Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 33
Filtrar
1.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(3): 394-402, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522404

RESUMO

Objectives: Disturbed sleep patterns might alter the autonomic tone and lead to various cardiovascular morbidities. This study aimed to determine sleep patterns (quality, duration, efficiency and daytime sleepiness) and explore their association with blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) in apparently healthy, young Saudi females. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia between March 2019 and December 2019. Self-reported Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaires were used to collect data. In addition, the participants' BP and HRV was measured. Based on the cut-off values of sleep quality, duration, efficiency and daytime sleepiness scores, participants were categorised into groups. HRV and BP were compared between the groups by a t-test/one-way ANOVA. Results: A total of 98 participants were included in this study (response rate: 72.6%). Poor sleep patterns (quality, duration and efficiency) were observed, but no association was found with BP and HRV parameters among groups with different sleep quality, duration and efficiency. Systolic BP was significantly increased in the moderate to severe daytime sleepiness group (P = 0.039). Dozing off as a passenger in a car, in the afternoon and after lunch were negatively correlated with HRV parameters (P <0.05). Conclusion: Sleep quality, duration and efficiency were not found to be statistically significant, but various dozing-off situations were associated with fluctuations in HRV parameters. Daytime sleepiness may augment sympathetic responses in apparently healthy female participants.


Assuntos
Sono , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
2.
Asian Spine J ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461689

RESUMO

Study Design: Cross-sectional comparative. Purpose: To characterize the scores of disc degeneration, inflammation, and nerve density in herniated disc samples and associate findings with the presence of vertebral endplate (VEP) changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Overview of Literature: Considering the role of disc composition in spontaneous regression and persistence of pain during conservative management, it is important to identify the influencing factors. VEP changes are highly associated with disc degeneration, but their correlation with herniated disc composition has not yet been reported. Methods: Fifty-one discs were obtained from patients undergoing surgery for herniated disc. Their ages ranged from 19-65 years, and 31/51 were male. Pre-surgical T1 and T2 weighted lumbar-spine MRIs were analyzed to observe Pfirrmann grade, VEP defects, herniation type, Modic changes, and high-intensity zones (HIZ) at the affected level. Five-micron thick sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Alcian blue periodic acid-Schiff stain; examined for histological degeneration scores (HDS; 0-15), inflammation (0 [absence]-3 [severe]), and presence of cartilaginous endplate (CEP). Three-micron thick sections were stained with protein-gene-product 9.5 and expression was counted/mm2. Data was analyzed, and p<0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: VEP defects, Modic changes, and HIZ were respectively observed in 30/51, 16/51, and 6/51 of the samples. CEP was observed in 26/51 samples and in 23/51 with endplate defects. Discs with adjacent VEP defects showed increased HDS (p<0.001) and inflammation (p<0.001). Discs with adjacent Modic changes also revealed increased HDS (p=0.01). Histological sections with CEP showed increased HDS (p<0.001) and inflammation (p<0.001), and nerve density was significantly positively correlated with HDS (r=0.27, p=0.02). Conclusions: VEP changes can modulate degeneration and inflammation of herniated discs. Presence of these changes is highly predictive of the occurrence of CEP in herniated discs, which leads to slow resorption and persistent clinical symptoms.

3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111557, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243621

