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1.
Semin Ultrasound CT MR ; 41(3): 284-295, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448485

RESUMO

This article discusses mimics of multiple sclerosis (MS). Excluded in this discussion are neuromyelitis optica and vasculitis, discussed in other articles in this journal. Covered entities include posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, reversible vasoconstriction syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Sussac's Syndrome, and chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy. There are also multiple infectious entities that mimic MS including; progressive multi-focal leukoencephalopathy (PML), Toxoplasmosis, Tuberculosis, Herpes Simplex Virus, Cytomegalovirus, Varicella zoster virus, Epstein Barr virus, Cryptococcus and Human immunodeficiency virus. In addition, there are leukoencephalopathies that can present in adulthood including Adrenoleukodystrophy, Metachromatic leukodystrophy, Cerebral autosomal dominant idiopathic leukoencephalopathy, Leigh's and Alexanders disease that could be mistaken for MS.

2.
Semin Ultrasound CT MR ; 41(3): 296-308, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448486

RESUMO

This article discusses central nervous system vasculitis, a clinical and MRI mimic of multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a paucity of discussion of vasculitis in the radiology literature, and many MS neurologists believe that vasculitis is underdiagnosed. Therefore, the authors hope that the readers will find this paper increases their knowledge about CNS vasculitis and improves their ability to differentiate MS from vasculitis.

