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1.
Curr Oncol ; 28(1): 640-660, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494319

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by excessive clonal proliferation of plasma cells. The treatment of multiple myeloma presents a variety of unique challenges due to the complex molecular pathophysiology and incurable status of the disease at this time. Given that MM is the second most common blood cancer with a characteristic and unavoidable relapse/refractory state during the course of the disease, the development of new therapeutic modalities is crucial. Belantamab mafodotin (belamaf, GSK2857916) is a first-in-class therapeutic, indicated for patients who have previously attempted four other treatments, including an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody, a proteosome inhibitor, and an immunomodulatory agent. In November 2017, the FDA designated belamaf as a breakthrough therapy for heavily pretreated patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. In August 2020, the FDA granted accelerated approval as a monotherapy for relapsed or treatment-refractory multiple myeloma. The drug was also approved in the EU for this indication in late August 2020. Of note, belamaf is associated with the following adverse events: decreased platelets, corneal disease, decreased or blurred vision, anemia, infusion-related reactions, pyrexia, and fetal risk, among others. Further studies are necessary to evaluate efficacy in comparison to other standard treatment modalities and as future drugs in this class are developed.

2.
Neurol Int ; 12(3): 89-108, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287177

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a prevalent and debilitating neurologic condition characterized by widespread neurodegeneration and the formation of focal demyelinating plaques in the central nervous system. Current therapeutic options are complex and attempt to manage acute relapse, modify disease, and manage symptoms. Such therapies often prove insufficient alone and highlight the need for more targeted MS treatments with reduced systemic side effect profiles. Ozanimod is a novel S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate) receptor modulator used for the treatment of clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting, and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. It selectively modulates S1P1 and S1P5 receptors to prevent autoreactive lymphocytes from entering the CNS where they can promote nerve damage and inflammation. Ozanimod was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for the management of multiple sclerosis in March 2020 and has been proved to be both effective and well tolerated. Of note, ozanimod is associated with the following complications: increased risk of infections, liver injury, fetal risk, increased blood pressure, respiratory effects, macular edema, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, among others. Further investigation including head-to-head clinical trials is warranted to evaluate the efficacy of ozanimod compared with other S1P1 receptor modulators.

3.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 383-407, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004155

RESUMO

Migraine is a debilitating neurological condition with symptoms typically consisting of unilateral and pulsating headache, sensitivity to sensory stimuli, nausea, and vomiting. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that migraine is the third most prevalent medical disorder and second most disabling neurological condition in the world. There are several options for preventive migraine treatments that include, but are not limited to, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, botulinum toxins, NSAIDs, riboflavin, and magnesium. Patients may also benefit from adjunct nonpharmacological options in the comprehensive prevention of migraines, such as cognitive behavior therapy, relaxation therapies, biofeedback, lifestyle guidance, and education. Preventative therapies are an essential component of the overall approach to the pharmacological treatment of migraine. Comparative studies of newer therapies are needed to help patients receive the best treatment option for chronic migraine pain.

4.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 479-491, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004160

RESUMO

Chronic migraine is a particular classification of a headache that is typically unilateral and pulsatile and lasts for at least 3 months. Owing to its high prevalence and detrimental impact on personal, social, and economic aspects of patient lives, much desire has gone into fully understanding the pathogenesis of migraine, and to search for therapeutic agents. In addition to current therapeutics such as triptans, ergotamine, and monoclonal antibodies targeting calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors, vitamin B12 has been investigated for its possible use as a prophylactic agent for migraines. Specifically, the observed effects of vitamin B12 on nitric oxide and homocysteine prompt further investigation of its underlying mechanisms in migraine pathophysiology. In this comprehensive review, we provide a brief overview of migraines and current therapies while focusing on the promising role of vitamin B12 as a possible treatment option for chronic migraine management.

5.
Am J Surg ; 214(6): 1220-1225, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28985892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is the standard of care for donor nephrectomies. No large series reports have been published detailing the LDN experience of minimally invasive general surgeons. METHODS: A retrospective review of 526 LDNs performed by MIS general surgeons at Baylor University Medical Center between 1999 and 2013. Complications were graded on the Clavien scale. The learning curve was determined by procedure time. RESULTS: The complication rate was 3.0%. Female donors had shorter operative time than males (141 vs 162 min). Warm ischemia time was shorter with female donors and left kidney procurement. There were six recipient graft losses within 30 days of the transplant. Operative time plateaued after 27 cases. CONCLUSION: MIS general surgeons using a standardized technique can learn and perform a new, unfamiliar procedure with excellent results. Women are easier to perform organ harvest than men. Organ harvest from obese patients can be safely performed.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral , Transplante de Rim , Laparoscopia/normas , Nefrectomia/normas , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/normas , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Curva de Aprendizado , Masculino , Duração da Cirurgia , Posicionamento do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 4(1): 36-43, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26946893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the incidence of endothermal heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT) depends on the laser wavelength used in endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of the saphenous veins. METHODS: We identified patients undergoing EVLA in our office from 2005 to 2014 with an 810-nm (hemoglobin-specific) or 1470-nm (water-specific) laser. We reviewed the records for age, sex, body mass index, Clinical, Etiologic, Anatomic, and Pathophysiologic (CEAP) class, vein diameter, vein(s) treated, adjunctive phlebectomy, energy delivered, laser pullback times, and EHIT (closure level ≥3) development. The Fisher exact test and Pearson χ(2) test were used to evaluate the association between EHIT and the categoric variables. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between EHIT and the continuous variables. RESULTS: There were 1439 veins ablated in 1109 patients (769 female, 340 male). The great saphenous vein (GSV) was treated in 1332, the small saphenous vein (SSV) in 78, and both in 29 (22 procedures on accessory veins were excluded). The CEAP C class for these patients was 1 in 0, 2 in 616, 3 in 522, 4 in 150, 5 in 51, and 6 in 98, and was not recorded in 2. EHIT occurred in 76 cases (5.28%), in 73 after GSV ablation and in three after SSV ablation. The 810-nm laser was used in 1144 procedures, and EHIT developed in 69 patients (6.0%). The 1470-nm laser was used in 295 procedures, with EHIT developing in seven patients (2.4%; P = .0122 by Fisher exact test). The average energy delivered to the EHIT group (3517 ± 1998.1 J) was higher than for the non-EHIT group (2825.1 ± 1491.2 J; P = .0002). The average vein diameter was larger in the EHIT group (9.3 ± 3.8 mm) than in the non-EHIT group (7.2 ± 3.3 mm; P = .0001). EHIT occurred in 59 of 837 cases (6.6%) undergoing simultaneous stab phlebectomy compared with 17 of 525 cases (3.1%) undergoing only EVLA (P = .0049). Statistical analysis confirmed the association between EHIT and CEAP class was significant (P = .0001). No differences were seen for age, body mass index, sex, combined bilateral, and multiple or simultaneous GSV and SSV ablations between the two groups. A multivariate analysis confirmed that CEAP class, vein diameter, adjunctive phlebectomy, and laser wavelength were indeed risk factors for post-EVLA EHIT and that energy delivered and pullback time were not. CONCLUSIONS: Water-specific laser fiber wavelength (1470 nm) reduces the risk of EHIT compared with a hemoglobin-specific wavelength (810 nm). CEAP class, simultaneous phlebectomy, and vein diameter >7.5 mm are associated with increased risk of EHIT after EVLA.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Terapia a Laser/efeitos adversos , Trombose/etiologia , Varizes/terapia , Adulto , Ablação por Cateter , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Veia Safena , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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