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1.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290277

RESUMO

Inborn errors of immunity cause monogenic immune dysregulatory conditions such as severe and recurrent pathogen infection, inflammation, allergy and malignancy. Somatic reversion refers to the spontaneous repair of a pathogenic germline genetic variant and has been reported to occur in a number of inborn errors of immunity with a range of impacts on clinical outcomes of these conditions. DOCK8 deficiency due to bi-allelic inactivating mutations in DOCK8 causes a combined immunodeficiency characterised by severe bacterial, viral and fungal infections, as well as allergic disease and some cancers. Here, we describe the clinical, genetic and cellular features of three patients with bi-allelic DOCK8 variants who, following somatic reversion in multiple lymphocyte subsets, exhibited improved clinical features, including complete resolution of infection and allergic disease, cure over time. Acquisition of DOCK8 expression restored defective lymphocyte signalling, survival and proliferation, as well as CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity, CD4+ T cell cytokine production, and memory B cell generation compared to typical DOCK8-deficient patients. Our temporal analysis of DOCK8-revertant and DOCK8-deficient cells within the same individual established mechanisms of clinical improvement in these patients following somatic reversion and revealed further non-redundant functions of DOCK8 in human lymphocyte biology. Lastly, our findings have significant implications for future therapeutic options for the treatment of DOCK8 deficiency.

3.
J Exp Med ; 217(11)2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812031

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) preferentially infects epithelial cells and B lymphocytes and sometimes T and NK lymphocytes. Persistence of EBV-infected cells results in severe lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). Diagnosis of EBV-driven T or NK cell LPD and chronic active EBV diseases (CAEBV) is difficult, often requiring biopsies. Herein, we report a flow-FISH cytometry assay that detects cells expressing EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs), allowing rapid identification of EBV-infected cells among PBMCs. EBV-infected B, T, and/or NK cells were detectable in various LPD conditions. Diagnosis of CAEBV in 22 patients of Caucasian and African origins was established. All exhibited circulating EBV-infected T and/or NK cells, highlighting that CAEBV is not restricted to native American and Asian populations. Proportions of EBV-infected cells correlated with blood EBV loads. We showed that EBV-infected T cells had an effector memory activated phenotype, whereas EBV-infected B cells expressed plasma cell differentiation markers. Thus, this method achieves accurate and unambiguous diagnoses of different forms of EBV-driven LPD and represents a powerful tool to study their pathophysiological mechanisms.

4.
Blood ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845957

RESUMO

IKAROS is a transcription factor forming homo/hetero-dimers and regulating lymphocyte development and function. Germline mutations affecting IKAROS N-terminal DNA binding domain, acting in a haploinsufficient or dominant negative manner, cause immunodeficiency. Herein we describe four germline heterozygous IKAROS variants affecting its C-terminal dimerization domain by haploinsufficiency, in four unrelated families. Index patients presented with hematologic disease consisting of cytopenias (thrombocytopenia, anemia, neutropenia)/Evans syndrome, and malignancies (T-ALL, Burkitt lymphoma). These mutations are partially or completely deficient to form homo- and hetero-dimers, but do not affect the wild type allele function. Moreover, they alter key mechanisms of IKAROS gene regulation including sumoylation, protein stability, and the recruitment of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex; none of them affected the N-terminal DNA binding. These C-terminal dimerization mutations are largely associated with hematologic disorders, display dimerization haploinsufficency, incomplete clinical penetrance, and differ from previously reported allelic variants in their mechanism of action. Dimerization mutants contribute to the growing spectrum of IKAROS-associated diseases displaying a genotype-phenotype correlation.

5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1593, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849540

RESUMO

Most of the few patients with homozygous CD70 deficiency described to date suffered from EBV-related malignancies in early childhood. We present a woman with CD70 deficiency diagnosed in adulthood. She presented in childhood with recurrent airway infections due to encapsulated bacteria, herpes zoster and a fulminant EBV infection followed by chronic EBV infection with mild lymphoproliferation and severe gingivitis/periodontal disease with high EBV viral load in saliva and gingival plaques as an adult. Up to the age of 24 years she developed no malignancy despite constant EBV viremia since primary EBV infection 15 years previously. Immunologic evaluation in childhood showed hypogammaglobulinemia with impaired polysaccharide responsiveness. She has been stable on immunoglobulin substitution with no further severe viral infections and no bacterial airway infections in adulthood. Targeted panel sequencing at the age of 20 years revealed a homozygous CD70 missense mutation (ENST00000245903.3:c.2T>C). CD70 deficiency was confirmed by absent CD70 expression of B cells and activated T cell blasts. The patient finished high school, persues an academic career and has rarely sick days at college. The clinical course of our patient may help to counsel parents of CD70-deficient patients with regard to prognosis and therapeutic options including haematopoetic stem cell transplantation.

