful execution of all models attempted. As metabolomics gathers momentum among biomedical and epidemiological researchers, COMETS Analytics may be a useful tool for facilitating large-scale consortium-based research.

16.
Metabolites ; 11(3)2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801085

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between plasma metabolite levels and dark adaptation (DA) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This was a cross-sectional study including patients with AMD (early, intermediate, and late) and control subjects older than 50 years without any vitreoretinal disease. Fasting blood samples were collected and used for metabolomic profiling with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Patients were also tested with the AdaptDx (MacuLogix, Middletown, PA, USA) DA extended protocol (20 min). Two measures of dark adaptation were calculated and used: rod-intercept time (RIT) and area under the dark adaptation curve (AUDAC). Associations between dark adaption and metabolite levels were tested using multilevel mixed-effects linear modelling, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, race, AMD stage, and Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation supplementation. We included a total of 71 subjects: 53 with AMD (13 early AMD, 31 intermediate AMD, and 9 late AMD) and 18 controls. Our results revealed that fatty acid-related lipids and amino acids related to glutamate and leucine, isoleucine and valine metabolism were associated with RIT (p < 0.01). Similar results were found when AUDAC was used as the outcome. Fatty acid-related lipids and amino acids are associated with DA, thus suggesting that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction likely play a role in AMD and visual impairment in this condition.

17.
J Pers Med ; 11(4)2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923870

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of response to asthma medications have primarily focused on Caucasian populations, with findings that may not be generalizable to minority populations. We derived a polygenic risk score (PRS) for response to albuterol as measured by bronchodilator response (BDR), and examined the PRS in a cohort of Hispanic school-aged children with asthma. We leveraged a published GWAS of BDR to identify relevant genetic variants, and ranked the top variants according to their Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion (CADD) scores. Variants with CADD scores greater than 10 were used to compute the PRS. Once we derived the PRS, we determined the association of the PRS with BDR in a cohort of Hispanic children with asthma (the Genetics of Asthma in Costa Rica Study (GACRS)) in adjusted linear regression models. Mean BDR in GACRS participants was5.6% with a standard deviation of 10.2%. We observed a 0.63% decrease in BDR in response to albuterol for a standard deviation increase in the PRS (p = 0.05). We also observed decreased odds of a BDR response at or above the 12% threshold for a one standard deviation increase in the PRS (OR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.95)). Our findings show that combining variants from a pharmacogenetic GWAS into a PRS may be useful for predicting medication response in asthma.

18.
Thorax ; 76(12): 1227-1230, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888571

RESUMO

Most genome-wide association studies of obesity and body mass index (BMI) have so far assumed an additive mode of inheritance in their analysis, although association testing supports a recessive effect for some of the established loci, for example, rs1421085 in FTO In two whole-genome sequencing (WGS) studies of children with asthma and their parents (892 Costa Rican trios and 286 North American trios), we discovered an association between a locus (rs9292139) in LOC102724122 and BMI that reaches genome-wide significance under a recessive model in the combined analysis. As the association does not achieve significance under an additive model, our finding illustrates the benefits of the recessive model in WGS analyses.

19.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify metabolic changes potentially related to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis occurring in the blood prior to its diagnosis. METHODS: In a US military biorepository, serum samples collected at two timepoints prior to a diagnosis of RA were identified. These were matched to controls who did not develop RA by subject age, race and time between sample collections and RA diagnosis time to stored serum samples. Relative abundances of 380 metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We determined whether pre-RA case versus control status predicted metabolite concentration differences and differences over time (trajectories) using linear mixed models, assessing for interactions between time, pre-RA status and metabolite concentrations. We separately examined pre-RA and pre-seropositive RA cases versus matched controls and adjusted for smoking. Multiple comparison adjustment set the false discovery rate to 0.05. RESULTS: 291 pre-RA cases (80.8% pre seropositive RA) were matched to 292 controls, all with two serum samples (2.7±1.6 years; 1.0±0.9 years before RA/matched date). 52.0% were women; 52.8% were White, 26.8% Black and 20.4% other race. Mean age was 31.2 (±8.1) years at earliest blood draw. Fourteen metabolites had statistically significant trajectory differences among pre-RA subjects versus controls, including sex steroids, amino acid/lipid metabolism and xenobiotics. Results were similar when limited to pre seropositive RA and after adjusting for smoking. CONCLUSIONS: In this military case-control study, metabolite concentration trajectory differences in pre-RA cases versus controls implicated steroidogenesis, lipid/amino acid metabolism and xenobiotics in RA pathogenesis. Metabolites may have potential as biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets preceding RA diagnosis.

20.
Eur Respir J ; 58(3)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal vitamin D3 supplementation has been linked to reduced risk of early-life asthma/recurrent wheeze. This protective effect appears to be influenced by variations in the 17q21 functional single nucleotide polymorphism rs12936231 of the child, which regulates the expression of ORMDL3 (ORM1-like 3) and for which the high-risk CC genotype is associated with early-onset asthma. However, this does not fully explain the differential effects of supplementation. We investigated the influence of maternal rs12936231 genotype variation on the protective effect of prenatal vitamin D3 supplementation against offspring asthma/recurrent wheeze. METHODS: We determined the rs12936231 genotype of mother-child pairs from two randomised controlled trials: the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART, n=613) and the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 (COPSAC2010, n=563), to examine the effect of maternal genotype variation on offspring asthma/recurrent wheeze at age 0-3 years between groups who received high-dose prenatal vitamin D3 supplementation versus placebo. RESULTS: Offspring of mothers with the low-risk GG or GC genotype who received high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation had a significantly reduced risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze when compared with the placebo group (hazard ratio (HR) 0.54, 95% CI 0.37-0.77; p<0.001 for VDAART and HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.92; p=0.021 for COPSAC2010), whereas no difference was observed among the offspring of mothers with the high-risk CC genotype (HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.61-1.84; p=0.853 for VDAART and HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.54-2.28; p=0.785 for COPSAC2010). CONCLUSION: Maternal 17q21 genotype has an important influence on the protective effects of prenatal vitamin D3 supplementation against offspring asthma/recurrent wheeze.


Assuntos
Asma , Vitamina D , Asma/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Sons Respiratórios/genética
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