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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 146: 946-958, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730983

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are gaining attention among the cell biologists and researchers over the last two decades. Prostasomes are considered to be (Evs) secreted by prostate epithelial cells into the semen during emission or ejaculation. Prostasomes contain various proteins required for immune regulation namely, amino and dipeptidyl peptidase; endopeptidase (neutral); decay accelerating factor; angiotensin-converting enzyme. Sperm cells need a few prerequisites in order to fertilize the egg. The role of prostasomes in enhancing the male fertility was reviewed extensively throughout the manuscript. Also, prostasomes have an immunosuppressive, immunomodulatory, antibacterial role in the female reproductive tract, and in some cases they can be used as immunocontraceptive agent to regulate the fertility status. This review will give insights to many active researchers in the field of prostasomal research and male infertility/fertility research. This review will open many unanswered mechanisms of prostasomes with respect to structure-function analysis, fatty acids patterns in diagnosis as well as prognosis of male infertility/fertility. More scientific reports are in need to support the mechanism of prostasomes and its role in immunomodulation. The development of prostasomes as a biomarker for the prostate cancer is still miserable with a lot of controversial results by various researchers.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/imunologia , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
2.
Front Mol Biosci ; 6: 91, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750312

RESUMO

Various internal and external factors negatively affect the homeostatic equilibrium of organisms at the molecular to the whole-body level, inducing the so-called state of stress. Stress affects an organism's welfare status and induces energy-consuming mechanisms to combat the subsequent ill effects; thus, the individual may be immunocompromised, making them vulnerable to pathogens. The information presented here has been extensively reviewed, compiled, and analyzed from authenticated published resources available on Medline, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, and other scientific databases. Stress levels can be monitored by the quantitative and qualitative measurement of biomarkers. Potential markers of stress include thermal stress markers, such as heat shock proteins (HSPs), innate immune markers, such as Acute Phase Proteins (APPs), oxidative stress markers, and chemical secretions in the saliva and urine. In addition, stress biomarkers also play critical roles in the prognosis of stress-related diseases and disorders, and therapy guidance. Moreover, different components have been identified as potent mediators of cardiovascular, central nervous system, hepatic, and nephrological disorders, which can also be employed to evaluate these conditions precisely, but with stringent validation and specificity. Considerable scientific advances have been made in the detection, quantitation, and application of these biomarkers. The present review describes the current progress of identifying biomarkers, their prognostic, and therapeutic values.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 7(3)2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527552

RESUMO

Sperm of humans, non-human primates, and other mammalian subjects is considered to be antigenic. The effect of changes in autoimmunity on reproductive cells such as spermatozoa and oocytes play a critical but indistinct role in fertility. Antisperm antibodies (ASAs) are invariably present in both females and males. However, the degree of ASA occurrence may vary according to individual and gender. Although the extent of infertility due to ASAs alone is yet to be determined, it has been found in almost 9-12% of patients who are infertile due to different causes. Postcoital presence of spermatozoa in the reproductive tract of women is not a contributory factor in ASA generation. However, ASA generation may be induced by trauma to the vaginal mucosa, or by anal or oral sex resulting in the deposition of sperm inside the digestive tract. It is strongly believed that, in humans and other species, at least some antibodies may bind to sperm antigens, causing infertility. This form of infertility is termed as immunological infertility, which may be accompanied by impairment of fertility, even in individuals with normozoospermia. Researchers target ASAs for two major reasons: (i) to elucidate the association between ASAs and infertility, the reason ASAs causes infertility, and the mechanism underlying ASA-mediated infertility; and (ii) to assess the potential of ASAs as a contraceptive in humans in case ASAs influences infertility. Therefore, this review explores the potential application of ASAs in the development of anti-spermatozoa vaccines for contraceptive purposes. The usefulness of ASAs for diagnosing obstructive azoospermia, salpingitis, and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia has been reviewed extensively. Important patents pertaining to potential candidates for spermatozoa-derived vaccines that may be utilized as contraceptives are discussed in depth. Antifertility vaccines, as well as treatments for ASA-related infertility, are also highlighted. This review will address many unresolved issues regarding mechanisms involving ASAs in the diagnosis, as well as prognoses, of male infertility. More documented scientific reports are cited to support the mechanisms underlying the potential role of ASA in infertility. The usefulness of sperm antigens or ASAs (recombinant) in human and wild or captive animal contraceptive vaccines has been revealed through research but is yet to be validated via clinical testing.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 7(3)2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487960