7.
Science ; 369(6500): 202-207, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647003

RESUMO

Immunodeficiency often coincides with hyperactive immune disorders such as autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, or atopy, but this coincidence is rarely understood on a molecular level. We describe five patients from four families with immunodeficiency coupled with atopy, lymphoproliferation, and cytokine overproduction harboring mutations in NCKAP1L, which encodes the hematopoietic-specific HEM1 protein. These mutations cause the loss of the HEM1 protein and the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) or disrupt binding to the WRC regulator, Arf1, thereby impairing actin polymerization, synapse formation, and immune cell migration. Diminished cortical actin networks caused by WRC loss led to uncontrolled cytokine release and immune hyperresponsiveness. HEM1 loss also blocked mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2)-dependent AKT phosphorylation, T cell proliferation, and selected effector functions, leading to immunodeficiency. Thus, the evolutionarily conserved HEM1 protein simultaneously regulates filamentous actin (F-actin) and mTORC2 signaling to achieve equipoise in immune responses.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/biossíntese , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Fator 1 de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Linhagem , Fosforilação , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/química , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/metabolismo
10.
JCI Insight ; 5(5)2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161190

RESUMO

Cytidine triphosphate (CTP) synthetase 1 (CTPS1) deficiency is caused by a unique homozygous frameshift splice mutation (c.1692-1G>C, p.T566Dfs26X). CTPS1-deficient patients display severe bacterial and viral infections. CTPS1 is responsible for CTP nucleotide de novo production involved in DNA/RNA synthesis. Herein, we characterized in depth lymphocyte defects associated with CTPS1 deficiency. Immune phenotyping performed in 7 patients showed absence or low numbers of mucosal-associated T cells, invariant NKT cells, memory B cells, and NK cells, whereas other subsets were normal. Proliferation and IL-2 secretion by T cells in response to TCR activation were markedly decreased in all patients, while other T cell effector functions were preserved. The CTPS1T566Dfs26X mutant protein was found to be hypomorphic, resulting in 80%-90% reduction of protein expression and CTPS activity in cells of patients. Inactivation of CTPS1 in a T cell leukemia fully abolished cell proliferation. Expression of CTPS1T566Dfs26X failed to restore proliferation of CTPS1-deficient leukemia cells to normal, except when forcing its expression to a level comparable to that of WT CTPS1. This indicates that CTPS1T566Dfs26X retained normal CTPS activity, and thus the loss of function of CTPS1T566Dfs26X is completely attributable to protein instability. This study supports that CTPS1 represents an attractive therapeutic target to selectively inhibit pathological T cell proliferation, including lymphoma.

11.
Blood ; 135(9): 644-655, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942615

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an enigma; on one hand, it infects and persists in latent form in the vast majority of the global population, causing relatively benign disease in otherwise healthy individuals. On the other hand, EBV represents the first identified oncogenic virus, capable of causing ≥7 different types of malignancies, usually in immunocompromised individuals. Furthermore, some individuals with defined inborn errors of immunity exhibit extreme susceptibility to EBV-induced disease, developing severe and often fatal infectious mononucleosis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, lymphoproliferative disease, and/or EBV+ B-cell lymphoma. Thus, host and pathogen have coevolved to enable viral persistence and survival with minimal collateral damage to the healthy host. However, acquired or genetic disruptions to host defense that tip the balance in favor of EBV can have catastrophic effects. The study of primary immunodeficiencies has provided opportunities to define nonredundant requirements for host defense against EBV infection. This has not only revealed mechanisms underlying EBV-induced disease in these primary immunodeficiencies but also identified molecules and pathways that could be targeted to enhance the efficacy of an EBV-specific vaccine or treat severe EBV infection and pathological consequences in immunodeficient hosts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/imunologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/virologia , Animais , Humanos
12.
J Mass Spectrom ; 54(11): 885-893, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524312