RESUMO

Migraine is a neurological ailment that is characterized by severe throbbing unilateral headache and associated with nausea, photophobia, phonophobia and vomiting. A full and clear mechanism of the pathogenesis of migraine, though studied extensively, has not been established yet. The current available information indicates an intracranial network activation that culminates in the sensitization of the trigemino-vascular system, release of inflammatory markers, and initiation of meningeal-like inflammatory reaction that is sensed as headache. Genetic factors might play a significant role in deciding an individual's susceptibility to migraine. Twin studies have revealed that a single gene polymorphism can lead to migraine in individuals with a monogenic migraine disorder. In this review, we describe recent advancements in the genetics, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, management, and prevention of migraine. We also discuss the potential roles of genetic and abnormal factors, including some of the metabolic triggering factors that result in migraine attacks. This review will help to accumulate current knowledge about migraine and understanding of its pathophysiology, and provides up-to-date prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/patologia , Animais , Genética , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
4.
Saudi Med J ; 42(7): 793-797, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the sex hormone levels in young Saudi female migraineurs during a migraine attack and during pain-free periods and compare them with control subjects. METHODS: A case-control study involving 14 Saudi female migraineurs and 21 control subjects was conducted between December 2019 and March 2020. Demographic and disease history data were collected through participant interviews. Blood samples were drawn during the migraine attack and pain-free periods. RESULTS: Follicular (30.00±19.60; p<0.001) and luteal (39.79±11.45; p=0.037) estrogen levels were significantly higher in patients with non-menstrual related migraine (NMM), while luteal testosterone levels (1.10±0.31; p=0.023) were significantly higher in patients with menstrually related migraine (MM). Body mass index (BMI) was higher in patients with NMM (25.77±6.53; p=0.013), and it was found to be associated with follicular estrogen (p=0.016), progesterone (p=0.018), and pain intensity (p=0.042). Luteal estrogen level was significantly lower (13.96±7.88; p=0.036) in patients with luteal onset of attack. CONCLUSION: High estrogen levels were found to mediate NMM, their effect being more pronounced with increase in BMI; whereas low luteal estrogen levels mediated MM. Young females with MM might have high luteal testosterone levels, and a compensatory protective role could be surmised accordingly.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Progesterona , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
5.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 27(S1): 114-119, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088675

RESUMO

Context: The prevalence of overweight and obesity and associated comorbidities has progressively risen. Curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric, and turmeric aqueous extract, a concentrated form, have been reported to have beneficial effects in treatment of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. However, turmeric has not been studied in its natural form. Objective: The present study planned to evaluate the beneficial effects of turmeric in its natural form on obesity-related, cardiovascular-disease risk factors in overweight or obese females. Design: The study used a pre-post, single-arm design. Setting: The study took place in the Department of Physiology at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (Dammam, Saudi Arabia). Participants: The participants were 36 young female students at the university, with a body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2. Intervention: Participants received a daily dose of 2 g/d of turmeric in capsules for 90 d. Outcome Measures: Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, serum homocysteine, and mental health status- stress, anxiety, depression scores-were recorded at baseline and postintervention. Dietary intake and physical activity (confounding variables) were also measured. Results: The following anthropometric measures were reduced significantly between baseline and postintervention: (1) body weight-73.47 vs 72.45 kg (P = .04), (2) body mass index-28.75 vs 28.27 kg/m2 (P = .02), (3) waist circumference-81.85 vs 77.96 cm (P = .01), (4) hip circumference-102.72 vs 98.10 cm (P = .001), (5) body fat %-34.34 vs 32.58 (P = .00), (6) systolic blood pressure-119.12 vs 115.92 mm Hg (P = .04), and (7) anxiety scores-7.88 vs 4.73 (P = .03), as compared by paired t test. Homocysteine levels and stress and depression scores showed no significant changes. Dietary intake and physical activity did not vary significantly throughout the study period. Conclusion: Turmeric has the ability to reduce weight, decrease body fat percentage, lower systolic blood pressure, and relieve anxiety for young, obese and overweight females, when given at 2 g/d for 90 d.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Curcuma , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Homocisteína/química , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco
6.
Saudi Med J ; 41(12): 1308-1314, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES:  To establish an association between cigarette smoking, cognition, and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in healthy young adults. METHODS:  This was an ex post facto analytic cross-sectional study conducted between March and November 2018. Participants were 73 healthy males (31 smokers and 42 non-smokers), 17-33 years old. The cognitive function of the participants was assessed through the Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery (CANTAB). Blood samples were taken to measure the plasma levels of BDNF and the results were compared to identify the association between smoking related variables and cognitive test scores and plasma BDNF levels. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:  Smokers performed significantly worse than non-smokers in the multitasking test, including reaction time and rapid visual information processing. However, no significant association was observed between smoking related variables and cognitive test scores. The only significant positive correlation was found between plasma BDNF levels and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (r=0.480, p=0.024). No correlation was observed between other smoking related variables and plasma BDNF levels. CONCLUSION:  Plasma BDNF level is positively related to the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Young smokers have significantly impaired sustained attention and less ability to manage conflicting information as compared to age-matched non-smokers.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Cognição , Voluntários Saudáveis/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Pain Res ; 13: 2423-2430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116786

