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1.
Diagn. tratamento ; 24(3): [119-125], jul - set. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026704

RESUMO

Contexto: Estima-se que no Brasil 72% das pessoas ativas no mercado de trabalho apresentem algum problema relacionado ao estresse ocupacional, e aproximadamente 32% delas são diagnosticadas como tendo síndrome de burnout. Objetivo: Apresentar as evidências de revisões sistemáticas (RSs) Cochrane sobre eficácia e segurança das estratégias de tratamento e prevenção da síndrome de burnout. Métodos: RSs foram incluídas a partir de busca sistematizada realizada na Biblioteca Cochrane e após a adequação aos critérios de elegibilidade. O resumo e a certeza no corpo das evidências encontradas por cada revisão foram apresentados. Resultados: Foram incluídas seis RSs que avaliaram estratégias de prevenção e tratamento de burnout e outros sintomas relacionados ao desgaste emocional do trabalho em diferentes categorias profissionais. A certeza no corpo das evidências obtidas foi baixa ou muito baixa para a maioria dos desfechos. A única evidência com moderada certeza de seus resultados mostrou que técnicas de relaxamento, quando comparadas a nenhuma intervenção, parecem reduzir o estresse de profissionais da saúde. Conclusão: Apesar da elevada prevalência e das crescentes estimativas de incidência no Brasil e em todo o mundo, ainda há poucos estudos primários e RSs Cochrane avaliando os efeitos de intervenções com potencial de prevenir ou tratar a síndrome de burnout. Nenhuma das RSs identificadas aqui forneceu evidências robustas de alta certeza sobre intervenções para o manejo desta síndrome. RSs conduzidas sob o rigor da metodologia Cochrane precisam ainda esclarecer os efeitos (benefícios e riscos) de alternativas terapêuticas farmacológicas e não farmacológicas já usadas na prática clínica para promoção da saúde do trabalhador no sentido de prevenir e tratar a síndrome de burnout.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Esgotamento Profissional , Revisão , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Tomada de Decisão Clínica
2.
Int J Clin Pract ; 73(11): e13402, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408240

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a blood component therapy with a supraphysiological concentration of platelets derived from allogenic or, more commonly, autologous blood. PRP has been used in different non-transfusion indications because of its role in the promotion of tissue repair and healing, in fields such as Traumatology, Dermatology and Dentistry. OBJECTIVE: To provide a synthesis of the efficacy of PRP for different clinical situations. METHODS: Systematic searches were carried out in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and LILACS in July 2018 to identify systematic reviews (SRs) of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) focusing on PRP for non-transfusion use. Two authors independently screened all retrieved references in two stages (titles and abstracts at a first stage and full texts at a second stage). The methodological quality of SRs that met the eligibility criteria was appraised by AMSTAR 2. Conclusions were based on the most recent SRs with highest quality. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred and forty references were retrieved. After checking the inclusion criteria, 29 SRs of RCTs related to three different fields (wound care, Orthopedics and Dentistry) were included. The results suggest the benefit of PRP for different clinical situations, such as diabetic wounds, acute lesions of musculoskeletal system, rotator cuff lesions, tendinopathies, knee and hip osteoarthritis, total knee arthroplasty, allogenic bone graft for dental implants and periodontal intrabony defects. CONCLUSION: There is low to moderate quality evidence supporting the efficacy of PRP for specific clinical situations. The low quality of the evidence limits the certainty of these findings. Well-planned and well-conducted RCTs are still needed to further assess the efficacy of PRP.

3.
BMJ Evid Based Med ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266765

RESUMO

A review of systematic reviews (SRs) and a critical appraisal study was conducted at Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). The objectives of this review are (1) to identify all published SRs comparing the effectiveness and safety of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) versus carotid artery stenting (CAS) for carotid artery stenosis, (2) to assess their methodological quality and (3) to compare the primary studies contained in each SR. We included 17 SRs published between 2005 and 2017. None of the SRs fulfilled all items of AMSTAR-2. The overall confidence in the results was graded as critically low for 16 SRs (94%) and low for 1 SR (6%). Five items were judged inadequate in all SRs: reference to a published protocol, explanation to the selection of study design, comprehensive search of the literature, methods for statistical combination of findings and consideration of the risk of bias on the results of meta-analysis. In total, 15 randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were included at least in one SR. The number of included RCTs in each SR was inconsistent (4 to 15) and was not related to the year of publication of the SR. Our study found redundant and low methodological quality SR comparing CAS versus CEA for carotid stenosis.