RESUMO

Cytidine 5'-triphosphate synthetase (CTPS) is known to be a central enzyme in the de novo synthesis of CTP. We have recently demonstrated that a deficiency in CTPS1 is associated with an impaired capacity of activated lymphocytes to proliferate leading to a combined immunodeficiency disease. In order to better document its role in immunomodulation, we developed a method for measuring CTPS activity in human lymphocytes. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we quantified CTPS activity by measuring CTP in cell lysates. A stable isotope analog of CTP served as internal standard. We characterized the kinetic parameters Vmax and Km of CTPS and verified that an inhibition of the enzyme activity was induced after 3-deazauridine (3DAU) treatment, a known inhibitor of CTPS. We then determined CTPS activity in healthy volunteers, in a family whose child displayed a homozygous mutation in CTPS1 gene and in patients who had developed or not a chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) after lung transplantation. Linearity of the CTP determination was observed up to 451 µmol/L, with accuracy in the 15% tolerance range. Michaelis-Menten kinetics for lysates of resting cells were Km =280±310 µmol/L for UTP, Vmax =83±20 pmol/min and, for lysates of activated PBMCs, Km =230±280 µmol/L for UTP, Vmax =379±90 pmol/min. Treatment by 3DAU and homozygous mutation in CTPS1 gene abolished the induction of CTPS activity associated with cell stimulation, and CTPS activity was significantly reduced in the patients who developed CLAD. We conclude that this test is suitable to reveal the involvement of CTPS alteration in immunodeficiency.


Assuntos
Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases/análise , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases/metabolismo , 3-Desazauridina/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Células Sanguíneas , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases/genética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Cinética , Limite de Detecção , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Mutação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
J Exp Med ; 216(12): 2800-2818, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537641

RESUMO

Infection of T cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) characterized by T cell lymphoproliferative disorders (T-LPD) of unclear etiology. Here, we identified two homozygous biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PIK3CD and TNFRSF9 in a patient who developed a fatal CAEBV. The mutation in TNFRSF9 gene coding CD137/4-1BB, a costimulatory molecule expressed by antigen-specific activated T cells, resulted in a complete loss of CD137 expression and impaired T cell expansion toward CD137 ligand-expressing cells. Isolated as observed in one sibling, CD137 deficiency resulted in persistent EBV-infected T cells but without clinical manifestations. The mutation in PIK3CD gene that encodes the catalytic subunit p110δ of the PI3K significantly reduced its kinase activity. Deficient T cells for PIK3CD exhibited reduced AKT signaling, while calcium flux, RAS-MAPK activation, and proliferation were increased, suggestive of an imbalance between the PLCγ1 and PI3K pathways. These skewed signals in T cells may sustain accumulation of EBV-infected T cells, a process controlled by the CD137-CD137L pathway, highlighting its critical role in immunity to EBV.


Assuntos
Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/deficiência , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/etiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Membro 9 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/deficiência , Ativação Viral/genética , Ativação Viral/imunologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/química , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Histocitoquímica , Homozigoto , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Mutação com Perda de Função , Ativação Linfocitária , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/etiologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Linhagem , Fosfolipase C gama/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transdução de Sinais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Linfócitos T/virologia , Membro 9 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/química
14.
Hematol Oncol ; 37(4): 483-486, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408541

RESUMO

In absence of red blood cells disease or immune defect, parvovirus B19 (PVB-19) is usually considered as a benign condition. Here, we report the case of a 10-year-old boy, previously healthy, presenting with a PVB-19 infection revealed by a bicytopenia and a voluminous axillary adenopathy. Pathophysiology examination showed reactional lymphoid population. Nine months later and in the absence of remission, a new biopsy of the same adenopathy revealed a Hodgkin lymphoma with area of T-cell rich aggressive large B-cell lymphoma. This case suggests PVB-19 as potential trigger of this malignant childhood hemopathy. Although no definitive conclusion can be drawn, our clinical case questions the role of PVB-19 in lymphomagenesis.