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of migraine in young female adults and to identify if a relationship exists between psychological stress or poor sleep quality and migraine. Materials and Methods: This case control study was carried out at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU), Dammam, KSA from March 2019 to March 2020 on 1,990 female students (17- to 26-years-old). The study tools were Migraine Screening Questionnaire (MS-Q), International Headache Society (IHS) Criteria for Migraine, K10 Psychological Distress Instrument (K10) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results: A total of 103 out of 1,990 (5.17%) participants were identified to have migraine. Migraineurs compared to controls had significantly higher average stress scores; felt more tired, nervous, restless, could not sit still, felt that everything was an effort, and nothing cheered them up (p values; 0.008, 0.001, 0.02, 0.01, 0.004, 0.009, 0.02 respectively). Moreover, presence of migraine was significantly correlated with various stress parameters including "High K10 scores," "being tired," "being nervous," "restlessness," "inability to sit still," and "feeling that everything is an effort" (p values: 0.01, 0.002, 0.018, 0.01,0.005, 0.01,0.02). Regarding sleep quality and sleep parameters, no statistically significant difference was found between migraineurs and controls. No correlation was found between presence of migraine and poor sleep quality. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that 5.17% of young females (17- to 26-years-old) suffer from migraine. It also concludes that poor sleep quality is not correlated with migraine, whereas high stress scores are significantly correlated with migraine in young female adults.

8.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(4): 755-760, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494269

RESUMO

Objective: There is a lack of studies exploring the effects of Zamzam water on human physiology. The present study determined the effects of Zamzam water on blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: This comparative interventional study was conducted at the Department of Physiology, of our university in March 2018. A total number of 97 female subjects drank 500 ml of either Zamzam water or mineral water in one minute. Finometer Pro and PowerLab (ADInstrumentsR) with ECG electrodes through bioamplifier and attached finger pulse transducer were used to collect data at the baseline (for five minutes), during (for one minute) and after the drink (for five minutes). Paired and uunpaired student's t-test, one-way ANCOVA and one-way repeated measure ANOVA were used for analysis. Blood pressure parameters were followed minute by minute and HRV parameters were compared as a 5-minute of baseline segment to 5-minute post drink segment. Results: Within-the-group comparison exhibited significant increases in blood pressure parameters (systolic, diastolic, pulse and mean arterial pressure), over a 5-minute post-drinking period in both groups. Zamzam water caused a significant increase in SDRR (an indication of overall HRV) and RMSSD (an indication of vagal activity) as compared to baseline. Conclusion: Both drinks cause a significant increase in systolic, diastolic, pulse and mean arterial pressure within five minutes post-drinking period. Zamzam water produce a significant increase in cardiac vagal tone but has no effect on cardiac sympathetic activity. Mineral water has no significant effect on both, cardiac vagal and sympathetic activity.