4.
J Child Neurol ; 34(11): 679-686, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179823

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the effects of neurodevelopmental treatment for children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review following the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and reported in accordance to PRISMA Statement. Through a comprehensive literature search we considered all randomized clinical trials that compared neurodevelopmental treatment with conventional physical therapy for children with cerebral palsy. We used the Cochrane Risk of Bias Table to assess the risk of bias of the included randomized clinical trial, and the GRADE approach to evaluate the certainty of the body of the evidence. RESULTS: We found 3 randomized clinical trials (2 published and 1 ongoing) comprising 66 children. Published randomized clinical trials presented methodological and reporting limitations and only 1 provided data for outcomes of interest. No difference between neurodevelopmental treatment and conventional physical therapy was found for gross motor function (mean difference 1.40; 95% confidence interval -5.47 to 8.27, low certainty evidence). CONCLUSION: This review found that the effects of neurodevelopmental treatment for children with cerebral palsy are still uncertain. Further studies are required to assess the efficacy and safety of neurodevelopmental treatment for this purpose and until there, current evidence do not support its routinely use in practice. Number of protocol registration in PROSPERO database: CRD42017082817 (available from https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=82817 ).

5.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 137(1): 82-91, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a clinical disorder associated with high socioeconomic burden. Despite its importance, management of IBS remains difficult and several interventions have been hypothesized as beneficial for this condition. This study identified and summarized all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) about the effects of interventions for managing IBS patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, carried out in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: Review of Cochrane SRs addressing interventions for IBS. RESULTS: We included six SRs assessing acupuncture, bulking agents, antispasmodics, antidepressants, herbal medicines, homeopathy, hypnotherapy and psychological therapy for IBS. The certainty of evidence ranged from unknown to moderate, mainly due to imprecision in the estimates and high risk of bias from the primary studies included. There was moderate certainty of evidence that acupuncture had no important benefit regarding improvement of symptoms and quality of life, compared with sham acupuncture. There was also very low certainty of evidence that homeopathic asafoetida, used alone or in association with nux, was better than placebo regarding self-reported overall improvement. CONCLUSION: There was moderate certainty of evidence that acupuncture had no important benefit regarding improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Further well-designed and well-conducted randomized clinical trials are needed in order to reduce the uncertainties regarding the most commonly used interventions for patients with IBS.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/psicologia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(1): 82-91, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1004735

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a clinical disorder associated with high socioeconomic burden. Despite its importance, management of IBS remains difficult and several interventions have been hypothesized as beneficial for this condition. This study identified and summarized all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) about the effects of interventions for managing IBS patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, carried out in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: Review of Cochrane SRs addressing interventions for IBS. RESULTS: We included six SRs assessing acupuncture, bulking agents, antispasmodics, antidepressants, herbal medicines, homeopathy, hypnotherapy and psychological therapy for IBS. The certainty of evidence ranged from unknown to moderate, mainly due to imprecision in the estimates and high risk of bias from the primary studies included. There was moderate certainty of evidence that acupuncture had no important benefit regarding improvement of symptoms and quality of life, compared with sham acupuncture. There was also very low certainty of evidence that homeopathic asafoetida, used alone or in association with nux, was better than placebo regarding self-reported overall improvement. CONCLUSION: There was moderate certainty of evidence that acupuncture had no important benefit regarding improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Further well-designed and well-conducted randomized clinical trials are needed in order to reduce the uncertainties regarding the most commonly used interventions for patients with IBS.

7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(6): 579-585, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-991688

RESUMO

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Insomnia is a frequent complaint that generates more than five million visits to doctors per year in the United States. This study summarizes all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) that evaluated interventions to treat insomnia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of SRs, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: A sensitive search was carried out in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify Cochrane SRs that assessed the effects of any type of intervention for people with insomnia. The results, main characteristics of the SRs and the certainty of the evidence obtained from them were synthesized and discussed. RESULTS: Seven SRs were included. They addressed the benefits and harm of acupuncture (n = 1), behavioral interventions (n = 1), music (n = 1), pharmacotherapy (n = 2), phototherapy (n = 1) and physical exercise (n = 1). The certainty of the evidence ranged from moderate to very low. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture, music, physical exercise, paroxetine, doxepin, trimipramine and trazodone seem to present some benefit for patients with insomnia. However, the uncertainty around these results means that no robust and definitive recommendations for clinical practice can be made until the benefits and harms from each intervention for patients with insomnia have been confirmed through further studies.