Assuntos
Eritema Infeccioso/complicações , Doença de Hodgkin/etiologia , Linfoma de Células B/etiologia , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/etiologia , Viremia/complicações , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos B/patologia , Medula Óssea/patologia , Medula Óssea/virologia , Criança , Eritema Infeccioso/sangue , Eritema Infeccioso/patologia , Eritema Infeccioso/virologia , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Masculino , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/patologia , Pancitopenia/etiologia , Pseudolinfoma/etiologia , Indução de Remissão , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
15.
Immunol Rev ; 291(1): 174-189, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402499

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) provide researchers with unique models to understand in vivo immune responses in general and immunity to infections in particular. In humans, impaired immune control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with the occurrence of several different immunopathologic conditions; these include non-malignant and malignant B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a severe inflammatory condition, and a chronic acute EBV infection of T cells. Studies of PIDs associated with a predisposition to develop severe, chronic EBV infections have led to the identification of key components of immunity to EBV - notably the central role of T-cell expansion and its regulation in the pathophysiology of EBV-associated diseases. On one hand, the defective expansion of EBV-specific CD8 T cells results from mutations in genes involved in T-cell activation (such as RASGRP1, MAGT1, and ITK), DNA metabolism (CTPS1) or co-stimulatory pathways (CD70, CD27, and TNFSFR9 (also known as CD137/4-1BB)) leads to impaired elimination of proliferating EBV-infected B cells and the occurrence of lymphoma. On the other hand, protracted T-cell expansion and activation after the defective killing of EBV-infected B cells is caused by genetic defects in the components of the lytic granule exocytosis pathway or in the small adapter protein SH2D1A (also known as SAP), a key activator of T- and NK cell-cytotoxicity. In this setting, the persistence of EBV-infected cells results in HLH, a condition characterized by unleashed T-cell and macrophage activation. Moreover, genetic defects causing selective vulnerability to EBV infection have highlighted the role of co-receptor molecules (CD27, CD137, and SLAM-R) selectively involved in immune responses against infected B cells via specific T-B cell interactions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/etiologia
18.
Eur J Immunol ; 49(6): 894-910, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912587

RESUMO

It is established that iNKT cells are a cell type that require strong TCR signal for their proper development and represent a model for thymic agonist selection. The nature of the signal perceived by iNKT cells promoting their specification is not well understood. To address this question, we analyzed iNKT cell development in relevant TCR Vα14-Jα18 alpha chain transgenic mice (Vα14Tg). In CD4-Vα14Tg mice, where the transgene is driven by CD4 promoter, we identified a block in iNKT cell development at early developmental stages due to a reduced expression of key transcription factors accompanied with a reduced TCR expression levels. This indicates that TCR signal strength control iNKT cell differentiation. Importantly, we found in WT mice that early precursors of iNKT cells express higher TCR levels compared to positively selected precursors of mainstream T cells showing that TCR levels could contribute to the strength of iNKT cell TCR signaling. Overall, our study highlights TCR signal strength associated with a higher TCR density as an important regulator of iNKT cell lineage specification.


Assuntos
Células T Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Linhagem da Célula/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
19.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 58(8): 595-601, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779244

RESUMO

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is characterized by a translocation of the MYC oncogene that leads to the upregulation of MYC expression, cell growth and proliferation. It is well-established that MYC translocation is not a sufficient genetic event to cause BL. Next-generation sequencing has recently provided a comprehensive analysis of the landscape of additional genetic events that contribute to BL lymphomagenesis. Refractory BL or relapsing BL are almost always incurable as a result of the selection of a highly chemoresistant clonally related cell population. Conversely, a few BL recurrence cases arising from clonally distinct tumors have been reported and were associated with a favorable outcome similar to that reported for first-line treatment. Here, we used an unusual case of recurrent but clonally distinct EBV+ BL to highlight the key genetic events that drive BL lymphomagenesis. By whole exome sequencing, we established that ID3 gene was targeted by distinct mutations in the two clonally unrelated diseases, highlighting the crucial role of this gene during lymphomagenesis. We also detected a heterozygous E1021K PIK3CD mutation, thus increasing the spectrum of somatic mutations altering the PI3K signaling pathway in BL. Interestingly, this mutation is known to be associated with activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS). Finally, we also identified an inherited heterozygous truncating c.5791CT FANCM mutation that may contribute to the unusual recurrence of BL.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linfoma de Burkitt/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Burkitt/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Evolução Clonal , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Alelos , Linfoma de Burkitt/terapia , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Patrimônio Genético , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação , Resultado do Tratamento
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