3.
Pain physician ; 23(3S): S1-S127, May 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1129928

RESUMO

Chronic axial spinal pain is one of the major causes of significant disability and health care costs, with facet joints as one of the proven causes of pain. To provide evidence-based guidance in performing diagnostic and therapeutic facet joint interventions. The methodology utilized included the development of objectives and key questions with utilization of trustworthy standards. The literature pertaining to all aspects of facet joint interventions, was reviewed, with a best evidence synthesis of available literature and utilizing grading for recommendations.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Bloqueio Nervoso Autônomo , Dor nas Costas/terapia , Denervação/métodos , Dor Crônica/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Terapia por Radiofrequência , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas , Injeções Intra-Articulares
4.
Pain Physician ; 22(1S): S1-S74, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regenerative medicine is a medical subspecialty that seeks to recruit and enhance the body's own inherent healing armamentarium in the treatment of patient pathology. This therapy's intention is to assist in the repair, and to potentially replace or restore damaged tissue through the use of autologous or allogenic biologics. This field is rising like a Phoenix from the ashes of underperforming conventional therapy midst the hopes and high expectations of patients and medical personnel alike. But, because this is a relatively new area of medicine that has yet to substantiate its outcomes, care must be taken in its public presentation and promises as well as in its use. OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance for the responsible, safe, and effective use of biologic therapy in the lumbar spine. To present a template on which to build standardized therapies using biologics. To ground potential administrators of biologics in the knowledge of the current outcome statistics and to stimulate those interested in providing biologic therapy to participate in high quality research that will ultimately promote and further advance this area of medicine. METHODS: The methodology used has included the development of objectives and key questions. A panel of experts from various medical specialties and subspecialties as well as differing regions collaborated in the formation of these guidelines and submitted (if any) their appropriate disclosures of conflicts of interest. Trustworthy standards were employed in the creation of these guidelines. The literature pertaining to regenerative medicine, its effectiveness, and adverse consequences was thoroughly reviewed using a best evidence synthesis of the available literature. The grading for recommendation was provided as described by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: Lumbar Disc Injections: Based on the available evidence regarding the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), including one high-quality randomized controlled trial (RCT), multiple moderate-quality observational studies, a single-arm meta-analysis and evidence from a systematic review, the qualitative evidence has been assessed as Level III (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best-evidence synthesis. Based on the available evidence regarding the use of medicinal signaling/ mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) with a high-quality RCT, multiple moderate-quality observational studies, a single-arm meta-analysis, and 2 systematic reviews, the qualitative evidence has been assessed as Level III (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis. Lumbar Epidural Injections Based on one high-quality RCT, multiple relevant moderate-quality observational studies and a single-arm meta-analysis, the qualitative evidence has been assessed as Level IV (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis. Lumbar Facet Joint Injections Based on one high-quality RCT and 2 moderate-quality observational studies, the qualitative evidence for facet joint injections with PRP has been assessed as Level IV (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis. Sacroiliac Joint Injection Based on one high-quality RCT, one moderate-quality observational study, and one low-quality case report, the qualitative evidence has been assessed as Level IV (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis. CONCLUSION: Based on the evidence synthesis summarized above, there is Level III evidence for intradiscal injections of PRP and MSCs, whereas the evidence is considered Level IV for lumbar facet joint, lumbar epidural, and sacroiliac joint injections of PRP, (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis.Regenerative therapy should be provided to patients following diagnostic evidence of a need for biologic therapy, following a thorough discussion of the patient's needs and expectations, after properly educating the patient on the use and administration of biologics and in full light of the patient's medical history. Regenerative therapy may be provided independently or in conjunction with other modalities of treatment including a structured exercise program, physical therapy, behavioral therapy, and along with the appropriate conventional medical therapy as necessary. Appropriate precautions should be taken into consideration and followed prior to performing biologic therapy. Multiple guidelines from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), potential limitations in the use of biologic therapy and the appropriate requirements for compliance with the FDA have been detailed in these guidelines. KEY WORDS: Regenerative medicine, platelet-rich plasma, medicinal signaling cells, mesenchymal stem cells, stromal vascular fraction, bone marrow concentrate, chronic low back pain, discogenic pain, facet joint pain, Food and Drug Administration, minimal manipulation, evidence synthesis.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Dor Lombar/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/normas , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Medicina Regenerativa/normas
5.
Pain Physician ; 22(1S): S75-S128, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interventional pain management involves diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain. This specialty utilizes minimally invasive procedures to target therapeutics to the central nervous system and the spinal column. A subset of patients encountered in interventional pain are medicated using anticoagulant or antithrombotic drugs to mitigate thrombosis risk. Since these drugs target the clotting system, bleeding risk is a consideration accompanying interventional procedures. Importantly, discontinuation of anticoagulant or antithrombotic drugs exposes underlying thrombosis risk, which can lead to significant morbidity and mortality especially in those with coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease. This review summarizes the literature and provides guidelines based on best evidence for patients receiving anti-clotting therapy during interventional pain procedures. STUDY DESIGN: Best evidence synthesis. OBJECTIVE: To provide a current and concise appraisal of the literature regarding an assessment of the bleeding risk during interventional techniques for patients taking anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic medications. METHODS: A review of the available literature published on bleeding risk during interventional pain procedures, practice patterns and perioperative management of anticoagulant and antithrombotic therapy was conducted. Data sources included relevant literature identified through searches of EMBASE and PubMed from 1966 through August 2018 and manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles. RESULTS: 1. There is good evidence for risk stratification by categorizing multiple interventional techniques into low-risk, moderate-risk, and high-risk. Also, their risk should be upgraded based on other risk factors.2. There is good evidence for the risk of thromboembolic events in patients who interrupt antithrombotic therapy. 3. There is good evidence supporting discontinuation of low dose aspirin for high risk and moderate risk procedures for at least 3 days, and there is moderate evidence that these may be continued for low risk or some intermediate risk procedures.4. There is good evidence that discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy with warfarin, heparin, dabigatran (Pradaxa®), argatroban (Acova®), bivalirudin (Angiomax®), lepirudin (Refludan®), desirudin (Iprivask®), hirudin, apixaban (Eliquis®), rivaroxaban (Xarelto®), edoxaban (Savaysa®, Lixiana®), Betrixaban(Bevyxxa®), fondaparinux (Arixtra®) prior to interventional techniques with individual consideration of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drugs and individual risk factors increases safety.5. There is good evidence that diagnosis of epidural hematoma is based on severe pain at the site of the injection, rapid neurological deterioration, and MRI with surgical decompression with progressive neurological dysfunction to avoid neurological sequelae.6. There is good evidence that if thromboembolic risk is high, low molecular weight heparin bridge therapy can be instituted during cessation of the anticoagulant, and the low molecular weight heparin can be discontinued 24 hours before the pain procedure.7. There is fair evidence that the risk of thromboembolic events is higher than that of epidural hematoma formation with the interruption of antiplatelet therapy preceding interventional techniques, though both risks are significant.8. There is fair evidence that multiple variables including anatomic pathology with spinal stenosis and ankylosing spondylitis; high risk procedures and moderate risk procedures combined with anatomic risk factors; bleeding observed during the procedure, and multiple attempts during the procedures increase the risk for bleeding complications and epidural hematoma.9. There is fair evidence that discontinuation of phosphodiesterase inhibitors is optional (dipyridamole [Persantine], cilostazol [Pletal]. However, there is also fair evidence to discontinue Aggrenox [dipyridamole plus aspirin]) 3 days prior to undergoing interventional techniques of moderate and high risk. 10. There is fair evidence to make shared decision making between the patient and the treating physicians with the treating physician and to consider all the appropriate risks associated with continuation or discontinuation of antithrombotic or anticoagulant therapy.11. There is fair evidence that if thromboembolic risk is high antithrombotic therapy may be resumed 12 hours after the interventional procedure is performed.12. There is limited evidence that discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel [Plavix®], ticlopidine [Ticlid®], Ticagrelor [Brilinta®] and prasugrel [Effient®]) avoids complications of significant bleeding and epidural hematomas.13. There is very limited evidence supporting the continuation or discontinuation of most NSAIDs, excluding aspirin, for 1 to 2 days and some 4 to 10 days, since these are utilized for pain management without cardiac or cerebral protective effect. LIMITATIONS: The continued paucity of the literature with discordant recommendations. CONCLUSION: Based on the survey of current literature, and published clinical guidelines, recommendations for patients presenting with ongoing antithrombotic therapy prior to interventional techniques are variable, and are based on comprehensive analysis of each patient and the risk-benefit analysis of intervention. KEY WORDS: Perioperative bleeding, bleeding risk, practice patterns, anticoagulant therapy, antithrombotic therapy, interventional techniques, safety precautions, pain.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/normas , Dor Crônica , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
6.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 59(6): 555-584, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28546085