8.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effects of cannabinoid compounds have been the center of many investigations. This study provides a synthesis on all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) that assessed the use of cannabinoids as a therapeutic approach. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of SRs, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: A broad search was conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to retrieve any Cochrane SRs that assessed the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids as a therapeutic approach. The results and key characteristics of all reviews included were summarized and discussed. RESULTS: Eight SRs were included. They assessed the use of cannabinoids for the following types of conditions: neurological (two SRs), psychiatric (two SRs), rheumatological (one SR), infectious (one SR) and oncological (two SRs). There was moderate-quality evidence showing that the use of cannabinoids reduced nausea and vomiting among adults, compared with placebo. Additionally, there was moderate-quality evidence showing that there was no difference between cannabinoids and prochlorperazine regarding the number of participants who reported vomiting, in this same population. CONCLUSIONS: This review identified eight Cochrane systematic reviews that provided evidence of unknown to moderate quality regarding the use of cannabinoids as a therapeutic intervention. Further studies are still imperative for solid conclusions to be reached regarding practical recommendations.

9.
Diagn. tratamento ; 23(4): [141-146], out-dez 2018. tab, fig
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-987476

RESUMO

Introdução: Guidelines em saúde somente terão benefícios potenciais se tiverem sido planejadas e desenvolvidas com alto rigor metodológico. Objetivos: Apresentar e descrever os itens da ferramenta Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation, AGREE II. Métodos: Estudo descritivo realizado na Disciplina de Medicina Baseada em Evidências da Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). Resultados: Os 23 itens da ferramenta AGREE II foram apresentados em sua versão em português, assim como as recomendações para sua aplicação. Conclusão: O AGREE II é uma ferramenta internacional, já disponível em vários idiomas, e que avalia o rigor metodológico e a transparência com que uma guideline é desenvolvida. Pode ser aplicada a guidelines novas, já existentes ou atualizações de guidelines prévias. O uso do AGREE II no desenvolvimento de guidelines em saúde precisa ser disseminado, uma vez que tais guidelines somente terão benefícios potenciais se tiverem sido planejadas e desenvolvidas com alto rigor metodológico.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Metodologia
10.
Diagn. tratamento ; 23(4): [160-169], out-dez 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-987493

RESUMO

Contexto: A pancreatite aguda é uma inflamação aguda do pâncreas, na qual as enzimas digestivas pancreáticas são ativadas no parênquima do próprio órgão e na circulação sanguínea, levando a uma resposta inflamatória sistêmica. Diversos testes diagnósticos e intervenções terapêuticas são opções no manejo desses participantes. Objetivo: avaliar as evidências de revisões sistemáticas Cochrane sobre acurácia, efetividade e segurança no manejo da pancreatite aguda. Métodos: Foram incluídas revisões sistemáticas a partir de busca sistematizada na Biblioteca Cochrane. Dois autores avaliaram a concordância com os critérios de inclusão das revisões encontradas e apresentaram uma síntese qualitativa de seus achados. Resultados: Foram incluídas 11 revisões sistemáticas Cochrane que encontraram evidências de qualidade variada sobre testes diagnósticos e intervenções terapêuticas para pancreatite aguda. Nenhuma evidência atual é de alta qualidade. Nenhuma análise comparativa de acurácia foi realizada entre os testes diagnósticos. Evidência de qualidade moderada demonstrou superioridade da dieta enteral sobre a parenteral, e não houve evidência de benefícios da colangiopancreatografia retrógrada endoscópica precoce para casos em que não haja colangite ou coledocolitíase associada à pancreatite aguda. Conclusão: A única evidência de moderada qualidade (e, portanto, que pode ser modificada após a inclusão de novos estudos) é referente à maior efetividade e segurança da dieta enteral quando comparada à parenteral na pancreatite aguda.