9.
J Taibah Univ Med Sci ; 15(1): 14-18, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110177

RESUMO

Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated that Zamzam water exerts beneficial effects on several ailments such as diabetes mellitus, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and stress. The present study aimed to assess the effects of Zamzam water on glycemic status, lipid profile, redox homeostasis, and body composition in healthy rats. Methods: Twenty-four rats were divided into two equal groups. Rats were fed a chow diet along with either tap or Zamzam water as the only fluid source. After ten weeks, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance, low density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, and lipid peroxidation were measured. Adipose pads and carcass (musculoskeletal only) were weighed and residual body weight was calculated. The groups were compared using independent sample t test (unpaired). Results: The following parameters were significantly reduced in the Zamzam water group compared to the tap water group: fasting blood sugar, 96.5 vs. 147.1 mg/dl (p = 0.00); serum insulin, 0.44 vs. 1.31 µU/l (p = 0.00); and insulin resistance, 1.89 vs. 8.40 (p = 0.00). LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, weight of the body, fat pads, and carcass, as well as residual body weight (both absolute and relative) showed no significant changes. Conclusion: Zamzam water intake for ten weeks decreases fasting blood sugar, serum insulin, and insulin resistance. However, Zamzam water has no effect on lipid profile, redox homeostasis, and body composition.

10.
J Taibah Univ Med Sci ; 15(1): 59-65, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110184

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the responses and understanding of students and teachers about the cell phone-based Socrative® application. Additionally, we compared the academic performance of the groups using Socrative with the one group that did not make use of this application. Methods: During the 50 min of each endocrine physiology lecture, traditional teaching took 40 min, whereas the last 10 min were reserved for Socrative. Following the lecture, students completed small Socrative-based quizzes on their smartphones. At the end of the module, students and teachers were asked for feedback and the students' test performances were evaluated. Data were examined by the SPSS version 20 for frequencies and gender/academic performance comparison. Results: As many as 87% of the students responded positively to Socrative; 85% felt that the activity was fun, 84% were more actively engaged, and 71% felt more motivated. Furthermore, 90% of the students agreed that this exercise enhanced their learning. Most students agreed that Socrative helped them enhance peer-to-peer and class discussions. Students' attitudes towards Socrative activity did not vary with respect to their gender or total screen time per day. Approximately 99% of the students preferred multiple-choice questions to true/false and short answers. Instructors perceived Socrative as an easy-to-use tool to generate discussions and assess the degree of understanding of their students. Socrative significantly enhanced exam performance. Conclusion: Course instructors are encouraged to incorporate mobile-based applications in their lectures, which may make students' learning more active, effective, and enjoyable, without increasing institutional expenses.

11.
Explore (NY) ; 16(6): 372-375, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown favorable effects of chocolate products on the cardiovascular system and reported an inverse relationship between chocolate consumption and adverse cardiac events; however, relationships between chocolate eating habits and heart rate variability have not yet been studied. The purpose of the present research was to determine the relationship, if any, between chocolate consumption frequency and heart rate variability. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 98 young females (19-21 years old). The study included the evaluation of chocolate eating habits by a questionnaire and heart rate variability parameters by Finometer and Powerlab as primary outcomes along with measuring anthropometry, blood pressure and fasting blood sugar levels as predictors to account for potential confounding. RESULTS: Three chocolate eating patterns were distinguished: "No regular chocolate consumption (n:42), 2-4 servings/week (n:20), 5 or more servings/week (n:36)". An ANOVA test revealed insignificant differences (p > 0.05) in heart rate variability parameters (time domain: Heart rate, RRms, SDNN, RMSSD; frequency domain: LF, HF, LF/HF) and pressures (systolic, diastolic, pulse, mean arterial) among three groups of individuals having different chocolate eating habits. Relative frequency of chocolate intake did not correlate with any of the cardiovascular, time-domain or frequency-domain parameters of heart rate variability in study participants. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we conclude that relative frequency of chocolate eating may not affect autonomic regulation of the heart in young females. Also, it may have no correlation with any of the cardiovascular, time-domain or frequency-domain parameters of heart rate variability.