RESUMO

There are many ways to image the cervical vasculature. Each of the imaging techniques will be discussed in detail, including the method of performance, the quality of the images, the advantages and disadvantages compared to other techniques, and the potential complications. The disease entities will be discussed and illustrated with pathologically and clinically proven case material.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Artérias Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Angiografia Digital , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
J Neurol Surg Rep ; 77(3): e113-7, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27468406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the work-up and treatment of rare ectopic acromegaly caused by a biopsy-proven somatotroph pituitary adenoma located within the bony intersphenoid septum of a patient with empty sella syndrome (ESS). METHODS: We report the presentation, clinical course, diagnostic work-up, and lesion localization and treatment challenges encountered in a 55-year-old patient, with a brief review of relevant literature. RESULTS: A 55-year-old African-American man presented with acromegaly and ESS. Attempts to definitively localize the causative tumor were unsuccessful, though petrosal sinus sampling supported central growth hormone production and imaging suggested bone-enclosed subsellar pituitary tissue. Endoscopic endonasal transphenoidal exploration was undertaken with resection of a somatotroph pituitary microadenoma, and subsequent clinical improvement and biochemical remission. Retrospective review revealed the patient's pituitary to have been located ectopically within a unique bony intersphenoid septum. CONCLUSION: This report describes the first known case of an ectopic pituitary adenoma located within the midline bony intersphenoid septum, which we postulate to have resulted from anomalous embryological pituitary migration. Intra-intersphenoid septal tumors should be considered in cases of apparent central acromegaly with ESS or absence of tumor tissue within the paranasal sinuses or other peripheral locations. INDEXING: Acromegaly, ESS, pituitary adenoma, sphenoid sinus septum.

8.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 22(3): 257-62, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27015445

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a novel catheter-based mechanical thrombectomy device, XCOILTM, as a first line therapy to restore patency of thrombosed dialysis grafts and fistulae. METHODS: In 2010, 18 consecutive/sequential patients (11 male, 7 female; median age, 52 years; age range, 32-69 years) with occluded arteriovenous grafts (n=15) or fistulae (n=3) were treated with XCOILTM (NexGen Medical Systems Inc.) without adjunctive thrombolytic drugs. XCOILTM was advanced distal to the thrombus within the outflow vein as well as distal to the arterial inflow platelet thrombin plug, using a 4F angiographic catheter. The percentage of thrombus cleared, primary patency, procedure time, and XCOILTM performance were documented. RESULTS: Thrombosis occurred 1-30 days prior to the procedure. Thrombosed segments of graft/fistula measured 10-50 cm. Pre- and postprocedure angiography demonstrated that in 15 of 18 cases (83%) XCOILTM removed 80%-100% of the venous outflow thrombus. In 11 of 14 cases (79%), the platelet thrombin plug was also removed. Thrombectomy procedure time averaged 8 min, with one to three passes with the XCOILTM required. No evidence of distal embolization or graft/vessel injury was found on angiography following clot removal. In four cases in whom patency was not restored with XCOILTM, subsequent use of other clot removal devices also failed to restore patency. In one case with severe venous stenosis, the device failed to deploy and the thrombus was not captured. No intraprocedural complications related to XCOILTM use occurred. CONCLUSION: XCOILTM is an effective and safe first-line therapy option for the treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis grafts/fistulae. Rapid removal of intact thrombus and platelet thrombin plug can be achieved without adjunctive thrombolytics.


Assuntos
Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/terapia , Trombólise Mecânica/instrumentação , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Trombose Venosa/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/métodos , Feminino , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Trombólise Mecânica/efeitos adversos , Trombólise Mecânica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/etiologia
9.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 7(3): e11, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24699566

RESUMO

Superior sagittal sinus (SSS) thrombosis has high morbidity and mortality, and urgent recanalization is critical for severe cases. Standard endovascular techniques for thrombolysis and thrombectomy use retrograde venous access, an approach that may be unsuccessful in cases with extensive firm clot burden involving the dural sinuses distal to the SSS. An anterior open transcranial approach to the SSS for catheter sheath placement to facilitate antegrade mechanical thrombectomy and thrombolysis of the SSS and more distal sinuses has not been previously described. Here we describe a case in which multiple unsuccessful attempts at retrograde endovascular access were attempted. Thus, a burr hole over the anterior SSS was performed for daily endovascular antegrade procedures using the Angiojet rheolytic catheter device and chemical thrombolysis. Near-complete recanalization of the SSS was achieved with venous outflow via dilated left transverse and left sigmoid sinuses, along with significant collateral flow in multiple cerebral veins.

10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20142014 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24692369

RESUMO

Superior sagittal sinus (SSS) thrombosis has high morbidity and mortality, and urgent recanalization is critical for severe cases. Standard endovascular techniques for thrombolysis and thrombectomy use retrograde venous access, an approach that may be unsuccessful in cases with extensive firm clot burden involving the dural sinuses distal to the SSS. An anterior open transcranial approach to the SSS for catheter sheath placement to facilitate antegrade mechanical thrombectomy and thrombolysis of the SSS and more distal sinuses has not been previously described. Here we describe a case in which multiple unsuccessful attempts at retrograde endovascular access were attempted. Thus, a burr hole over the anterior SSS was performed for daily endovascular antegrade procedures using the Angiojet rheolytic catheter device and chemical thrombolysis. Near-complete recanalization of the SSS was achieved with venous outflow via dilated left transverse and left sigmoid sinuses, along with significant collateral flow in multiple cerebral veins.


Assuntos
Seio Sagital Superior , Trombectomia/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Crânio/cirurgia , Terapia Trombolítica/instrumentação , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico
11.
Stroke ; 44(12): 3382-93, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24222046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Many patients with an acute stroke live in areas without ready access to a Primary or Comprehensive Stroke Center. The formation of care facilities that meet the needs of these patients might improve their care and outcomes and guide them and emergency responders to such centers within a stroke system of care. METHODS: The Brain Attack Coalition conducted an electronic search of the English medical literature from January 2000 to December 2012 to identify care elements and processes shown to be beneficial for acute stroke care. We used evidence grading and consensus paradigms to synthesize recommendations for Acute Stroke-Ready Hospitals (ASRHs). RESULTS: Several key elements for an ASRH were identified, including acute stroke teams, written care protocols, involvement of emergency medical services and emergency department, and rapid laboratory and neuroimaging testing. Unique aspects include the use of telemedicine, hospital transfer protocols, and drip and ship therapies. Emergent therapies include the use of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator and the reversal of coagulopathies. Although many of the care elements are similar to those of a Primary Stroke Center, compliance rates of ≥67% are suggested in recognition of the staffing, logistical, and financial challenges faced by rural facilities. CONCLUSIONS: ASRHs will form the foundation for acute stroke care in many settings. Recommended elements of an ASRH build on those proven to improve care and outcomes at Primary Stroke Centers. The ASRH will be a key component for patient care within an evolving stroke system of care.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Humanos , Transferência de Pacientes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico
13.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 38(24): E1567-70, 2013 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23883832

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVE: To describe treatment and injury prevention from discectomy with a newly described vertebral artery anomaly. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Cervical segment vertebral artery (VA) anomalies of various types are described with the least common type involving erosion into the vertebral body medial to the uncinate process. The morphology of these includes return to the lateral position at the disc level where they have been immune to anterior cervical discectomy surgery. This case report demonstrates the first published account of a medial vertebral artery adjacent to a disc and injured by discectomy alone.VA injury is a serious complication with a significant percentage of neurological injury and death. The lesion was missed by a neuroradiologist reading the thin slice preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Subsequently, 6 additional specialists blinded to the study all missed the diagnosis. The difficulty of diagnosis is similar to another study where 6 neuroradiologists missed 100% of diagnosis of similar lesions on 49 MRI studies. METHODS: A 55-year-old female with left-sided weakness in the neck and shoulder and C5-C6 stenosis underwent anterior cervical microdiskectomy. When a fine-tipped drill bit was used to smoothen a slight convexity on the C6 endplate, high pressure and volume hemorrhage started. After tamponade, the patient was brought directly to angiography and CT scanning. Several days later, the patient underwent endovascular evaluation and stenting for a pseudoaneurysm. RESULTS: No neurological deficits occurred from the complication. Cervical discomfort and headache symptoms partially improved. CONCLUSION: A previously undescribed medial vertebral artery anomaly involving the cervical disc level is documented with near disastrous hemorrhage from simple anterior discectomy. The rate of preoperative diagnosis from MRI scans is dismal. Preoperative studies should be scrutinized with suspicion and any questionable area studied further regardless of a negative diagnosis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N/A.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Discotomia/métodos , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Estenose Espinal/cirurgia , Artéria Vertebral/lesões , Falso Aneurisma/cirurgia , Angiografia/métodos , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Discotomia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Stents , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Vertebral/cirurgia
14.
Stroke ; 42(9): 2651-65, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21868727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The formation and certification of Primary Stroke Centers has progressed rapidly since the Brain Attack Coalition's original recommendations in 2000. The purpose of this article is to revise and update our recommendations for Primary Stroke Centers to reflect the latest data and experience. METHODS: We conducted a literature review using MEDLINE and PubMed from March 2000 to January 2011. The review focused on studies that were relevant for acute stroke diagnosis, treatment, and care. Original references as well as meta-analyses and other care guidelines were also reviewed and included if found to be valid and relevant. Levels of evidence were added to reflect current guideline development practices. RESULTS: Based on the literature review and experience at Primary Stroke Centers, the importance of some elements has been further strengthened, and several new areas have been added. These include (1) the importance of acute stroke teams; (2) the importance of Stroke Units with telemetry monitoring; (3) performance of brain imaging with MRI and diffusion-weighted sequences; (4) assessment of cerebral vasculature with MR angiography or CT angiography; (5) cardiac imaging; (6) early initiation of rehabilitation therapies; and (7) certification by an independent body, including a site visit and disease performance measures. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the evidence, several elements of Primary Stroke Centers are particularly important for improving the care of patients with an acute stroke. Additional elements focus on imaging of the brain, the cerebral vasculature, and the heart. These new elements may improve the care and outcomes for patients with stroke cared for at a Primary Stroke Center.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Angiografia Cerebral/normas , Feminino , Humanos , MEDLINE , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Masculino , Reabilitação/métodos , Reabilitação/organização & administração , Reabilitação/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Telemetria/normas
15.
J Neurosurg ; 115(3): 602-11, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21663415

RESUMO

OBJECT: Posttraumatic vasospasm (PTV) is an underrecognized cause of ischemic damage after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) that independently predicts poor outcome. There are, however, no guidelines for PTV screening and management, partly due to limited understanding of its pathogenesis and risk factors. METHODS: A database review of 46 consecutive cases of severe TBI in pediatric and adult patients was conducted to identify risk factors for the development of PTV. Univariate analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors for PTV, which were subsequently analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Fever on admission was an independent risk factor for development of PTV (OR 22.2, 95% CI 1.9-256.8), and patients with hypothermia on admission did not develop clinically significant vasospasm during their hospital stay. The presence of small parenchymal contusions was also an independent risk factor for PTV (OR 7.8, 95% CI 0.9-69.5), whereas the presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage or other patterns of intracranial injury were not. Other variables, such as age, sex, ethnicity, degree of TBI severity, or admission laboratory values, were not independent predictors for the development of clinically significant PTV. CONCLUSIONS: Independent risk factors for PTV include parenchymal contusions and fever. These results suggest that diffuse mechanical injury and activation of inflammatory pathways may be underlying mechanisms for the development of PTV, and that a subset of patients with these risk factors may be an appropriate population for aggressive screening. Further studies are needed to determine if treatments targeting fever and inflammation may be effective in reducing the incidence of vasospasm following severe TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Febre/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol ; 34(2): 383-90, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21069329

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thrombotic and embolic vascular occlusion represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Currently available thrombectomy devices have limitations, including difficulty removing organized thrombus and clot fragmentation with distal embolization. A novel mechanical thrombectomy device (MTD), designed to remove both hard and soft thrombus without trauma to the blood vessel, was tested in preclinical porcine models evaluating efficacy, safety, and ease of use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 26 vessels in 14 pigs underwent mechanical thrombectomy with MTD. Thrombectomy was performed in nine superficial femoral arteries, eight subclavian arteries, five primary branches of the subclavian artery, lateral thoracic artery or the thyrocervical trunk, and four external carotids. Subacute organized fibrin-laden thrombus was injected into the arteries producing vascular occlusion. The MTD was then used for thrombectomy to restore patency and blood flow. RESULTS: Intact thrombus was retrieved from 24 of 26 of the vessels with a single pass of the MTD, resulting in complete restoration of patency in 21 vessels and partial patency in 4 vessels. In 8 cases that used an early design, the embolic material fragmented during withdrawal from the access sheath. In 4 procedures that used an early design, the MTD failed to deploy fully and the embolus was not completely captured. No intraprocedural complications or vascular damage occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The present pilot studies demonstrate basic safety and efficacy of a novel MTD with design attributes suitable for retrieval of intact acute and organized chronic thrombus. The device has potential intracranial and peripheral utility.


Assuntos
Trombectomia/instrumentação , Trombose/terapia , Animais , Artéria Carótida Externa/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Desenho de Equipamento , Falha de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Projetos Piloto , Radiografia , Artéria Subclávia/diagnóstico por imagem , Suínos , Artérias Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombectomia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
17.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 21(3): 392-3, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20171561

RESUMO

Previous reports suggest a generally successful experience with embolotherapy of vertebral arteriovenous fistulas of the neck. However, potential complications do exist, as shown by this report documenting spinal cord ischemia secondary to compromise of a dominant spinal artery arising from the proximal aspect of the right vertebral artery.


Assuntos
Fístula Arteriovenosa/terapia , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/etiologia , Medula Espinal/irrigação sanguínea , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/terapia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Neurocrit Care ; 10(1): 61-9, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18807219

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Posttraumatic vasospasm (PTV) is a relatively common event following traumatic brain injury (TBI) that has been strongly correlated with worse neurological outcome in many studies. However, vasospasm continues to be an under-recognized source of secondary injury following TBI, and currently published guidelines do not address screening or management strategies for PTV. Brain tissue oxygen (P(bt)O(2)) monitoring probes allow for continuous screening for cerebral hypoxia following TBI, but their use as a monitor for PTV has not been previously described. METHODS: Case report and literature review. RESULTS: We present a case of PTV identified by persistent low P(bt)O(2) despite aggressive medical therapy. Computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography confirmed severe cerebral arterial vasospasm involving both anterior and posterior circulations. The patient was successfully treated with serial intraarterial therapy including balloon angioplasty and verapamil infusion. CONCLUSION: Posttraumatic vasospasm should be included in the differential diagnosis of cerebral hypoxia (e.g., low P(bt)O(2)) following TBI. Management strategies for PTV may include early, aggressive intraarterial therapies including drug infusion and balloon angioplasty.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/diagnóstico , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/terapia , Verapamil/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/etiologia
20.
Pediatr Neurol ; 35(6): 439-41, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17138017

RESUMO

Butane inhalation can cause serious medical complications and is particularly toxic to the nervous system. This is a report of an acutely encephalopathic youth with prominent abulia. MRI revealed severe bithalamic injury attributed to butane toxicity. Clinical issues, including particular radiologic findings, related to butane inhalation are reviewed.


Assuntos
Butanos/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Doenças Talâmicas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Talâmicas/patologia , Doença Aguda , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Afasia Acinética/induzido quimicamente , Afasia Acinética/patologia , Butanos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
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