RESUMO

Infectious bursal disease (IBD), caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), is characterized by severe immunosuppression in young chicks of 3 to 6 week age group. Although vaccines are available to prevent IBD, outbreaks of disease are still noticed in the field among vaccinated flocks. Further, the birds surviving IBD become susceptible to secondary infections caused by various viral and bacterial agents. This study assessed the immunoprophylactic potential of Cytosine-guanosinedeoxynucleotide (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) and Tinospora cordifolia stem aqueous extract in the specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks, experimentally infected with very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV). Both of these agents (CpG ODN and herbal extract) showed significant increase in the IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-1 levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (p < 0.05) of chickens in the treatment groups following IBD infection.Further we found significant reduction in mortality rate in vvIBDV infected chicks treated with either, or in combination, compared with the birds of control group. Additionally, the adjuvant or immune enhancing potential of these two immunomodulatory agents with the commercially available IBDV vaccine was determined in chicks. The augmentation of vaccine response in terms of an enhanced antibody titer after vaccination, along with either or a combination of the two agents was noticed. The findings provide a way forward to counter the menace of IBDV in the poultry sector through use of these herbal or synthetic immunomodulatory supplements.

5.
Vet Q ; 39(1): 26-55, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006350

RESUMO

Nipah (Nee-pa) viral disease is a zoonotic infection caused by Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus belonging to the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is a biosafety level-4 pathogen, which is transmitted by specific types of fruit bats, mainly Pteropus spp. which are natural reservoir host. The disease was reported for the first time from the Kampung Sungai Nipah village of Malaysia in 1998. Human-to-human transmission also occurs. Outbreaks have been reported also from other countries in South and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analysis affirmed the circulation of two major clades of NiV as based on currently available complete N and G gene sequences. NiV isolates from Malaysia and Cambodia clustered together in NiV-MY clade, whereas isolates from Bangladesh and India clusterered within NiV-BD clade. NiV isolates from Thailand harboured mixed population of sequences. In humans, the virus is responsible for causing rapidly progressing severe illness which might be characterized by severe respiratory illness and/or deadly encephalitis. In pigs below six months of age, respiratory illness along with nervous symptoms may develop. Different types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays along with molecular methods based on polymerase chain reaction have been developed for diagnostic purposes. Due to the expensive nature of the antibody drugs, identification of broad-spectrum antivirals is essential along with focusing on small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). High pathogenicity of NiV in humans, and lack of vaccines or therapeutics to counter this disease have attracted attention of researchers worldwide for developing effective NiV vaccine and treatment regimens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Henipavirus/veterinária , Vírus Nipah/imunologia , Vacinas Virais , Zoonoses , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Humanos , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/análise , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
6.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1803, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30147687

RESUMO

Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the family Filoviridae, is responsible for causing Ebola virus disease (EVD) (formerly named Ebola hemorrhagic fever). This is a severe, often fatal illness with mortality rates varying from 50 to 90% in humans. Although the virus and associated disease has been recognized since 1976, it was only when the recent outbreak of EBOV in 2014-2016 highlighted the danger and global impact of this virus, necessitating the need for coming up with the effective vaccines and drugs to counter its pandemic threat. Albeit no commercial vaccine is available so far against EBOV, a few vaccine candidates are under evaluation and clinical trials to assess their prophylactic efficacy. These include recombinant viral vector (recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vector, chimpanzee adenovirus type 3-vector, and modified vaccinia Ankara virus), Ebola virus-like particles, virus-like replicon particles, DNA, and plant-based vaccines. Due to improvement in the field of genomics and proteomics, epitope-targeted vaccines have gained top priority. Correspondingly, several therapies have also been developed, including immunoglobulins against specific viral structures small cell-penetrating antibody fragments that target intracellular EBOV proteins. Small interfering RNAs and oligomer-mediated inhibition have also been verified for EVD treatment. Other treatment options include viral entry inhibitors, transfusion of convalescent blood/serum, neutralizing antibodies, and gene expression inhibitors. Repurposed drugs, which have proven safety profiles, can be adapted after high-throughput screening for efficacy and potency for EVD treatment. Herbal and other natural products are also being explored for EVD treatment. Further studies to better understand the pathogenesis and antigenic structures of the virus can help in developing an effective vaccine and identifying appropriate antiviral targets. This review presents the recent advances in designing and developing vaccines, drugs, and therapies to counter the EBOV threat.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Desenho de Fármacos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Vacinas contra Ebola/imunologia , Ebolavirus/genética , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/tratamento farmacológico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Engenharia Genética , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos
7.
Virusdisease ; 29(2): 180-191, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29911151