12.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 30(6): 929-940, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883838

RESUMO

Background: Studies reporting prediabetes prevalence in young Saudis are almost a decade old. The present study determined prediabetes prevalence and its associated risk factors (body composition, lipid profile, blood pressure and physical activity) in young Saudi females. Methods: Three hundred Saudi females (18-20 years old), studying in year 2 and 3 at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, were categorized as normoglycemic or prediabetic based on fasting plasma glucose criteria of World Health Organization (WHO) and American Diabetes Association (ADA). Anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, atherogenic indices, and physical activity data were compared. Association between fasting blood glucose and study variables was found by Bivariate analysis (Spearman Correlation for non-parametric variables and Pearson correlation for parametric) followed by Binary Logistic Regression analysis. Results: Prevalence of prediabetes by WHO and ADA criteria were 11.3% and 18.7% respectively. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures, waist circumference, waist-hip and waist-stature-ratios were significantly raised in prediabetics compared to normoglycemic (WHO criteria p-values; 0.03, 0.003, 0.005, 0.01, 0.01, 0.04 respectively; ADA criteria 0.04, 0.001, 0.02, 0.02, 0.03, 0.01 respectively). For each unit increase in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures, and waist circumference, the odds of becoming prediabetic increased by a factor of 1.02, 1.05, 1.04 and 1.03 respectively by WHO criteria: and 1.01, 1.03, 1.02, and 1.02 respectively by ADA criteria. Conclusion: Substantial numbers of young females in our university are suffering from prediabetes. An increase in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures and waist circumference are significant risk factors for prediabetes in young females.


Assuntos
Estado Pré-Diabético , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
13.
Saudi Med J ; 40(8): 789-796, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423515

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the applicability of Jones, Hansen, and Wasserman predictive equations for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in Saudi females.  Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between March and May 2017. Maximal oxygen consumption was measured directly through the COSMED system for cardiopulmonary exercise testing in 102 girls with normal body mass index (19-25 years old). Maximal oxygen consumption was indirectly predicted by Jones, Hansen, and Wasserman equations. Paired t-test, Pearson correlation, and Bland-Altman plot were used for comparison, correlation, and agreement analysis. Results: The difference between the mean and standard deviation (±SD) VO2max values of the direct measurement (27.39±4.06 ml/kg-1/min-1), and the Jones (35.19±2.12 ml/kg-1/min-1), Hansen (33.64±0.24 ml/kg-1/min-1), and Wasserman (35.20±0.17 ml/kg-1/min-1) equations, was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). Bland-Altman plot analysis suggested a lack of agreement between direct and predicted VO2max. Pearson correlation failed to reveal any correlation between direct VO2max and VO2max calculated with any of the 3 equations. Conclusion: Jones, Hansen, and Wasserman equations for prediction of VO2max cannot be justified in the studied population. For the better prediction of VO2max, either these equations should be modified, or a new equation should be developed for the Saudi population.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Teste de Esforço , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Árabes , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Testes Respiratórios , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Peso Corporal Ideal , Aptidão Física , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Arábia Saudita , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Taibah Univ Med Sci ; 14(6): 488-494, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908635

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to determine and compare degrees of psychological stress and inducing factors thereof among first to fifth year medical students (MS). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 468 female MS. We used the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Inventory consisting of questions on a range of stress-inducing factors. Results: A total of 67.9% students reported physiological stress. The percentage of MS without stress and with mild, moderate, and severe stress was 32%, 24%, 22%, and 21.8%, respectively. The highest prevalence of physiological stress was found among first-year students (82.6%). Stress scores significantly decreased with advancement in the year of study, except for the final year (p = 0.001). We found that the first year of medical studies (0.022), academic stress (0.001), the presence of a physical problem (0.001), and being married (0.002) were independent risk factors for high perceived stress (HPS), as shown by K10 scores >24. A total of 11.1% students consulted a psychiatrist, whereas 3.4% admitted taking some medication for stress. Conclusion: This study infers that the first year of medical studies, academic stress, the presence of a physical problem, and being married are independent risk factors for HPS. We recommend mandatory stress screening for MS in all medical colleges. Ideally, the screening should be repeated every six months and students identified as having HPS should be provided with counselling, mental health services, and a proper follow-up.

