Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 269
Filtrar
1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190037, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038570

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool (JH-FRAT), which assesses the risk of falls in hospitalized inpatients. METHOD: Study with 297 patients at a hospital in São Paulo, using retrospective data form 2014. Validity was assessed by accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value - PPV and negative predictive value - NPV) and discriminant analysis (comparison of patients with and without falls in relation to the scale items and comparison of previous risk situations in relation to the injury). The χ2 test and Fisher's exact test were used. Reliability was assessed by reproducibility between methods and interobserver test-retest comparison in a subsample of 60 patients. We used the Kappa, quadratic weighted Kappa and PABAK statistics. RESULTS: Sensitivity was 97.0%, specificity was 6%, PPV was 36.2% and NPV was 90.6%. Five of the eight items of the scale and the overall classification showed risk discrimination capability (p < 0.050). The risk of previous situations did not discriminate the injury resulting from the falls (p = 0.557). Reproducibility between methods was substantial (PABAK = 0.71). The interobserver reproducibility ranged between items (PABAK 0.25 to 1.00) and was substantial to the overall risk classification (PABAK = 0.71). CONCLUSION: JH-FRAT showed validity and reliability expected of a screening tool for risk of falls, and it can contribute to the implementation of fall management strategies in hospitals.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-11, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025573

RESUMO

Traffic-related air pollution is being associated with hematologic cancer in young individuals. This study performed a spatial analysis of the hematologic cancer incidence and mortality among younger people, using a Bayesian approach, to associate with traffic density in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Two databases were employed: incidence (2002-2011) and mortality (2002-2013). The relationships between the cases of hematologic cancer and the covariates - traffic density, the Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI), and population density - were evaluated using a Besag-York-Mollié ecological model with relative risks (RRs) estimates. Per 1-unit standard-deviation increase in traffic density, in the MHDI, and in population density, the RR for the incidence was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.97-1.14), 1.28 (95% CI: 1.16-1.42), and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.94-1.08), respectively. For mortality, no covariates were considered risk factors. Our findings suggest significant association between living in regions with better socioeconomic conditions, where traffic density is usually higher, and risk of hematologic cancer in younger people.

3.
Environ Res ; 170: 243-251, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple lines of evidence have associated exposure to ambient air pollution with an increased risk of respiratory malignancies. However, there is a dearth of evidence from low-middle income countries, including those within South America, where the social inequalities are more marked. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the association between exposures to traffic related air pollution and respiratory cancer incidence and mortality within São Paulo, Brazil. Further, we aim to investigate the role of socioeconomic status (SES) upon these outcomes. METHODS: Cancer incidence between 2002 and 2011 was derived from the population-based cancer registry. Mortality data (between 2002 and 2013) was derived from the Municipal Health Department. A traffic density database and an annual nitrogen dioxide (NO2) land use regression model were used as markers of exposure. Age-adjusted Binomial Negative Regression models were developed, stratifying by SES and gender. RESULTS: We observed an increased rate of respiratory cancer incidence and mortality in association with increased traffic density and NO2 concentrations, which was higher among those regions with the lowest SES. For cancer mortality and traffic exposure, those in the most deprived region, had an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.70, 2.82) when comparing the highest exposure centile (top 90%) to the lowest (lowest 25%). By contrast, in the least deprived area, the IRR for the same exposure contrast was.1.07 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.20). For NO2 in the most deprived regions, the IRR for cancer mortality in the highest exposed group was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.88) while in the least deprived area, the IRR for the highest exposed group was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.23). CONCLUSIONS: Traffic density and NO2 were associated with an increased rate of respiratory cancer incidence and mortality in São Paulo. Residents from poor regions may suffer more from the impact of traffic air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Sistema Respiratório/epidemiologia , Emissões de Veículos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio
4.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22: e190037, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1003482