RESUMO

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belongs to genus Avulavirus and family Paramyxoviridae. There are thirteen serotypes named APMV-I (Avian Paramyxovirus-I) to APMV-13 of which NDV has been designated as APMV-1. The disease has been reported worldwide affecting both domestic and wild avian species. Morbidity and mortality rates up to 100% have been reported in cases of unvaccinated flocks. Stringent vaccination schedule is practiced in endemic/disease prone areas in order to prevent the disease. Despite this, NDV outbreaks have been reported even in cases of vaccinated populations. In this study we describe detailed pathological and molecular investigation that were undertaken in an organized poultry farm from Bareilly region, Uttar Pradesh, India, involving layer flocks which succumbed to ND outbreak in spite of following strict vaccination protocol. The mortality rate ranged from 76.80 to 84.41% in different flocks with an average mortality of 79.50%. Necropsied birds had gross lesions suggestive of viscerotropic ND including petechial hemorrhages on the proventricular tips, intestinal lumen with necrotic areas covered with hemorrhages, hemorrhagic cecal tonsils, para-tracheal edema and mottling of spleen. The characteristic histopathological lesions were mainly seen in the blood vessels and lymphoid tissues. Vascular changes characterized by congestion, edema, and hemorrhage were found in majority of the organs. Lymphocytolysis in spleen and cecal tonsils was evident. Immunohistochemical studies revealed positive signals mostly in macrophage and lymphocytes. PCR assay was done to confirm the NDV genome, which revealed an amplicon size of 356 bp. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the resemblance of the present isolate (ADS01) with class II genotype NDV XIIIA. The isolate belonged to velogenic NDV as the Minimum Lethal Dose (MLD) and Mean Death Time (MDT) for the present isolate were 10-8 and 41 h, respectively. Thus this study clearly demonstrates that in spite of strict vaccination regime and biosecurity procedures, ND continues to be rampant. Hence it is important to effectively administer the present vaccine in addition to strains matching to the field isolates to provide longer and optimal protection against spreading of virus by means of reducing the extent of viral shedding.

8.
Vet World ; 11(2): 112-117, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657389

RESUMO

Aim: Mortality in a broiler chicken farm was investigated for identifying the cause of mortality. Materials and Methods: A broiler farm with a population of 16000 succumbed to a disease outbreak. Clinical signs, vaccination history and mortality, were recorded. Necropsy examination and microscopic examination were carried out along with toxicological and molecular studies. Results: The clinical signs in the affected broiler birds were of non-specific nature with a total mortality of 26.39%. Postmortem examination and microscopical findings revealed hepatitis with basophilic intranuclear inclusion, splenitis, myocarditis, and nephritis. Glomerulonephritis was the prominent renal pathology recorded in this study. Polymerase chain reaction test confirmed the presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) genome in the target organs, and toxicological examination by thin-layer chromatography revealed the presence of a toxic level of citrinin in the feed samples. Conclusion: Based on various diagnostic investigations, the mortality in the flock was attributed to inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) complicated with citrinin mycotoxicosis. Thus, apart from liver pathology which occurs in a classical IBH cases, glomerulonephritis too occurs which are also a prominent finding which pathologists often miss. Thus, kidneys should also be examined histologically to assess the microscopic tissue alterations in poultry suspected for IBH along with a mycotoxicological analysis of feed. This will definitely throw light on the synergistic pathology elicited and exhibited by FAdV and mycotoxins in the poultry.

9.
Curr Drug Metab ; 19(3): 264-301, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29380694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constant exposure to various stressors, such as immune pressure, rapidly increasing population, deleterious changes in the ecosystem, climate change, infection with emerging and re-emerging pathogens, and fast-paced lifestyle, is a critical factor in the globally increasing incidences of immunocompromising health conditions, as well as stress. Synthetic chemotherapeutic agents, which are widely available in the commercial market, may be highly efficacious, but most are immunosuppressive and exert many side effects. METHODS: Herein, we comprehensively reviewed current literature from various scientific databases such as Bentham Science, PubMed, Scopus, Elsevier, Springer, etc. The inclusion/exclusion criteria based on literature with high importance was adopted to analyze and compile salient information from the authentic bibliographic sources. RESULTS: Undoubtedly, the pivotal characteristics of immunostimulants and immunomodulators in the maintenance of the health and productivity of humans, as well as animals, cannot be overlooked. Numerous herbs used in ethnoveterinary medicine can be successfully employed as adjuvant rehabilitators to negate the deleterious effects of chemotherapeutics. The sources of these medicinal remedies are part of long traditions in different regions of the world, such as Indian Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine, which have been developed through empirical experience. Traditional medicine employs a holistic approach to the prevention of disease, and traditional herbal medicines are a source of many components with a high therapeutic value that are used in modern allopathic medicine. Globally, many studies have been conducted on these herbs and have revealed unique active constituents that activate the innate immune system through the stimulation of macrophages and lymphocytes, and modulation of the cytokine profile, which leads to a state of alertness with a subsequent reduction in the incidence of infection. Immunomodulatory constituents with herbal origins are termed as phytochemicals, including flavonoids, glycosides, polysaccharides, terpenoids, essential oils, various bitters, and alkaloids; all these compounds exert vital, multidimensional effects. Efforts have focused on screening plant preparations to identify adjuvant immune properties; furthermore, several potent phytol adjuvants have been experimentally proven to downregulate inflammatory reactions in addition to enhance specific adaptive responses to vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this review summarizes the current status and future prospects regarding the immunomodulatory potential of various herbs and plants and their promising utility for designing and developing effective drugs and medicines in safeguarding the health of humans, animals, and poultry.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Medicina Ayurvédica , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Virusdisease ; 28(1): 115-120, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28466063