15.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 32(17): 2915-2927, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534636

RESUMO

Objectives: The purpose of this review is to explore the effects of chocolate consumption during pregnancy on fetus and mother herself. Methods: Randomized controlled trials/quasi-experimental/observational/controlled before and after studies involving chocolate/cocoa/cacao consumption (irrespective of type or dose, composition, exposure period, and method of administration) among pregnant women/animals; and measuring any outcome (beneficial or harmful) related to fetus or mother after chocolate exposure were included. Databases searched were PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus; between April and May 2017. Risk of bias within each human randomized controlled trial (RCT) and animals' experimental studies was evaluated by "The Cochrane Collaboration's tool" and SYRCLE's tool respectively. Results: Fourteen human studies including a total of 6639 participants and nine animal studies were selected. Outcome variables investigated in human studies were maternal blood pressure, fetal heart rate, and striae gravidarum. Animal studies explored chocolate-induced teratogenicity and fetal metabolic derangements. Ten out of these 23 studies reported chocolate to be "beneficial"; five studies reported adverse effects, whereas eight studies declared chocolate as "neutral". Conclusions: Maternal chocolate intake has acute stimulatory effects on fetal reactivity and chronic blood pressure reducing effect in mothers. Chocolate is nonteratogenic and does not affect reproductive indices. Metabolic derangements in offsprings born to chocolate fed dams have been reported. Pregnant females must be careful about consumption of cocoa and chocolate. Future studies should be planned, keeping in view heterogeneities identified across the selected studies in this review.


Assuntos
Chocolate/efeitos adversos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Troca Materno-Fetal , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 46(4): 336-342, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668075

RESUMO

Debate and role play for learning critical thinking and communication skills are being increasingly used in various undergraduate medical schools worldwide. We aim to compare students' views about effectiveness of two teaching strategies; debate and role play to exercise critical thinking and communication skills during problem-based learning (PBL). This is a comparative, cross-sectional, and questionnaire-based study. Our subjects were second year undergraduate female medical students enrolled in Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU), College of Medicine from September 2014-2016, divided into 10 small PBL groups (10-13 students/group/year). Students rated role play and debate as equally effective in improving communication skills. Debate was rated superior to role play in "opening new avenues of thinking" (p-value is 0.01), whereas in "integration of knowledge of basic medical sciences with clinical skills" and "reflection of real life experience" students rated role play being superior to debate (p-value 0.01 and 0.00, respectively). Both role play and debate are well accepted by the students in PBL curriculum as an effective teaching methodology. Both are perceived equally good in improving students' communication skills. Few aspects of critical thinking are improved more by role plays compared to debate and vice versa. © 2018 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46:336-342, 2018.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Desempenho de Papéis , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Pensamento , Humanos
17.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 34(7): 601-604, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29268651

RESUMO

We compared serum leptin levels during various phases of menstrual cycle and its correlation with serum estradiol between normal weight and overweight/obese young females. Fifty-six young females with normal menstrual cycle were grouped into 26 normal weight and 30 overweight/obese subjects. Serum leptin and estradiol levels were measured during early follicular, pre-ovulatory and luteal phases of menstrual cycle in both groups using ELISA technique. Serum leptin levels were significantly different across different phases of menstrual cycle with a steady increment from follicular phase (9.97 ± 5.48 ng/dl) through pre-ovulatory phase (11.58 ± 6.49 ng/dl) with their peaks in luteal phase (12.52 ± 6.39 ng/dl, p < .001). Same pattern of change during menstrual phases was observed when the normal weight and overweight/obese group were analyzed separately. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in overweight/obese group compared to normal weight subjects. In any of the study groups, leptin levels were not found to be correlated with estradiol level during different phases of menstrual cycle.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal Ideal/fisiologia , Leptina/sangue , Ciclo Menstrual/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Progesterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
18.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 41(3): 390-394, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28679577