Assuntos
Pancreatite , Revisão , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Tomada de Decisão Clínica
11.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(5): 472-478, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-979377

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effects of cannabinoid compounds have been the center of many investigations. This study provides a synthesis on all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) that assessed the use of cannabinoids as a therapeutic approach. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of SRs, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: A broad search was conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to retrieve any Cochrane SRs that assessed the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids as a therapeutic approach. The results and key characteristics of all reviews included were summarized and discussed. RESULTS: Eight SRs were included. They assessed the use of cannabinoids for the following types of conditions: neurological (two SRs), psychiatric (two SRs), rheumatological (one SR), infectious (one SR) and oncological (two SRs). There was moderate-quality evidence showing that the use of cannabinoids reduced nausea and vomiting among adults, compared with placebo. Additionally, there was moderate-quality evidence showing that there was no difference between cannabinoids and prochlorperazine regarding the number of participants who reported vomiting, in this same population. CONCLUSIONS: This review identified eight Cochrane systematic reviews that provided evidence of unknown to moderate quality regarding the use of cannabinoids as a therapeutic intervention. Further studies are still imperative for solid conclusions to be reached regarding practical recommendations.

12.
Diagn. tratamento ; 23(3): [101-104], jul.-set. 2018. fig, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-969297

RESUMO

Introdução: O registro prospectivo de protocolos de revisões sistemáticas (RSs) permite avaliar a condução do estudo e a qualidade do relato de seus resultados, aumentando a transparência e a reprodutibilidade. Objetivos: Apresentar a base de registros PROSPERO e descrever suas principais características. Métodos: Estudo descritivo realizado na Disciplina de Medicina Baseada em Evidências da Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). Resultados: A PROSPERO é uma base de registros de RSs, gratuita, mantida pelo Centre of Reviews and Dissemination, da Universidade de York, e financiada pelo National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). Atualmente, há mais de 35.000 registros de RSs em andamento em humanos ou animais que estudam desfechos em saúde. Conclusão: PROSPERO é uma base pública de registro de protocolos de revisões sistemáticas criada em 2011, que conta até o momento com mais de 35.000 protocolos registrados. O registro prospectivo desses protocolos já é recomendado por muitos periódicos em saúde com o objetivo de minimizar o risco de viés de publicação e a duplicidade de revisões para responder a uma mesma questão clínica.


Assuntos
Sistema de Registros , Protocolos Clínicos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Revisão , Medicina Baseada em Evidências
13.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 136(4): 354-360, 2018 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133547

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by abnormal and increased growth of the cells that produce keratin and abnormal functioning of the immune system. We aimed to summarize the evidence available regarding interventions for patients with psoriasis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, developed in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to identify Cochrane systematic reviews that fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Two authors screened titles and abstracts that had been retrieved through the search strategy. The results from all the Cochrane systematic reviews that were included were summarized and presented in a narrative synthesis. RESULTS: We included six Cochrane systematic reviews assessing interventions for treating psoriasis. The findings from high-quality evidence were that (a) etanercept reduced the psoriasis severity index, compared with placebo and (b) steroids plus vitamin D, compared with vitamin D alone, improved the skin clearance rate, as assessed by investigators, but was associated with a higher proportion of participants who dropped out due to adverse events. For all other comparisons, the quality of the evidence ranged from moderate to very low. CONCLUSION: This review included six Cochrane systematic reviews that provided evidence ranging in quality from unknown to high, regarding management of psoriasis. Further randomized controlled trials are imperative to reduce the uncertainties relating to several treatments that are already used in clinical practice.

14.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(4): 354-360, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962731

RESUMO

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by abnormal and increased growth of the cells that produce keratin and abnormal functioning of the immune system. We aimed to summarize the evidence available regarding interventions for patients with psoriasis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, developed in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to identify Cochrane systematic reviews that fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Two authors screened titles and abstracts that had been retrieved through the search strategy. The results from all the Cochrane systematic reviews that were included were summarized and presented in a narrative synthesis. RESULTS: We included six Cochrane systematic reviews assessing interventions for treating psoriasis. The findings from high-quality evidence were that (a) etanercept reduced the psoriasis severity index, compared with placebo and (b) steroids plus vitamin D, compared with vitamin D alone, improved the skin clearance rate, as assessed by investigators, but was associated with a higher proportion of participants who dropped out due to adverse events. For all other comparisons, the quality of the evidence ranged from moderate to very low. CONCLUSION: This review included six Cochrane systematic reviews that provided evidence ranging in quality from unknown to high, regarding management of psoriasis. Further randomized controlled trials are imperative to reduce the uncertainties relating to several treatments that are already used in clinical practice.