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Avaliar a validade e a confiabilidade da escala Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool (JH-FRAT) para avaliação do risco de quedas em pacientes hospitalizados. Método: Estudo retroativo com 297 pacientes de um hospital privado de São Paulo usando dados de 2014. A validade foi avaliada por meio da acurácia (sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivo - VPP e negativo - VPN), da validade de critério, verificando-se as associações entre a classificação do risco pelas escalas JH-FRAT e Morse, e da análise discriminante (comparação dos pacientes com e sem quedas em relação aos itens da escala e verificação de situações prévias de risco em relação ao dano ocorrido). Foram utilizados os testes de associação χ2. A confiabilidade foi avaliada por meio da reprodutibilidade teste-reteste interobservadores, usando as estatísticas Kappa ponderado quadrático e prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted Kappa (PABAK). Resultados: A sensibilidade foi de 97,0%, a especificidade, 14,6%, o VPP, 36,2%, e o VPN, 90,6%. A análise de critério mostrou associação (p < 0,0001) entre as avaliações pelas duas escalas. Cinco dos oito itens da escala e a classificação geral mostraram capacidade de discriminação do risco (p < 0,050). A reprodutibilidade interobservadores variou entre itens (PABAK de 0,25 a 1,00) e foi substancial na classificação do risco global (PABAK = 0,71). Conclusão: A JH-FRAT apresentou validade e confiabilidade esperadas para um instrumento de triagem do risco de quedas, podendo contribuir na aplicação de estratégias para a gestão de quedas em hospitais.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool (JH-FRAT), which assesses the risk of falls in hospitalized inpatients. Method: Study with 297 patients at a hospital in São Paulo, using retrospective data form 2014. Validity was assessed by accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value - PPV and negative predictive value - NPV) and discriminant analysis (comparison of patients with and without falls in relation to the scale items and comparison of previous risk situations in relation to the injury). The χ2 test and Fisher's exact test were used. Reliability was assessed by reproducibility between methods and interobserver test-retest comparison in a subsample of 60 patients. We used the Kappa, quadratic weighted Kappa and PABAK statistics. Results: Sensitivity was 97.0%, specificity was 6%, PPV was 36.2% and NPV was 90.6%. Five of the eight items of the scale and the overall classification showed risk discrimination capability (p < 0.050). The risk of previous situations did not discriminate the injury resulting from the falls (p = 0.557). Reproducibility between methods was substantial (PABAK = 0.71). The interobserver reproducibility ranged between items (PABAK 0.25 to 1.00) and was substantial to the overall risk classification (PABAK = 0.71). Conclusion: JH-FRAT showed validity and reliability expected of a screening tool for risk of falls, and it can contribute to the implementation of fall management strategies in hospitals.

5.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(6): e00140717, 2018 09 03.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184020

RESUMO

The objective was to compare two techniques to estimate age in databases with incomplete records and analyze their application to the calculation of cancer incidence. The study used the database of the Population-Based Cancer Registry from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, containing cases of urinary tract cancer diagnosed from 1997 to 2013. Two techniques were applied to estimate age: correction factor and multiple imputation. Using binomial distribution, six databases were simulated with different proportions of incomplete data on patient's age (from 5% to 50%). The ratio between the incidence rates was calculated, using the complete database as reference, whose standardized incidence was 11.83/100,000; the other incidence rates in the databases, with at least 5% incomplete data for age, were underestimated. By applying the correction factors, the corrected rates did not differ from the standardized rates, but this technique does not allow correcting specific rates. Multiple imputation was useful for correcting the standardized and specific rates in databases with up to 30% of incomplete data, but the specific rates for individuals under 50 years of age were underestimated. Databases with 5% incomplete data or more require correction. Although the implementation of multiple imputation is complex, it proved to be superior to the correction factor. However, it should be used sparingly, since age-specific rates may remain underestimated.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Bases de Dados como Assunto/normas , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde/normas , Sistema de Registros/normas , Estatística como Assunto/métodos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Neoplasias Urológicas/epidemiologia
6.
Front Nutr ; 5: 69, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148134

RESUMO

Background: Brazil is undergoing nutritional transition and rates of obesity in preschool and school-aged children are increasing. Excess weight in the first years of life could predict excess weight in adulthood, making it essential to study risk factors in this population. Objective: Our goal was to investigate associations of parent feeding behaviors, as well as more distal familial influences including family SES and maternal and paternal weight, with BMI z-score in preschool and school-aged children in a Brazilian sample. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Data were collected in 14 Brazilian private schools. Parents of children aged 2-8 years (n = 1,071) completed a questionnaire assessing parent feeding behaviors, as well as sociodemographic and anthropometric information. Hierarchical linear regression models were fitted to investigate relationships between parent and child characteristics and child BMI z-score in preschool (2-5 years, n = 397) and school-aged (6-8 years, n = 618) children. Results: Final models indicated that higher maternal BMI and "restriction for weight control" were associated with higher child BMI z-score in both age groups (excessive weight, i.e., BMI ≥ +1 z-score, in preschoolers and school-aged children: 24.4 and 35.9%, respectively). In preschoolers only, "healthy eating guidance" and "pressure" were associated with lower child BMI z-score. For school-aged children, male sex, higher father BMI, and "restriction for health" were associated with higher child BMI z-score. Conclusions: Parent feeding behaviors and parent weight, as well as child sex, are associated with child BMI z-score, with evidence for differential relationships in preschool and school-aged children. Optimal obesity prevention and treatment strategies may differ by child age.

