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Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(3): 102915, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482566


OBJECTIVES: While smoking is associated with worse outcomes in HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), the magnitude of this association is unclear given the heterogenous smoking definitions and outcomes. Our objective was to investigate the association between smoking, survival, and recurrence in HPV-related OPSCC using multiple smoking metrics reported in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 375 adults with p16+ OPSCC undergoing surgical resection (n = 272) or definitive chemoradiation (n = 103) at a tertiary academic institution from 2006 to 2017. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes included disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and recurrence. We used multiple smoking metrics commonly cited in previous studies, including ever versus never smokers, current versus former/never smokers, ≤10 versus >10 pack-year, ≤20 versus >20 pack-year, and continuous pack-year. RESULTS: There were 375 patients, median age 58 years, with 326 (87%) males, and median follow-up of 52 months. Of all smoking metrics, >20 pack-year history was the strongest predictor of both OS (HR 2.24, 95% CI: 1.19-4.20) and DFS (HR 1.67, 95% CI: 1.04-2.66) on univariable and multivariable analysis after adjusting for age, overall stage, and comorbidities. Patients with >20 pack-year smoking history were also more likely to have recurrence (HR 1.59, 95% CI: 0.95-2.67) after adjusting for overall stage. CONCLUSION: Heavier smoking >20 pack-years was the strongest smoking metric associated with 2-times worse survival and recurrence. Our findings suggest that >20 pack-year smoking history may be a more useful cutoff for risk stratification models but requires further validation.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151273


Importance: Regional lymph node metastasis remains an important prognostic factor in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Although survival among patients with regional metastasis in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related OPSCC is more favorable compared with patients who are HPV negative, prognostic variables associated with failure in patients with single-node metastasis are not known. Objective: To evaluate recurrence and survival in patients with HPV-related OPSCC with single-lymph node metastasis treated with transoral surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 207 adults with newly diagnosed p16-positive OPSCC and pathology-confirmed single-node disease who underwent surgical resection with or without adjuvant therapy at 2 tertiary academic medical centers from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2016. Statistical analysis was performed from September 1, 2018, to September 1, 2020. Interventions: Surgery alone (n = 59), surgery with adjuvant radiation (n = 75), or surgery with adjuvant chemoradiation (n = 73). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was regional recurrence. Secondary outcomes included overall survival, any recurrence, and identification of factors associated with regional recurrence and overall survival. Results: Among 207 patients, 178 (86%) were men, with a median age of 57 years (range, 35-82 years) at the time of surgery. Median follow-up was 36.2 months (range, 7-127 months). Regional recurrence occurred in 11 patients (5%). Of these, 1 patient (9%) was lost to follow-up after diagnosis, 1 (9%) was treated with palliative chemotherapy, and 9 (82%) were treated with curative intent. Ultimately, 7 patients received successful salvage treatment, and 3 died with disease. Overall, there were 21 patients (10%) with any recurrence, with 4 patients (19%) experiencing local recurrence, 11 (52%) experiencing regional recurrence, and 6 (29%) experiencing distant metastasis. The 5-year overall survival was 95% (95% CI, 89%-98%) for all patients. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2), advanced T stage (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.9-14.0), and positive margins (OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 1.8-67.5) were associated with increased regional recurrence. Extranodal extension (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.8), lymph node size greater than 3 cm (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), and adjuvant therapy (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.02-0.4) were associated with decreased regional recurrence. Advanced comorbidities (hazard ratio, 6.20; 95% CI, 1.4-27.7), lymphovascular invasion (hazard ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.0-21.2), and regional recurrence (hazard ratio, 16.0; 95% CI, 3.1-82.0) were associated with worse overall survival. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that patients with HPV-related OPSCC and single-node disease undergoing surgical resection with or without adjuvant treatment have excellent survival. Adjuvant therapy appears to improve regional control. Among patients with regional recurrence of OPSCC, there is a high rate of successful salvage treatment.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 146(1): 50-56, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697348