RESUMO

We explored medical student's views and perceptions of a series of debates conducted during problem-based learning (PBL) practiced as a part of the Spiral curriculum at the Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A series of debates were employed during PBL sessions for second-year female medical students, over the period 2014-2016. Each cohort of students was randomly split into 10 small PBL groups and exposed to weekly PBL activity. Within each group, the students were divided into a proposition half and an opposition half. Students were given 1 wk for debate preparation. The students' responses were recorded on a formulated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data, and results are presented as percentages. The usefulness of debate in alleviating potential difficulties in communicating with patients was agreed to by 69% (n = 126) of participants. That these sessions evoked critical thinking among students was reported by 78% (n = 142). This series of debates helped 61% (n = 111) of students to learn effectively about controversial issues. Seventy-one percent (n = 130) considered that debate promoted argument generation and interpretation skills. Enhanced ability to analyze and research evidence was reported by 59% (n = 108) of students. One hundred and thirteen students (62%) agreed that debate helped them to improve clinical decision-making, and 75% of students agreed that debates encouraged tolerance toward diverse viewpoints/convincing strategies. The majority of our medical students found debating enhanced analytic decision-making, communication, and critical thinking skills.


Assuntos
Currículo/normas , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/normas , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Currículo/tendências , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Arábia Saudita , Pensamento
19.
J Med Syst ; 40(7): 161, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27189623

RESUMO

Security and privacy are the first and foremost concerns that should be given special attention when dealing with Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). As WBAN sensors operate in an unattended environment and carry critical patient health information, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is one of the major attacks in WBAN environment that not only exhausts the available resources but also influence the reliability of information being transmitted. This research work is an extension of our previous work in which a machine learning based attack detection algorithm is proposed to detect DDoS attack in WBAN environment. However, in order to avoid complexity, no consideration was given to the traceback mechanism. During traceback, the challenge lies in reconstructing the attack path leading to identify the attack source. Among existing traceback techniques, Probabilistic Packet Marking (PPM) approach is the most commonly used technique in conventional IP- based networks. However, since marking probability assignment has significant effect on both the convergence time and performance of a scheme, it is not directly applicable in WBAN environment due to high convergence time and overhead on intermediate nodes. Therefore, in this paper we have proposed a new scheme called Efficient Traceback Technique (ETT) based on Dynamic Probability Packet Marking (DPPM) approach and uses MAC header in place of IP header. Instead of using fixed marking probability, the proposed scheme uses variable marking probability based on the number of hops travelled by a packet to reach the target node. Finally, path reconstruction algorithms are proposed to traceback an attacker. Evaluation and simulation results indicate that the proposed solution outperforms fixed PPM in terms of convergence time and computational overhead on nodes.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Telemetria/métodos , Computação em Nuvem , Probabilidade
20.
Saudi J Med Med Sci ; 4(3): 178-182, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787725

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Cocoa polyphenols have been shown to exhibit antioxidant properties in vivo and in vitro. This study aimed to determine whether commercially available chocolate could improve oxidant/antioxidant balance in medical students. Materials and Methods: Sixty students (30 males and 30 females) were given three different types of chocolate. Subjects were divided equally into three groups of 20 students (10 males and 10 females) as follows: (i) Dark chocolate group (DC), (ii) milk chocolate group (MC), and (iii) placebo group (PC). The placebo group was given white chocolate. Blood was drawn at baseline and after consumption of chocolate (40 g/day) for 2 weeks. Serum was analyzed for DNA/RNA oxidative damage, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) enzymes. Descriptive analyses were conducted to determine the frequency distributions of the study variables. Means were compared across the study groups by one-way Analysis of Variance and within the same group by paired t-test. Results: Mean serum DNA/RNA damage, TBARS, SOD, and GPX enzymes compared between the groups revealed insignificant differences after 2 weeks of chocolate consumption (P = 0.46, 0.19, 0.11, and 0.06). Comparison within the same group also exhibited statistically insignificant differences in DNA/RNA damage in DC and MC groups (0.29 and 0.46, respectively); TBARS in DC and MC groups (0.11 and 0.19, respectively); SOD in DC and MC groups (0.06 and 0.11, respectively); and GPX in DC and MC groups (0.68 and 0.78, respectively). Conclusion: Consumption of 40 g of DC or MC daily for a period of 2 weeks appears to be an ineffective way of improving oxidant/antioxidant balance in medical students.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...