7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21: e180012, 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trend of colorectal cancer mortality adjusted for selected indicators, according to sex, by Brazilian federative units and regions, and countrywide from 1996 to 2012. METHODS: This is a temporal time series on colorectal cancer mortality rates, using linear regression analysis, in which the independent variable was the centered year. Models were adjusted for selected indicators. RESULTS: There was an increase in standardized colorectal cancer mortality rates for males in all states and for females in 21 states. In the model adjusted for mortality rate from ill-defined causes, for gross domestic product, and for Gini coefficient, the upward trend remained statistically significant (p < 0.05) countrywide only for men, with 0.17 deaths per 100 thousand inhabitants per year (py). In the States of Piauí (0.09 and 0.20 py), Ceará (0.17 and 0.19 py) and Rio Grande do Sul (0.61 and 0.42 py), there was an increase for both men and women, respectively; only among men in the States of Paraíba (0.16 py), Espírito Santo (0.28 py), São Paulo (0.24 py) and Goiás (0.31 py); and among women in Roraima (0.41 py), Amapá (0.97 P/Y), Maranhão (0.10 py), Sergipe (0.46 P/Y), Mato Grosso do Sul (0.47 py), and the Federal District (0.69 py). CONCLUSION: The increase in colorectal cancer mortality remained significant when assessing Brazil as a whole only among men; in seven States among men, and in nine States among women, regardless of the studied indicators. These differences could be related to the possible increase in incidence and to late access to diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Sistemas de Informação , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Características de Residência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 704, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating habits formed in early childhood are influenced by parental feeding behaviors, warranting investigation of predictors and correlates of parent feeding. We aimed to describe relationships between parental feeding practices and parent and child characteristics in a sample of Brazilian preschoolers. METHODS: Four hundred and two parents of preschoolers enrolled in private schools of São Paulo and Campinas, Brazil, completed a Brazilian version of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire, as well as questions about parental attitudes, child food intake, other obesity-associated behaviors, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We ran bivariate logistic regression models examining associations between independent variables and each feeding practice. Next, we ran multiple logistic regression models predicting each parental feeding practice. RESULTS: Greater 'Restriction for Weight Control' and 'Restriction for Health' were associated with lower maternal education (OR = 2.42 (CI 95% 1.07-5.48) and 2.79 (CI 95% 1.25-6.22), respectively), and with higher concern about child overweight (OR = 2.46, CI 95% 1.64-3.69 for 'Restriction for Weight Control', only), while greater 'Pressure' was associated with greater concern about child underweight (OR = 2.30, CI 95% 1.53-3.47) and lower maternal BMI (OR = 0.94, CI 95% 0.88-1.00). Greater use of 'Emotion Regulation/ Food as Reward' was associated with lower maternal education (OR = 2.22, CI 95% 1.05-4.71). In analyses of positive feeding practices, lesser use of 'Healthy Eating Guidance' and 'Monitoring' was associated with greater intake of less healthy foods in children (OR = 1.53 (CI 95% 1.01-2.32) and OR = 1.94 (CI 95% 1.27-2.97), respectively), and greater use of screen devices (OR = 1.59 (CI 95% 1.04-2.44) and OR = 1.57 (CI 95% 1.03-2.39), respectively). Lesser use of 'Healthy Eating Guidance' was additionally associated with higher maternal BMI (OR = 1.09, CI 95% 1.03-1.16), and lesser use of 'Monitoring' with lesser perceived parent responsibility for child feeding (OR = 1.68, CI 95% 1.12-2.52). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate diverse socioeconomic, anthropometric and behavioral correlates of parent feeding in a large Brazilian sample of parents of preschoolers.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Antropometria , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Rev. bras. geriatr. gerontol. (Online) ; 21(3): 272-282, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-958913

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the reliability, validity and operational equivalence of the nutritional screening method "Assessing The Nutritional Condition Of The Elderly". Method: This study was conducted with a subsample of 174 elderly persons from the Health, Welfare and Aging (SABE) study. The "Assessing The Nutritional Condition Of The Elderly" method consists of ten questions which classify individuals according to nutritional risk. Anthropometric and nutritional indicators were adopted as gold standard measures for comparison with the values of the method. Reliability was verified using the McNemar and Bland Altman tests, the validity of the discriminant type was assessed by the Mann-Whitney test and operational equivalence was identified through data relating to the time required to apply the method and the degree of understanding of the same using the Likert scale (1 to 5). Results: Of the 174 elderly persons interviewed, 63.8% were women and 52.3% were in the 60-74 years age group. It was found that 43.1% and 33.3% of the subjects had moderate to high nutritional risk, respectively, with a higher prevalence of high nutritional risk among women (33.3%) and those aged 60-74 years (43.4%). The method analyzed showed satisfactory results for reliability and discriminant validity. The average time required to apply this method was approximately seven minutes and the overall mean grade of understanding was 4.8. Conclusion: The method studied can be used by health professionals in epidemiological and clinical studies to identify the presence of nutritional risk in elderly persons living at home.