Importance: The optimal treatment strategy for patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) of the base of the tongue (BOT) has not been sufficiently studied. Objective: To investigate the rate of and risk factors for occult contralateral nodal disease in patients with HPV-related BOT OPSCC undergoing transoral surgery and bilateral neck dissections. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective case series reviewed the medical records of patients with HPV-related BOT OPSCC who underwent transoral surgery and bilateral neck dissections from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2018, at the tertiary care center of Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis. Patients had a median follow-up of 30.0 months (interquartile range, 11.0-60.4 months). Patients with recurrent disease or multiple synchronous OPSCC primary tumors were excluded for a total of 89 patients. Data were analyzed from January 1 through June 1, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the rate of contralateral occult nodal disease. Secondary outcomes were potential risk factors for contralateral occult nodal disease and regional recurrence rates. Results: Eighty-nine patients were included in the series, of whom 81 (91.0%) were men. The mean (SD) age was 60 (9) years. Overall, 34 patients (38.2%) had pathologic contralateral nodal metastases. Seventy patients had no clinical evidence of contralateral nodal disease. Of these 70, occult nodes were identified in 15 (21.4%). Risk of contralateral disease was higher when the primary tumor crossed midline (odds ratio, 6.23; 95% CI, 1.71-22.77). Of the 55 patients with no occult disease identified, only 2 (3.6%) received radiotherapy to the contralateral neck, and no regional recurrence of disease was noted. Conclusions and Relevance: Given the rate of occult contralateral nodal disease of 21.4%, it appears that contralateral elective neck dissection or radiotherapy should be recommended in patients with HPV-related BOT OPSCC. Patients with a pathologically negative result of contralateral neck dissection may not benefit from radiotherapy to that nodal basin. Future prospective investigations should evaluate functional and oncologic outcomes of contralateral elective neck dissection compared with elective radiotherapy in the contralateral neck for HPV-related BOT OPSCC.

Head Neck ; 41(11): 3933-3939, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460691


BACKGROUND: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is rising, even in elderly patients. The outcomes of transoral surgery (TOS) in this population are not entirely known. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed at two institutions from October 2003 to September 2016 on patients 70 years or older with HPV-related OPSCC treated with TOS. RESULTS: A total of 75 patients were included with a mean age of 74 years (70-87 years). At a median follow-up of 35.7 months, 3-year overall survival was 81.5% and disease-specific survival was 94.3%. Advanced cT stage (odds ratio, 2.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-6.64) negatively impacted OS. Conjunctive consolidation was performed to create a staging system with patients older than 80 years, severe comorbidity, and cT3-4 having worse survival. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients with HPV-related OPSCC treated with TOS have excellent survival and therefore should not be excluded from such therapy based on age alone.

Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
Nat Neurosci ; 22(8): 1276-1288, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235930


T cells clear virus from the CNS and dynamically regulate brain functions, including spatial learning, through cytokine signaling. Here we determined whether hippocampal T cells that persist after recovery from infection with West Nile virus (WNV) or Zika virus (ZIKV) impact hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Using newly established models of viral encephalitis recovery in adult animals, we show that in mice that have recovered from WNV or ZIKV infection, T cell-derived interferon-γ (IFN-γ) signaling in microglia underlies spatial-learning defects via virus-target-specific mechanisms. Following recovery from WNV infection, mice showed presynaptic termini elimination with lack of repair, while for ZIKV, mice showed extensive neuronal apoptosis with loss of postsynaptic termini. Accordingly, animals deficient in CD8+ T cells or IFN-γ signaling in microglia demonstrated protection against synapse elimination following WNV infection and decreased neuronal apoptosis with synapse recovery following ZIKV infection. Thus, T cell signaling to microglia drives post-infectious cognitive sequelae that are associated with emerging neurotropic flaviviruses.

Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/imunologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/psicologia , Microglia/imunologia , Sinapses/imunologia , Sinapses/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Flavivirus/patologia , Interferon gama , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/etiologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores de Interferon/genética , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/psicologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/psicologia