RESUMO

Chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) is an economically important and a highly immunosuppressive virus affecting poultry industry worldwide. In this study we assessed the immunomodulatory effects of four herbal preparations namely Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Azadirachta indica and E Care Se Herbal in resisting the viral multiplication and immunosuppression inflicted by CIAV in chicks. Day-old chicks (n = 90) were randomly and equally divided into six groups (Groups A-F). Groups A-D were administered with purified extracts of W. somnifera, T. cordifolia, A. indica and E Care Se Herbal, respectively followed by the evaluation of viral load in lymphoid organs by quantitative real-time PCR and cell mediated immune response by flow cytometric analysis of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Groups A-D were found to resist CIAV multiplication and pathogenesis with significant reduction of viral load compared with the infected control (P < 0.05). Group A-C chicks showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts compared to control birds while of E Care Se Herb had minimal effect on T cell count. The findings suggested that the herbal preparations used during the study were effective as both prophylactic and immunomodulatory agents and thus have potential of being used against CIAV induced immunosuppression in poultry.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28260522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants have been known as an integral part of traditional medicine because of their phytoconstituents with their miraculous substances. Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi/ Giloy) is one such plant having pharmacological functions and medicinal values due to its several constituents such as terpenes, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids. Thus, it has been rightly mentioned in old texts as "Amrita". OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present review is to extend the current knowledge, importance and beneficial pharmacological applications of guduchi in humans for safeguarding various health issues. METHODS: We extensively reviewed, analyzed and compiled salient information from the published literature available in PubMed and other scientific databases. RESULTS: The present review describes medicinal applications of T. cordifolia in countering various disorders and usages as anti-oxidant, anti-hyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular protective, neuroprotective, osteoprotective, radioprotective, anti-anxiety, adaptogenic agent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, a thrombolytic agent, anti-diarrheal, anti-ulcer, anti-microbial and anti-cancer agent. The plant is also a source of micronutrients viz. copper, calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc and manganese. A special focus has been made on its health benefits in treating endocrine and metabolic disorders and its potential as an immune booster. Several patents have been filed and granted to inventions encompassing T. cordifolia as a major component of therapeutics for ameliorating metabolic, endocrinal and several other ailments, aiding in the betterment of human life expectancy. CONCLUSION: The information presented would be beneficial for researchers, medical professionals and pharmaceutical companies to design and develop effective medicines, drugs and healthical products exploiting the multiple as well as specific modes of actions of T. cordifolia, and also help in promoting and popularizing this rich herb having promising potentials to prevent and treat various ailments.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tinospora/química , Animais , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Medicina Tradicional , Patentes como Assunto , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28029082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Probiotics constitute the viable and beneficial microbes, which offer a dietary means to sustain the balance of gastro-intestinal (GI) microflora. Owing to their multiple health benefits, these have recently gained wide attention among researchers for exploring their potential in safeguarding the health of humans and animals. Probiotics could also modulate host-immune responses, thereby help in counteracting the immunological dysfunctions. Probiotics can inhibit the systemic invasion of pathogens entering through the GI mucosa/ oral cavity and have been found to possess effective prophylactic and therapeutic utilities against various infectious pathogens as well as non-infectious diseases and disorders. OBJECTIVE: The present review expedites the role of probiotics in curing the ailments related to allergic and inflammatory disease conditions. METHOD: A thorough reviewing of the literature and patents available on probiotics and their role in countering inflammation and allergy was conducted using authentic published resources available on Medline, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct and other scientific databases. The information retrieved has been compiled and analysed pertaining to the theme of the study. RESULTS: Various micro-organisms have been evaluated for their probiotic efficacy, among these, the lactic acid bacteria viz. Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium sp. have extensively been studied and widely exploited. In the current post-globalized era of self and complementary medicines, the concept of probiotics and their therapeutic as well as prophylactic usage is gaining wide acceptance. As more and more bacterial strains are being proven for their pronounced influence on down regulation of immune regulation, atopic, inflammatory conditions, the use of probiotics is getting increased especially in the developed countries where such indications are high in prevalence. Apart from usage in immune related disorders, probiotics have been found to be effective in treating pouchitis, infantile diarrhoea due to infections, bacterial vaginosis, urinary tract infections, dental carries, diabetes, cancers as well augmenting the gut mucosal tolerance to various antibiotics and lactose intolerance. CONCLUSION: The resent review gives an insight towards potent utility of this branch of beneficial microbial therapy in allergy and inflammations, which is still in the emerging phase and more scientific evidences need to be explored regarding exploration of the mechanisms of action, further experimental trials and validation of controlled clinical studies in humans along with designing novel strategies for monitoring the possible microbial changes in their composition and metabolism associated with their interaction upon host immune system.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Inflamação/terapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bifidobacterium , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Lactobacillus , Patentes como Assunto , Probióticos/farmacologia
13.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 17(6): 802-11, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26035953