Objetivo: Analisar a confiablidade, a validade e a equivalência operacional do método de triagem nutricional "Verifique a condição nutricional do idoso". Método: Este estudo foi realizado com subamostra de 174 idosos do Estudo Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento (SABE). O método "Verifique a condição nutricional do idoso", consiste de 10 perguntas, que classifica os indivíduos, segundo risco nutricional. Adotou-se a antropometria e indicadores nutricionais, como medidas padrão-ouro para comparação com os valores desse método. A confiabilidade foi verificada pelo teste de McNemar e gráficos de Bland Altman, a validade do tipo discriminante foi avaliada por meio do teste Mann-Whitney e a equivalência operacional do método foi identificada pelos dados referentes à duração de realização do método e pelo grau de entendimento do mesmo pela escala Likert (entre 1 e 5). Resultados: Dos 174 idosos entrevistados, 63,8% eram mulheres e 52,3% eram do grupo etário de 60 a 74 anos. Constatou-se que 43,1% e 33,3% dos indivíduos apresentavam risco nutricional moderado e alto, respectivamente, sendo maior a prevalência de risco nutricional alto nas mulheres (33,3%) e naqueles do grupo de 60 a 74 anos (43,4%). O método analisado apresentou resultados satisfatórios para confiabilidade e validade discriminante. A duração média de realização do método foi de aproximadamente sete minutos e nota média geral de entendimento foi de 4,8. Conclusão: O método estudado pode ser utilizado em estudos epidemiológicos e clínicos, por profissionais de saúde, para identificar a presença de risco nutricional em idosos domiciliados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Avaliação Nutricional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos de Validação , Nutrição do Idoso
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(1): 241-248, Jan. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890500

RESUMO

Resumo O objetivo foi analisar a tendência da mortalidade por tuberculose no Paraná, no período de 1998 a 2012, segundo macrorregionais de saúde, sexo e faixa etária. Estudo ecológico de séries temporais, com dados do Sistema de Informações de Mortalidade do Sistema Único de Saúde (SIM/SUS). A análise da tendência dos coeficientes de mortalidade padronizados foi realizada por meio de regressão linear segmentada com identificação dos pontos com modificação da tendência. Houve 847 mortes de residentes no Paraná, no período. Inicialmente, a tendência foi decrescente para o estado, com posterior incremento significativo apenas para a macrorregional Leste. A mortalidade por tuberculose apresentou tendência crescente para as faixas etárias de 20 a 39 anos e 40 a 49 anos, e para o sexo masculino. A tendência crescente da mortalidade por tuberculose, observada a partir de 2010, é um alerta para gestores aprimorarem o atendimento nos diversos níveis de atenção à saúde.


Abstract The objective was to analyze the trend in tuberculosis mortality in Paraná from 1998 to 2012, according to healthcare macro-region-al, gender and age. Ecological study of time series data with the system of the Unified System Mortality Information Health (SIM/SUS). Trend analysis of standardized mortality rates was performed by linear regression segmented identifying the points with the change trend. There were 847 deaths of residents in Paraná in the period. The trend was initially declining to state, with subsequent significant increase only for the macro-regional East. Mortality from tuberculosis showed growing trend for the age groups 20-39 years and 40-49 years and for males. The growing trend in tuberculosis mortality was observed from 2010 is a warning to managers honing the service at different levels of health care.

11.
Public Health Nutr ; 21(1): 77-86, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28988543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to identify food patterns among 2-9-year-olds and investigate sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural predictors of less healthy dietary patterns. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Parents of 2-9-year-olds completed an FFQ and factor analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns. Parents also completed questionnaires assessing sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural characteristics of parents and children, including parental feeding practices. SETTING: Participants were recruited from private schools of Campinas and São Paulo, SP, Brazil, between April and June 2014. SUBJECTS: Parents of 2-9-year-olds (n 929). RESULTS: Two dietary patterns emerged: 'traditional food' and 'ultra-processed food'. Lower maternal education (OR=2·05, P=0·010) and higher maternal weight status (OR=1·43, P=0·044) were associated with a greater likelihood of the ultra-processed food pattern. Lower perceived parental responsibility for adequacy of food group intake (OR=2·41, P=0·020), and lower scores on the parental feeding practices of 'Healthy Eating Guidance' (OR=1·83, P<0·001) and 'Monitoring' (OR=2·52, P<0·001), were also associated with the presence of this pattern, as was higher child's screen use during mealtimes (OR=1·61, P=0·004). CONCLUSIONS: The present study is the first to evaluate associations between less healthy dietary patterns of Brazilian 2-9-year-olds and parental feeding practices. Our findings highlight sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural factors within families that could be used to target tailored policies to at-risk populations.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Fast Foods , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(1): 241-248, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267827

RESUMO

The objective was to analyze the trend in tuberculosis mortality in Paraná from 1998 to 2012, according to healthcare macro-region-al, gender and age. Ecological study of time series data with the system of the Unified System Mortality Information Health (SIM/SUS). Trend analysis of standardized mortality rates was performed by linear regression segmented identifying the points with the change trend. There were 847 deaths of residents in Paraná in the period. The trend was initially declining to state, with subsequent significant increase only for the macro-regional East. Mortality from tuberculosis showed growing trend for the age groups 20-39 years and 40-49 years and for males. The growing trend in tuberculosis mortality was observed from 2010 is a warning to managers honing the service at different levels of health care.