15.
Acupunct Med ; 36(3): 146-152, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559431

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Major concerns regarding the use of medication during pregnancy justify the need for safer interventions. Acupuncture is an emerging alternative for several clinical conditions during this period. The objective of this study is to summarise evidence derived from systematic reviews (SRs) focusing on acupuncture for pregnancy-related acute conditions. METHODS: Review of SRs. A systematic literature search was carried out in several electronic databases, aiming to include all SRs assessing the effects of acupuncture for acute conditions during pregnancy. Methodological quality and quality of the publication/reporting of each SR were assessed by the application of AMSTAR (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews) and PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses), respectively. RESULTS: The initial search retrieved 11 492 records, of which 16 SRs met our inclusion criteria. The average AMSTAR score was 7.3, the lowest score being 3 and the highest 11. The lowest PRISMA score was 12, the highest 25, and the average PRISMA score was 19.9. The results support the proposal that acupuncture might be considered an option for alleviating pain during labour, for correcting breech presentation, and for managing pelvic and back pain during pregnancy. There is insufficient evidence to recommend acupuncture for inducing labour, managing nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy, improving sleep quality, controlling nausea and vomiting associated with Caesarean delivery, and managing urinary infection. CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture might be an option for alleviating pain during labour, for correcting breech presentation, and for managing pelvic and back pain during pregnancy. More studies are needed to confirm the effects of acupuncture for other pregnancy-related acute conditions.

16.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 136(6): 579-585, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892489

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Insomnia is a frequent complaint that generates more than five million visits to doctors per year in the United States. This study summarizes all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) that evaluated interventions to treat insomnia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of SRs, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: A sensitive search was carried out in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify Cochrane SRs that assessed the effects of any type of intervention for people with insomnia. The results, main characteristics of the SRs and the certainty of the evidence obtained from them were synthesized and discussed. RESULTS: Seven SRs were included. They addressed the benefits and harm of acupuncture (n = 1), behavioral interventions (n = 1), music (n = 1), pharmacotherapy (n = 2), phototherapy (n = 1) and physical exercise (n = 1). The certainty of the evidence ranged from moderate to very low. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture, music, physical exercise, paroxetine, doxepin, trimipramine and trazodone seem to present some benefit for patients with insomnia. However, the uncertainty around these results means that no robust and definitive recommendations for clinical practice can be made until the benefits and harms from each intervention for patients with insomnia have been confirmed through further studies.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Terapia por Acupuntura/normas , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Exercício , Humanos , Musicoterapia/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sono/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Int J Clin Pract ; 71(12)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29105910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nineteen million adults worldwide are in need of palliative care. Of those who have access to it, 80% fail to receive an efficient management of symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of mindfulness meditation for palliative care patients. METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, PEDro, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Opengrey, ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO-ICTRP. No restriction of language, status or date of publication was applied. We considered randomised clinical trials (RCTs) comparing any mindfulness meditation scheme vs any comparator for palliative care. Cochrane Risk of Bias (Rob) Table was used for assessing methodological quality of RCTs. Screening, data extraction and methodological assessments were performed by two reviewers. Mean differences (MD) (confidence intervals of 95% (CI 95%)) were considered for estimating effect size. Quality of evidence was appraised by GRADE. RESULTS: Four RCTs, 234 participants, were included. All studies presented high risk of bias in at least one RoB table criteria. We assessed 4 comparisons, but only 2 studies showed statistically significant difference for at least one outcome. 1. Mindfulness meditation (eight weeks, one session/week, daily individual practice) vs control: statistically significant difference in favour of control for quality of life - physical aspects. 2. Mindfulness meditation (single 5-minute session) vs control: benefit in favour of mindfulness for stress outcome in both time-points. None of the included studies analysed safety and harms outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Although two studies have showed statistically significant difference, only one showed effectiveness of mindfulness meditation in improving perceived stress. This study focused on one single session of mindfulness of 5 minutes for adult cancer patients in palliative care, but it was considered as possessing high risk of bias. Other schemes of mindfulness meditation did not show benefit in any outcome evaluated (low and very low quality evidence).