RESUMO

Chicken Infectious Anaemia Virus (CIAV) is one of the potent immunosuppressive and economically important agents affecting poultry industry worldwide. Recent reports indicate the emergence of this virus in the poultry flocks of the country. The present study aimed to investigate the pathogenic potential of a recent isolate of CIAV obtained from poultry flock of Uttaranchal State, India. Twenty first day-old age Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) chicks were inoculated intramuscularly with 10(4.5) median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of CIAV passaged in the Marek's disease virus transformed chicken splenic T lymphocyte (MDCC-MSB 1) cell line while 15 chicks were kept as control. The CIAV isolate produced consistent clinical signs, loss in body weight gain, anaemia, low haematocrit values, bone marrow aplasia and generalized lymphoid atrophy. Mean Packed Cell Volume (PCV) value of the infected chicks was significantly low (18.22±2.22) compared to control group (34.12±4.72) at 14 day post infection (dpi). The establishment of virus infection in chicks was confirmed both at molecular and antigenic levels by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Indirect Immunofluorescent Test (IIFT), respectively. Characteristic apoptotic pattern was also detected in the affected organs and the virus was re-isolated successfully in MDCC-MSB1 cell cultures. The present results revealed that the virus circulating in poultry flocks of Uttaranchal state is both pathogenic and immunosuppressive in nature. Extensive epidemiological studies are suggested in the poultry flocks of the country along with adaptation of appropriate diagnostic, prevention and control strategies so as to prevent economic losses caused by this important poultry pathogen.


Assuntos
Vírus da Anemia da Galinha/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Vírus da Anemia da Galinha/genética , Galinhas , Infecções por Circoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Genes Virais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
14.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 15(16): 754-74, 2012 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24175417

RESUMO

Herbs/Botanical plants are considered as God's gift to human beings in the form of natural medicines, like the one well known "Sanjeevani booti" described in Hindu Mythology. The traditional and ethno-veterinary practices have been in use for centuries, transferring the knowledge from generation to generation and they are accessible, easy to prepare and administer, with little or no cost at all. Even though the modern developments in therapeutic field brought about a rapid decline in traditional medicine, the plant-based remedies are still having a crucial role as potential source of therapeutic aids in health systems all over the world for both humans and animals. Among the 21,000 medicinal plants listed by the World Health Organization (WHO), 2500 species are native to India, which stands first in the production of medicinal herbs. This innumerable treasure of medicinal herbs brings India the distinction of 'the botanical garden of the world'. Nowadays immune-based therapies are gaining more importance than monovalent approaches which are having limited benefits. Apart from the actions like treating diseases, control of ecto- and endo-parasites, fertility enhancement, bone setting and poor mothering management, an array of herbal medicines have been reported which are having immunomodulatory effects like modulation of cytokine secretion, histamine release, immunoglobulin secretion, class switching, cellular co-receptor expression, lymphocyte expression, phagocytosis and so on. The present article describes in brief few of these important ones viz., ashwagandha, amla, tulsi, arjuna, aloe vera, garlic, turmeric, ginger, shatavari, neem, guduchi, kiwifruit, tut, kamala, palashlata, kokilaksha etc. being used for human and animal health benefits.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Medicina Herbária , Medicina Tradicional , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Humanos
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