Assuntos
Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Distribuição por Sexo , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rev. bras. crescimento desenvolv. hum ; 28(2): 120-128, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-958517

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (QUEFAC) was developed by Hinnig et al. (2010) to evaluate the usual food consumption of children 7 to 10 years old, since those developed for adults may overestimate the consumption of children. However, its validity and reproducibility must be tested to assert that the instrument has a recognized quality. OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproducibility and validity of the QUEFAC to children aged 7 to 10 years. METHODS: Reproducibility was tested with 89 children who responded to two QUEFAC's. Validity was tested with 167 children who responded to three 24-hour recalls (reference method) and one QUEFAC. For the evaluation, the paired t-tests, Wilcoxon, intraclass correlation coefficients, weighted Kappa and analysis of the Bland-Altman graphs were used. RESULTS: For reproducibility, mean differences were observed for all nutrients investigated, correlation coefficients ranged from 0.12 to 0.54 and Kappa values from 0.01 to 0.39. For validity, mean differences for all nutrients were observed, except for energy and zinc, correlation coefficients ranged from 0 to 0.37, Kappa values from 0 to 0.27. Bland-Altman graphs showed a random distribution for most of the nutrients investigated. CONCLUSION: The QUEFAC was not valid for evaluation of usual food consumption of the last three months in children aged 7 to 10 years in São Paulo and presented moderate reproducibility for energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, magnesium and vitamin B2.


INTRODUÇÃO: Um Questionário de Frequência Alimentar Quantitativo (QUEFAC) foi construído por Hinnig et al. para avaliar a dieta habitual de crianças de 7 a 10 anos, uma vez que os desenvolvidos para adultos podem superestimar o consumo de crianças. Porém, precisa ser testado quanto sua validade e reprodutibilidade para se afirmar que o instrumento apresenta qualidade reconhecida. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a reprodutibilidade e a validade do QUEFAC em crianças de 7 a 10 anos. MÉTODO: A reprodutibilidade foi realizada com 89 crianças que responderam a dois QUEFAC's. A validade foi realizada com 167 crianças que responderam a três Recordatórios de 24 horas (método de referência) e a um QUEFAC. Para avaliação, utilizaram-se o teste t pareado e Wilcoxon, os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse e Kappa ponderado e análise dos gráficos de Bland-Altman RESULTADOS: Para reprodutibilidade, observou-se diferença de médias para todos os nutrientes investigados, os coeficientes de correlação variaram de 0,12 a 0,54 e os valores de Kappa de 0,01 a 0,39. Na validade, observou-se diferença de média para todos os nutrientes, com exceção da energia e zinco, os coeficientes de correlação variaram de 0 a 0,37, valores de Kappa de 0 a 0,27 e gráficos de Bland-Altman mostraram distribuição aleatória para a maioria dos nutrientes investigados. CONCLUSÃO: O QUEFAC não se mostrou válido para avaliação da dieta habitual dos últimos três meses em crianças de 7 a 10 anos em São Paulo e apresentou moderada reprodutibilidade para energia, proteínas, cálcio, fósforo, ferro, potássio, magnésio e vitamina B2.

14.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21: e180012, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-958815

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar a tendência da mortalidade por câncer colorretal, ajustado por indicadores selecionados, segundo sexo, para unidades federativas, regiões e Brasil, no período de 1996 a 2012. Métodos: Estudo ecológico de série temporal das taxas de mortalidade por câncer colorretal, feita análise de regressão linear, sendo o ano centralizado a variável independente. Os modelos foram ajustados por indicadores selecionados. Resultados: Houve aumento nas taxas de mortalidade padronizadas por câncer colorretal em todos os estados para o sexo masculino e em 21 estados para o sexo feminino. No modelo ajustado por taxa de mortalidade por causas mal definidas, produto interno bruto e coeficiente de Gini, a tendência de aumento foi significativa (p < 0,05) no Brasil, somente para os homens, com 0,17 óbitos por 100 mil habitantes ao ano (aa). Nos estados do Piauí (0,09 e 0,20 aa), Ceará (0,17 e 0,19 aa) e Rio Grande do Sul (0,61 e 0,42 aa) ocorreu aumento em homens e mulheres, respectivamente; somente em homens nos estados da Paraíba (0,16 aa), no Espírito Santo (0,28 aa), em São Paulo (0,24 aa) e Goiás (0,31 aa); e em mulheres nos estados de Roraima (0,41 aa), do Amapá (0,97 aa), Maranhão (0,10 aa), Sergipe (0,46 aa), Mato Grosso do Sul (0,47 aa) e Distrito Federal (0,69 aa). Conclusão: O aumento da taxa de mortalidade por câncer colorretal manteve-se significativo no Brasil somente entre os homens; em sete estados, entre homens; e em nove estados, entre mulheres, independentemente dos indicadores estudados. Essas diferenças podem estar relacionadas ao possível aumento da incidência e ao acesso tardio ao diagnóstico e tratamento.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze the trend of colorectal cancer mortality adjusted for selected indicators, according to sex, by Brazilian federative units and regions, and countrywide from 1996 to 2012. Methods: This is a temporal time series on colorectal cancer mortality rates, using linear regression analysis, in which the independent variable was the centered year. Models were adjusted for selected indicators. Results: There was an increase in standardized colorectal cancer mortality rates for males in all states and for females in 21 states. In the model adjusted for mortality rate from ill-defined causes, for gross domestic product, and for Gini coefficient, the upward trend remained statistically significant (p < 0.05) countrywide only for men, with 0.17 deaths per 100 thousand inhabitants per year (py). In the States of Piauí (0.09 and 0.20 py), Ceará (0.17 and 0.19 py) and Rio Grande do Sul (0.61 and 0.42 py), there was an increase for both men and women, respectively; only among men in the States of Paraíba (0.16 py), Espírito Santo (0.28 py), São Paulo (0.24 py) and Goiás (0.31 py); and among women in Roraima (0.41 py), Amapá (0.97 P/Y), Maranhão (0.10 py), Sergipe (0.46 P/Y), Mato Grosso do Sul (0.47 py), and the Federal District (0.69 py). Conclusion: The increase in colorectal cancer mortality remained significant when assessing Brazil as a whole only among men; in seven States among men, and in nine States among women, regardless of the studied indicators. These differences could be related to the possible increase in incidence and to late access to diagnosis and treatment.