Assuntos
Meditação , Atenção Plena , Cuidados Paliativos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
18.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 135(5): 497-507, 2017 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29116314

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Despite the high prevalence of vitamin D supplementation, its use remains controversial. The objective of this review was to identify and summarize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews regarding vitamin D supplementation for preventing ortreating any clinical condition. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: A search was conducted to identify all Cochrane systematic reviews that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Titles and abstracts were screened by two authors. RESULTS: We included 27 Cochrane systematic reviews: 10 assessing use of vitamin D for prevention and 17 for treatment. The reviews found moderate to high quality of evidence regarding the benefit of vitamin D for pregnant women (prevention of adverse events: preterm birth risk [rate ratio, RR 0.36; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.14 to 0.93] and low birthweight risk [RR 0.40; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.67]) and for asthma patients (reduction of severe exacerbations [RR 0.63; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.88]). No benefit was found regarding vitamin D supplementation alone (without calcium) for preventing hip or any new fracture. For all other outcomes assessed under various conditions, the current quality of evidence is low or unknown, and therefore insufficient for any recommendation. CONCLUSION: Based on moderate to high quality of evidence, the Cochrane systematic reviews included here showed that there were some benefits from vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women and asthma patients and no benefits for preventing fractures.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle
19.
Diagn. tratamento ; 22(4): 169-175, Out.-dez. 2017.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-875481

RESUMO

Introdução: Apesar da importância do relato adequado de estudos científicos, muitos ensaios clínicos continuam sendo publicados inadequadamente, com a exposição incompleta ou ambígua de seus métodos e resultados, dificultando conclusões sólidas sobre a efetividade da intervenção estudada e sobre a reprodutibilidade dos procedimentos. Várias guidelines foram elaboradas com o objetivo de melhorar o relato e aumentar a transparência dos estudos científicos na área da saúde. Objetivos: Apresentar a ferramenta CONSORT (CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials), suas extensões e ferramentas derivadas, que objetivam orientar a redação de artigos baseados em ensaios clínicos. Métodos: Estudo descritivo e de análise crítica realizado na Disciplina de Medicina Baseada em Evidências da Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), com busca da literatura. Resultados: A busca inicial resultou em 18 ferramentas. Foram incluídas a ferramenta CONSORT original e 17 extensões e ferramentas derivadas, elaboradas para desenhos ou situações clínicas mais específicos. Conclusão: O relato de estudos científicos deve ser realizado de forma clara, transparente e completa, ou seja, apresentar todas as informações que são necessárias para a interpretação e a reprodutibilidade do estudo, sem ocultação de detalhes importantes. A ferramenta CONSORT e suas extensões derivadas são essenciais para a adequação do relato de ensaios clínicos e seu uso deve ser incentivado.


Assuntos
Ensaio Clínico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Manuais e Guias para a Gestão da Pesquisa , Viés de Publicação , Componentes de Publicações , Formatos de Publicação
20.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 135(5): 497-507, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-904102

RESUMO

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Despite the high prevalence of vitamin D supplementation, its use remains controversial. The objective of this review was to identify and summarize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews regarding vitamin D supplementation for preventing ortreating any clinical condition. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: A search was conducted to identify all Cochrane systematic reviews that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Titles and abstracts were screened by two authors. RESULTS: We included 27 Cochrane systematic reviews: 10 assessing use of vitamin D for prevention and 17 for treatment. The reviews found moderate to high quality of evidence regarding the benefit of vitamin D for pregnant women (prevention of adverse events: preterm birth risk [rate ratio, RR 0.36; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.14 to 0.93] and low birthweight risk [RR 0.40; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.67]) and for asthma patients (reduction of severe exacerbations [RR 0.63; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.88]). No benefit was found regarding vitamin D supplementation alone (without calcium) for preventing hip or any new fracture. For all other outcomes assessed under various conditions, the current quality of evidence is low or unknown, and therefore insufficient for any recommendation. CONCLUSION: Based on moderate to high quality of evidence, the Cochrane systematic reviews included here showed that there were some benefits from vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women and asthma patients and no benefits for preventing fractures.

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