15.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(6): e00140717, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1039371

RESUMO

O objetivo foi comparar duas técnicas para estimar idade em bancos de dados com registros incompletos e analisar sua aplicação no cálculo da incidência de câncer. Utilizou-se a base de dados do Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional do Município de São Paulo, Brasil, contendo casos diagnosticados por câncer do trato urinário, entre 1997 e 2013. Foram aplicadas duas técnicas para estimativa de idade: fator de correção e imputação múltipla. Foram simuladas, usando a distribuição binomial, seis bases de dados com diferentes proporções de dados incompletos para idade de 5% até 50%. A razão entre as incidências foi calculada tendo, como referência, a base completa, cuja incidência padronizada foi de 11,83/100 mil; as demais incidências nas bases com 5% ou mais de dados incompletos para idade apresentaram-se subestimadas. Ao aplicar o fator de correção, as taxas corrigidas não apresentaram diferenças em comparação com as padronizadas, entretanto, essa técnica não permite corrigir taxas específicas. A imputação múltipla foi útil na correção das taxas padronizadas e específicas em bancos com até 30% de dados incompletos, entretanto, as taxas específicas para indivíduos com menos de 50 anos apresentaram-se subestimadas. Bases com 5% ou mais de dados incompletos necessitam de aplicação de correção. A imputação múltipla, apesar de complexa em sua execução, mostrou-se superior ao fator de correção. Todavia, deve ser utilizada com parcimônia, pois taxas específicas por idade podem manter-se subestimadas.


The objective was to compare two techniques to estimate age in databases with incomplete records and analyze their application to the calculation of cancer incidence. The study used the database of the Population-Based Cancer Registry from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, containing cases of urinary tract cancer diagnosed from 1997 to 2013. Two techniques were applied to estimate age: correction factor and multiple imputation. Using binomial distribution, six databases were simulated with different proportions of incomplete data on patient's age (from 5% to 50%). The ratio between the incidence rates was calculated, using the complete database as reference, whose standardized incidence was 11.83/100,000; the other incidence rates in the databases, with at least 5% incomplete data for age, were underestimated. By applying the correction factors, the corrected rates did not differ from the standardized rates, but this technique does not allow correcting specific rates. Multiple imputation was useful for correcting the standardized and specific rates in databases with up to 30% of incomplete data, but the specific rates for individuals under 50 years of age were underestimated. Databases with 5% incomplete data or more require correction. Although the implementation of multiple imputation is complex, it proved to be superior to the correction factor. However, it should be used sparingly, since age-specific rates may remain underestimated.


El objetivo fue comparar dos técnicas para estimar edad en bancos de datos con registros incompletos y analizar su aplicación en el cálculo de la incidencia de cáncer. Se utilizó la base de datos del Registro de Cáncer de Base Poblacional del municipio de São Paulo, Brasil, conteniendo casos diagnosticados de cáncer del tracto urinario, entre 1997 y 2013. Se aplicaron dos técnicas para la estimativa de edad: factor de corrección e imputación múltiple. Fueron simuladas, usando una distribución binomial, seis bases de datos con diferentes proporciones de datos incompletos para edad desde un 5% hasta el 50%. La razón entre las incidencias se calculó teniendo, como referencia, la base completa, cuya incidencia padronizada fue de 11,83/100.000; las demás incidencias en las bases con un 5% o más de datos incompletos en la edad se presentaron subestimadas. Al aplicar el factor de corrección, las tasas corregidas no presentaron diferencias, en comparación con las estandarizadas, sin embargo, esta técnica no permite corregir tasas específicas. La imputación múltiple fue útil en la corrección de las tasas estandarizadas y específicas en bancos con hasta un 30% de datos incompletos, no obstante, las tasas específicas para individuos con menos de 50 años se presentaron subestimadas. Bases con un 5% o más de datos incompletos necesitan una aplicación de corrección. La imputación múltiple, a pesar de ser compleja en su ejecución, se mostró superior al factor de corrección. Sin embargo, debe ser utilizada con prudencia, puesto que las tasas específicas por edad pueden seguir manteniéndose subestimadas.

16.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51: 101, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29166449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine maternal and obstetric factors influencing births by cesarean section according to health care funding. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with data from Southeastern Brazil. Caesarean section births from February 2011 to July 2012 were included. Data were obtained from interviews with women whose care was publicly or privately funded, and from their obstetric and neonatal records. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to generate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for caesarean section births. RESULTS: The overall caesarean section rate was 53% among 9,828 women for whom data were available, with the highest rates among women whose maternity care was privately funded. Reasons for performing a c-section were infrequently documented in women's maternity records. The variables that increased the likelihood of c-section regardless of health care funding were the following: paid employment, previous c-section, primiparity, antenatal and labor complications. Older maternal age, university education, and higher socioeconomic status were only associated with c-section in the public system. CONCLUSIONS: Higher maternal socioeconomic status was associated with greater likelihood of a caesarean section birth in publicly funded settings, but not in the private sector, where funding source alone determined the mode of birth rather than maternal or obstetric characteristics. Maternal socioeconomic status and private healthcare funding continue to drive high rates of caesarean section births in Brazil, with women who have a higher socioeconomic status more likely to have a caesarean section birth in all birth settings.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Privados/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51: 56, 2017 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of interventions on the levels of physical activity of healthy adults, users of the Brazilian Unified Health System and attended by the Family Health Strategy. METHODS: Non-randomized experimental study with 157 adults allocated in three groups: 1) physical exercise classes (n = 54), 2) health education (n = 54), 3) control (n = 49). The study lasted for18 months, with 12 months of interventions and six months of follow-up after intervention. Assessments took place at the beginning, in the 12 months, and in the 18 months of study. Physical activity has been assessed by questionnaires and accelerometry. For the analyses, we have used the intention-to-treat principle and generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: After 12 months, both intervention groups have increased the minutes of weekly leisure time physical activity and annual scores of physical exercise, leisure and transport-related physical activity. The exercise class group has obtained the highest average annual physical exercises score when compared to the other groups (p < 0.001). In the follow-up period, the exercise class group reduced its annual score (average: -0.3; 95%CI -0.5--0.1), while the health education group increased this score (average: 0.2; 95%CI 0.1-0.4). There have been no differences in the levels of physical activity measured by accelerometry. CONCLUSIONS: The interventions have been effective in increasing the practice of physical activity. However, we have observed that the health education intervention was more effective for maintaining the practice of physical activity in the period after intervention. We recommend the use of both interventions to promote physical activity in the Brazilian Unified Health System, according to the local reality of professionals, facilities, and team objectives. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de intervenções nos níveis de atividade física de adultos saudáveis, usuários do Sistema Único de Saúde e atendidos pela Estratégia de Saúde da Família. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental, não randomizado, com 157 adultos alocados em três grupos: 1) classes de exercícios físicos (n = 54); 2) educação em saúde (n = 54); 3) controle (n = 49). O estudo teve duração de 18 meses, sendo 12 meses de intervenções e seis meses de acompanhamento pós-intervenção. As avaliações ocorreram no início, nos 12 e nos 18 meses de estudo. A atividade física foi avaliada por questionários e por acelerometria. Para as análises, utilizaram-se o princípio de intenção de tratar e equações de estimativas generalizadas. RESULTADOS: Após 12 meses, ambos os grupos de intervenção aumentaram os minutos semanais de atividade física no lazer e os escores anuais de exercícios físicos, de lazer e de deslocamento. O grupo das classes de exercícios físicos obteve maior média de escore anual de exercícios físicos em comparação com os outros grupos (p < 0,001). No período pós-intervenção, o grupo de classes de exercícios físicos reduziu o escore anual de exercícios físicos (média: -0,3; IC95% -0,5--0,1), enquanto o grupo de educação em saúde aumentou este escore (média: 0,2; IC95% 0,1-0,4). Não houve diferenças nos níveis de atividade física mensurados por acelerometria. CONCLUSÕES: As intervenções foram efetivas para aumentar a prática de atividade física. No entanto, observou-se que a intervenção de educação em saúde foi mais efetiva para a manutenção da prática de atividade física no período pós-intervenção. Recomenda-se a utilização de ambas as intervenções para a promoção da atividade física no Sistema Único de Saúde, de acordo com as realidades locais de profissionais, instalações e objetivos das equipes.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 22(6): 2063-2071, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28614524

RESUMO

The Family Vulnerability Index to Disability and Dependence (FVI-DD) aims to summarize the dimensions of vulnerability to disability and dependence using family data monitored by Family Health Strategy (ESF) teams. This study aims to analyze the FVI-DD according to the social and health vulnerability, to validate and extract a cutoff point for each dimension. The FVI-DD was built with a sample of 248 families living in a region of São Paulo. The dimension related to health conditions was validated with good internal consistency, with respect to the Katz Index and the Lawton Scale, whereas the dimension related to social conditions was only validated in relation to Lawton Scale. Thus, a vulnerable family was defined as one with 15 or more points in the Total FVI-DD, and a vulnerable family in health conditions that with a score of 6 or more points in that dimension. Therefore, it is possible to classify families as not vulnerable, vulnerable in the social aspects, vulnerable in the health aspects and the more vulnerable family (social and health) using social indicators of empowerment and wear and health indicators related not only to the biological sphere, but also in the access to health services, health self-assessment and existing vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Família , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Condições Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(6): 2063-2071, Jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890358

RESUMO

Resumo O Índice de Vulnerabilidade de Famílias a Incapacidade e Dependência (IVF-ID) tem a finalidade de sintetizar as dimensões de vulnerabilidade a incapacidade e dependência utilizando dados de famílias acompanhadas por equipes da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF). O objetivo deste estudo é analisar o IVF-ID, segundo a vulnerabilidade social e de saúde, para validar e extrair um ponto de corte para cada dimensão. O IVF-ID foi construído com uma amostra de 248 famílias residentes em uma região de São Paulo. A dimensão relacionada às condições de saúde foi validado com boa consistência interna, em relação ao Índice de Katz e à Escala de Lawton, enquanto a dimensão relacionada às condições sociais validou apenas em relação à Escala de Lawton. Assim, definiu-se como família vulnerável aquela com 15 ou mais pontos no IVF-ID Total e como família vulnerável nas condições de saúde aquela com 6 ou mais pontos nessa dimensão. Com isso, é possível classificar as famílias como não vulnerável, vulnerável nos aspectos sociais, vulnerável nos aspectos de saúde e família mais vulnerável, utilizando indicadores sociais, de fortalecimento e desgaste, e indicadores de saúde relacionados não apenas na esfera biológica, mas também no acesso a serviços de saúde, autoavaliação de saúde e presença de grupos vulneráveis.


Abstract The Family Vulnerability Index to Disability and Dependence (FVI-DD) aims to summarize the dimensions of vulnerability to disability and dependence using family data monitored by Family Health Strategy (ESF) teams. This study aims to analyze the FVI-DD according to the social and health vulnerability, to validate and extract a cutoff point for each dimension. The FVI-DD was built with a sample of 248 families living in a region of São Paulo. The dimension related to health conditions was validated with good internal consistency, with respect to the Katz Index and the Lawton Scale, whereas the dimension related to social conditions was only validated in relation to Lawton Scale. Thus, a vulnerable family was defined as one with 15 or more points in the Total FVI-DD, and a vulnerable family in health conditions that with a score of 6 or more points in that dimension. Therefore, it is possible to classify families as not vulnerable, vulnerable in the social aspects, vulnerable in the health aspects and the more vulnerable family (social and health) using social indicators of empowerment and wear and health indicators related not only to the biological sphere, but also in the access to health services, health self-assessment and existing vulnerable groups.

20.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 22(6): 2063-2071, jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-840001

RESUMO

Resumo O Índice de Vulnerabilidade de Famílias a Incapacidade e Dependência (IVF-ID) tem a finalidade de sintetizar as dimensões de vulnerabilidade a incapacidade e dependência utilizando dados de famílias acompanhadas por equipes da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF). O objetivo deste estudo é analisar o IVF-ID, segundo a vulnerabilidade social e de saúde, para validar e extrair um ponto de corte para cada dimensão. O IVF-ID foi construído com uma amostra de 248 famílias residentes em uma região de São Paulo. A dimensão relacionada às condições de saúde foi validado com boa consistência interna, em relação ao Índice de Katz e à Escala de Lawton, enquanto a dimensão relacionada às condições sociais validou apenas em relação à Escala de Lawton. Assim, definiu-se como família vulnerável aquela com 15 ou mais pontos no IVF-ID Total e como família vulnerável nas condições de saúde aquela com 6 ou mais pontos nessa dimensão. Com isso, é possível classificar as famílias como não vulnerável, vulnerável nos aspectos sociais, vulnerável nos aspectos de saúde e família mais vulnerável, utilizando indicadores sociais, de fortalecimento e desgaste, e indicadores de saúde relacionados não apenas na esfera biológica, mas também no acesso a serviços de saúde, autoavaliação de saúde e presença de grupos vulneráveis.


Abstract The Family Vulnerability Index to Disability and Dependence (FVI-DD) aims to summarize the dimensions of vulnerability to disability and dependence using family data monitored by Family Health Strategy (ESF) teams. This study aims to analyze the FVI-DD according to the social and health vulnerability, to validate and extract a cutoff point for each dimension. The FVI-DD was built with a sample of 248 families living in a region of São Paulo. The dimension related to health conditions was validated with good internal consistency, with respect to the Katz Index and the Lawton Scale, whereas the dimension related to social conditions was only validated in relation to Lawton Scale. Thus, a vulnerable family was defined as one with 15 or more points in the Total FVI-DD, and a vulnerable family in health conditions that with a score of 6 or more points in that dimension. Therefore, it is possible to classify families as not vulnerable, vulnerable in the social aspects, vulnerable in the health aspects and the more vulnerable family (social and health) using social indicators of empowerment and wear and health indicators related not only to the biological sphere, but also in the access to health services, health self-assessment and existing vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Humanos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Família , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Condições Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA