Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 45
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
2.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 4, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175238

RESUMO

Background: Over 90 regions of the genome have been associated with lung function to date, many of which have also been implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: We carried out meta-analyses of exome array data and three lung function measures: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC (FEV 1/FVC). These analyses by the SpiroMeta and CHARGE consortia included 60,749 individuals of European ancestry from 23 studies, and 7,721 individuals of African Ancestry from 5 studies in the discovery stage, with follow-up in up to 111,556 independent individuals. Results: We identified significant (P<2·8x10 -7) associations with six SNPs: a nonsynonymous variant in RPAP1, which is predicted to be damaging, three intronic SNPs ( SEC24C, CASC17 and UQCC1) and two intergenic SNPs near to LY86 and FGF10. Expression quantitative trait loci analyses found evidence for regulation of gene expression at three signals and implicated several genes, including TYRO3 and PLAU. Conclusions: Further interrogation of these loci could provide greater understanding of the determinants of lung function and pulmonary disease.

3.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2976, 2018 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061609

RESUMO

Nearly 100 loci have been identified for pulmonary function, almost exclusively in studies of European ancestry populations. We extend previous research by meta-analyzing genome-wide association studies of 1000 Genomes imputed variants in relation to pulmonary function in a multiethnic population of 90,715 individuals of European (N = 60,552), African (N = 8429), Asian (N = 9959), and Hispanic/Latino (N = 11,775) ethnicities. We identify over 50 additional loci at genome-wide significance in ancestry-specific or multiethnic meta-analyses. Using recent fine-mapping methods incorporating functional annotation, gene expression, and differences in linkage disequilibrium between ethnicities, we further shed light on potential causal variants and genes at known and newly identified loci. Several of the novel genes encode proteins with predicted or established drug targets, including KCNK2 and CDK12. Our study highlights the utility of multiethnic and integrative genomics approaches to extend existing knowledge of the genetics of lung function and clinical relevance of implicated loci.

4.
Neurology ; 90(4): e264-e272, 2018 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of microRNA (miRNA) levels in CSF as biomarkers for prodromal Huntington disease (HD). METHODS: miRNA levels were measured in CSF from 60 PREDICT-HD study participants using the HTG protocol. Using a CAG-Age Product score, 30 prodromal HD participants were selected based on estimated probability of imminent clinical diagnosis of HD (i.e., low, medium, high; n = 10/group). For comparison, participants already diagnosed (n = 15) and healthy controls (n = 15) were also selected. RESULTS: A total of 2,081 miRNAs were detected and 6 were significantly increased in the prodromal HD gene expansion carriers vs controls at false discovery rate q < 0.05 (miR-520f-3p, miR-135b-3p, miR-4317, miR-3928-5p, miR-8082, miR-140-5p). Evaluating the miRNA levels in each of the HD risk categories, all 6 revealed a pattern of increasing abundance from control to low risk, and from low risk to medium risk, which then leveled off from the medium to high risk and HD diagnosed groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports miRNAs as CSF biomarkers of prodromal and diagnosed HD. Importantly, miRNAs were detected in the prodromal HD groups furthest from diagnosis where treatments are likely to be most consequential and meaningful. The identification of potential biomarkers in the disease prodrome may prove useful in evaluating treatments that may postpone disease onset. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00051324.

5.
Lancet Neurol ; 16(11): 908-916, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28958801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Better understanding and prediction of progression of Parkinson's disease could improve disease management and clinical trial design. We aimed to use longitudinal clinical, molecular, and genetic data to develop predictive models, compare potential biomarkers, and identify novel predictors for motor progression in Parkinson's disease. We also sought to assess the use of these models in the design of treatment trials in Parkinson's disease. METHODS: A Bayesian multivariate predictive inference platform was applied to data from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study (NCT01141023). We used genetic data and baseline molecular and clinical variables from patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls to construct an ensemble of models to predict the annual rate of change in combined scores from the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) parts II and III. We tested our overall explanatory power, as assessed by the coefficient of determination (R2), and replicated novel findings in an independent clinical cohort from the Longitudinal and Biomarker Study in Parkinson's disease (LABS-PD; NCT00605163). The potential utility of these models for clinical trial design was quantified by comparing simulated randomised placebo-controlled trials within the out-of-sample LABS-PD cohort. FINDINGS: 117 healthy controls and 312 patients with Parkinson's disease from the PPMI study were available for analysis, and 317 patients with Parkinson's disease from LABS-PD were available for validation. Our model ensemble showed strong performance within the PPMI cohort (five-fold cross-validated R2 41%, 95% CI 35-47) and significant-albeit reduced-performance in the LABS-PD cohort (R2 9%, 95% CI 4-16). Individual predictive features identified from PPMI data were confirmed in the LABS-PD cohort. These included significant replication of higher baseline MDS-UPDRS motor score, male sex, and increased age, as well as a novel Parkinson's disease-specific epistatic interaction, all indicative of faster motor progression. Genetic variation was the most useful predictive marker of motor progression (2·9%, 95% CI 1·5-4·3). CSF biomarkers at baseline showed a more modest (0·3%, 95% CI 0·1-0·5) but still significant effect on prediction of motor progression. The simulations (n=5000) showed that incorporating the predicted rates of motor progression (as assessed by the annual change in MDS-UPDRS score) into the final models of treatment effect reduced the variability in the study outcome, allowing significant differences to be detected at sample sizes up to 20% smaller than in naive trials. INTERPRETATION: Our model ensemble confirmed established and identified novel predictors of Parkinson's disease motor progression. Improvement of existing prognostic models through machine-learning approaches should benefit trial design and evaluation, as well as clinical disease monitoring and treatment. FUNDING: Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico
6.
Nat Genet ; 49(3): 426-432, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166215

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. We performed a genetic association study in 15,256 cases and 47,936 controls, with replication of select top results (P < 5 × 10-6) in 9,498 cases and 9,748 controls. In the combined meta-analysis, we identified 22 loci associated at genome-wide significance, including 13 new associations with COPD. Nine of these 13 loci have been associated with lung function in general population samples, while 4 (EEFSEC, DSP, MTCL1, and SFTPD) are new. We noted two loci shared with pulmonary fibrosis (FAM13A and DSP) but that had opposite risk alleles for COPD. None of our loci overlapped with genome-wide associations for asthma, although one locus has been implicated in joint susceptibility to asthma and obesity. We also identified genetic correlation between COPD and asthma. Our findings highlight new loci associated with COPD, demonstrate the importance of specific loci associated with lung function to COPD, and identify potential regions of genetic overlap between COPD and other respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Asma/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
7.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 174(3): 315-323, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28190298

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common, recurring psychiatric illness with unknown pathogenesis. Recent studies suggest that microRNA (miRNA) levels in brains of BD patients are significantly altered, and these changes may offer insight into BD pathology or etiology. Previously, we observed significant alterations of miR-29c levels in extracellular vesicles (EVs) extracted from prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9, BA9) of BD patients. In this study, we show that EVs extracted from the anterior cingulate cortex (BA24), a crucial area for modulating emotional expression and affect, have increased levels of miR-149 in BD patients compared to controls. Because miR-149 has been shown to inhibit glial proliferation, increased miR-149 expression in BA24-derived EVs is consistent with the previously reported reduced glial cell numbers in BA24 of patients diagnosed with either familial BD or familial major depressive disorder. qPCR analysis of laser-microdissected neuronal and glial cells from BA24 cortical samples of BD patients verified that the glial, but not neuronal, population exhibits significantly increased miR-149 expression. Finally, we report altered expression of both miR-149 and miR-29c in EVs extracted from brains of Flinders Sensitive Line rats, a well-validated animal model exhibiting depressive-like behaviors and glial (astrocytic) dysfunction. These findings warrant future investigations into the potential of using EV miRNA signatures as biomarkers to further enhance the biological definition of BD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/sangue , Ratos
8.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0160925, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27508417

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified the GAK/DGKQ/IDUA region on 4p16.3 among the top three risk loci for Parkinson's disease (PD), but the specific gene and risk mechanism are unclear. Here, we report transcripts containing the 3' clathrin-binding domain of GAK identified by RNA deep-sequencing in post-mortem human brain tissue as having increased expression in PD. Furthermore, carriers of 4p16.3 PD GWAS risk SNPs show decreased expression of one of these transcripts, GAK25 (Gencode Transcript 009), which correlates with the expression of genes functioning in the synaptic vesicle membrane. Together, these findings provide strong evidence for GAK clathrin-binding- and J-domain transcripts' influence on PD pathogenicity, and for a role for GAK in regulating synaptic function in PD.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 4 , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Vesículas Sinápticas/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Éxons , Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Doença de Parkinson/patologia
10.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 194(12): 1514-1522, 2016 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27314401

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The relationship between the development and/or progression of interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) and clinical outcomes has not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk factors for, and the clinical consequences of, having ILA progression in participants from the Framingham Heart Study. METHODS: ILA were assessed in 1,867 participants who had serial chest computed tomography (CT) scans approximately 6 years apart. Mixed effect regression (and Cox) models were used to assess the association between ILA progression and pulmonary function decline (and mortality). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: During the follow-up period 660 (35%) participants did not have ILA on either CT scan, 37 (2%) had stable to improving ILA, and 118 (6%) had ILA with progression (the remaining participants without ILA were noted to be indeterminate on at least one CT scan). Increasing age and increasing copies of the MUC5B promoter polymorphism were associated with ILA progression. After adjustment for covariates, ILA progression was associated with a greater FVC decline when compared with participants without ILA (20 ml; SE, ±6 ml; P = 0.0005) and with those with ILA without progression (25 ml; SE, ±11 ml; P = 0.03). Over a median follow-up time of approximately 4 years, after adjustment, ILA progression was associated with an increase in the risk of death (hazard ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-10.9; P = 0.01) when compared with those without ILA. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that ILA progression in the Framingham Heart Study is associated with an increased rate of pulmonary function decline and increased risk of death.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Pulmão/anormalidades , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Testes de Função Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Nature ; 533(7601): 95-9, 2016 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27096366

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous genetic variants associated with complex diseases, but mechanistic insights are impeded by a lack of understanding of how specific risk variants functionally contribute to the underlying pathogenesis. It has been proposed that cis-acting effects of non-coding risk variants on gene expression are a major factor for phenotypic variation of complex traits and disease susceptibility. Recent genome-scale epigenetic studies have highlighted the enrichment of GWAS-identified variants in regulatory DNA elements of disease-relevant cell types. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-specific changes in transcription factor binding are correlated with heritable alterations in chromatin state and considered a major mediator of sequence-dependent regulation of gene expression. Here we describe a novel strategy to functionally dissect the cis-acting effect of genetic risk variants in regulatory elements on gene expression by combining genome-wide epigenetic information with clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells. By generating a genetically precisely controlled experimental system, we identify a common Parkinson's disease associated risk variant in a non-coding distal enhancer element that regulates the expression of α-synuclein (SNCA), a key gene implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Our data suggest that the transcriptional deregulation of SNCA is associated with sequence-dependent binding of the brain-specific transcription factors EMX2 and NKX6-1. This work establishes an experimental paradigm to functionally connect genetic variation with disease-relevant phenotypes.


Assuntos
Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , Alelos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Engenharia Genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Risco , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 8: 36, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26973511

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to compare the microRNA (miRNA) profile of Parkinson's disease (PD) frontal cortex with normal control brain, allowing for the identification of PD specific signatures as well as study the disease-related phenotypes of onset age and dementia. METHODS: Small RNA sequence analysis was performed from prefrontal cortex for 29 PD samples and 33 control samples. After sample QC, normalization and batch correction, linear regression was employed to identify miRNAs altered in PD, and a PD classifier was developed using weighted voting class prediction. The relationship of miRNA levels to onset age and PD with dementia (PDD) was also characterized in case-only analyses. RESULTS: One twenty five miRNAs were differentially expressed in PD at a genome-wide level of significance (FDR q < 0.05). A set of 29 miRNAs classified PD from non-diseased brain (93.9% specificity, 96.6% sensitivity). The majority of differentially expressed miRNAs (105/125) showed an ordinal relationship from control, to PD without dementia (PDN), to PDD. Among PD brains, 36 miRNAs classified PDD from PDN (sensitivity = 81.2%, specificity = 88.9%). Among differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-10b-5p had a positive association with onset age (q = 4.7e-2). CONCLUSIONS: Based on cortical miRNA levels, PD brains were accurately classified from non-diseased brains. Additionally, the PDD miRNA profile exhibited a more severe pattern of alteration among those differentially expressed in PD. To evaluate the clinical utility of miRNAs as potential clinical biomarkers, further characterization and testing of brain-related miRNA alterations in peripheral biofluids is warranted.

13.
JAMA ; 315(7): 672-81, 2016 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26881370

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Interstitial lung abnormalities have been associated with lower 6-minute walk distance, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide, and total lung capacity. However, to our knowledge, an association with mortality has not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with increased mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND POPULATION: Prospective cohort studies of 2633 participants from the FHS (Framingham Heart Study; computed tomographic [CT] scans obtained September 2008-March 2011), 5320 from the AGES-Reykjavik Study (Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility; recruited January 2002-February 2006), 2068 from the COPDGene Study (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; recruited November 2007-April 2010), and 1670 from ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints; between December 2005-December 2006). EXPOSURES: Interstitial lung abnormality status as determined by chest CT evaluation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: All-cause mortality over an approximate 3- to 9-year median follow-up time. Cause-of-death information was also examined in the AGES-Reykjavik cohort. RESULTS: Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 177 (7%) of the 2633 participants from FHS, 378 (7%) of 5320 from AGES-Reykjavik, 156 (8%) of 2068 from COPDGene, and in 157 (9%) of 1670 from ECLIPSE. Over median follow-up times of approximately 3 to 9 years, there were more deaths (and a greater absolute rate of mortality) among participants with interstitial lung abnormalities when compared with those who did not have interstitial lung abnormalities in the following cohorts: 7% vs 1% in FHS (6% difference [95% CI, 2% to 10%]), 56% vs 33% in AGES-Reykjavik (23% difference [95% CI, 18% to 28%]), and 11% vs 5% in ECLIPSE (6% difference [95% CI, 1% to 11%]). After adjustment for covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with a higher risk of death in the FHS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.7 [95% CI, 1.1 to 6.5]; P = .03), AGES-Reykjavik (HR, 1.3 [95% CI, 1.2 to 1.4]; P < .001), COPDGene (HR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 2.8]; P = .01), and ECLIPSE (HR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.1 to 2.0]; P = .02) cohorts. In the AGES-Reykjavik cohort, the higher rate of mortality could be explained by a higher rate of death due to respiratory disease, specifically pulmonary fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In 4 separate research cohorts, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with a greater risk of all-cause mortality. The clinical implications of this association require further investigation.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/mortalidade , Radiografia , Fumar/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Med Genomics ; 9: 5, 2016 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26793951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation of alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and other proteins in aggregates termed "Lewy Bodies" within neurons. PD has both genetic and environmental risk factors, and while processes leading to aberrant protein aggregation are unknown, past work points to abnormal levels of SNCA and other proteins. Although several genome-wide studies have been performed for PD, these have focused on DNA sequence variants by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and on RNA levels (microarray transcriptomics), while genome-wide proteomics analysis has been lacking. METHODS: This study employed two state-of-the-art technologies, three-stage Mass Spectrometry Tandem Mass Tag Proteomics (12 PD, 12 controls) and RNA-sequencing transcriptomics (29 PD, 44 controls), evaluated in the context of PD GWAS implicated loci and microarray transcriptomics (19 PD, 24 controls). The technologies applied for this study were performed in a set of overlapping prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) samples obtained from PD patients and sex and age similar neurologically healthy controls. RESULTS: After appropriate filters, proteomics robustly identified 3558 unique proteins, with 283 of these (7.9 %) significantly different between PD and controls (q-value < 0.05). RNA-sequencing identified 17,580 protein-coding genes, with 1095 of these (6.2 %) significantly different (FDR p-value < 0.05); only 166 of the FDR significant protein-coding genes (0.94 %) were present among the 3558 proteins characterized. Of these 166, eight genes (4.8 %) were significant in both studies, with the same direction of effect. Functional enrichment analysis of the proteomics results strongly supports mitochondrial-related pathways, while comparable analysis of the RNA-sequencing results implicates protein folding pathways and metallothioneins. Ten of the implicated genes or proteins co-localized to GWAS loci. Evidence implicating SNCA was stronger in proteomics than in RNA-sequencing analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We report the largest analysis of proteomics in PD to date, and the first to combine this technology with RNA-sequencing to investigate GWAS implicated loci. Notably, differentially expressed protein-coding genes were more likely to not be characterized in the proteomics analysis, which lessens the ability to compare across platforms. Combining multiple genome-wide platforms offers novel insights into the pathological processes responsible for this disease by identifying pathways implicated across methodologies.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteômica/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ontologia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
15.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 194(1): 77-83, 2016 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26771117

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) has been implicated in the development of pulmonary fibrosis in experimental studies, and Gal-3 levels have been found to be elevated in small studies of human pulmonary fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: We sought to study whether circulating Gal-3 concentrations are elevated early in the course of pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: We examined 2,596 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age, 57 yr; 54% women; 14% current smokers) who underwent Gal-3 assessment using plasma samples and pulmonary function testing between 1995 and 1998. Of this sample, 1,148 underwent subsequent volumetric chest computed tomography. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Higher Gal-3 concentrations were associated with lower lung volumes (1.4% decrease in percentage of predicted FEV1 per 1 SD increase in log Gal-3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8-2.0%; P < 0.001; 1.2% decrease in percentage of predicted FVC; 95% CI, 0.6-1.8%; P < 0.001) and decreased diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (2.1% decrease; 95% CI, 1.3-2.9%; P < 0.001). These associations remained significant after multivariable adjustment (P ≤ 0.008 for all). Compared with the lowest quartile, participants in the highest Gal-3 quartile were more than twice as likely to have interstitial lung abnormalities visualized by computed tomography (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.49-4.76; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated Gal-3 concentrations are associated with interstitial lung abnormalities coupled with a restrictive pattern, including decreased lung volumes and altered gas exchange. These findings suggest a potential role for Gal-3 in early stages of pulmonary fibrosis.


Assuntos
Galectina 3/genética , Pulmão/anormalidades , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Feminino , Galectina 3/sangue , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fibrose Pulmonar/sangue , Fibrose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes de Função Respiratória , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0143563, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26636579

RESUMO

Huntington's Disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Transcriptional dysregulation in the human HD brain has been documented but is incompletely understood. Here we present a genome-wide analysis of mRNA expression in human prefrontal cortex from 20 HD and 49 neuropathologically normal controls using next generation high-throughput sequencing. Surprisingly, 19% (5,480) of the 28,087 confidently detected genes are differentially expressed (FDR<0.05) and are predominantly up-regulated. A novel hypothesis-free geneset enrichment method that dissects large gene lists into functionally and transcriptionally related groups discovers that the differentially expressed genes are enriched for immune response, neuroinflammation, and developmental genes. Markers for all major brain cell types are observed, suggesting that HD invokes a systemic response in the brain area studied. Unexpectedly, the most strongly differentially expressed genes are a homeotic gene set (represented by Hox and other homeobox genes), that are almost exclusively expressed in HD, a profile not widely implicated in HD pathogenesis. The significance of transcriptional changes of developmental processes in the HD brain is poorly understood and warrants further investigation. The role of inflammation and the significance of non-neuronal involvement in HD pathogenesis suggest anti-inflammatory therapeutics may offer important opportunities in treating HD.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genes Controladores do Desenvolvimento , Doença de Huntington/genética , Inflamação/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Homeobox , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Mov Disord ; 30(14): 1961-4, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26573701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomarkers for Huntington's disease progression could accelerate therapeutic developments and improve patient care. Brain microRNAs relating to clinical features of Huntington's disease may represent a potential Huntington's disease biomarker in blood. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine candidate microRNAs in plasma to determine whether changes observed in HD brains are detectable in peripheral samples. METHODS: Four microRNAs from 26 manifest Huntington's disease, four asymptomatic Huntington's disease gene carriers, and eight controls were quantified in plasma using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Linear regression was used to assess microRNA levels across control, asymptomatic gene carriers, and manifest patients. RESULTS: miR-10b-5p (P = 0.0068) and miR-486-5p (P = 0.044) were elevated in Huntington's disease plasma. miR-10b-5p was decreased in asymptomatic gene carriers as compared with patients with Huntington's disease (P = 0.049), but no difference between asymptomatic gene carriers and healthy controls was observed (P = 0.24). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that microRNA changes observed in Huntington's disease brain may be detectable in plasma and have potential clinical utility.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/genética , Doença de Huntington/patologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 15: 134, 2015 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26514822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that individuals with interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) on a chest computed tomogram (CT) may have an increased risk to develop a clinically significant interstitial lung disease (ILD). Although methods used to identify individuals with ILA on chest CT have included both automated quantitative and qualitative visual inspection methods, there has been not direct comparison between these two methods. To investigate this relationship, we created lung density metrics and compared these to visual assessments of ILA. METHODS: To provide a comparison between ILA detection methods based on visual assessment we generated measures of high attenuation areas (HAAs, defined by attenuation values between -600 and -250 Hounsfield Units) in >4500 participants from both the COPDGene and Framingham Heart studies (FHS). Linear and logistic regressions were used for analyses. RESULTS: Increased measures of HAAs (in ≥ 10 % of the lung) were significantly associated with ILA defined by visual inspection in both cohorts (P < 0.0001); however, the positive predictive values were not very high (19 % in COPDGene and 13 % in the FHS). In COPDGene, the association between HAAs and ILA defined by visual assessment were modified by the percentage of emphysema and body mass index. Although increased HAAs were associated with reductions in total lung capacity in both cohorts, there was no evidence for an association between measurement of HAAs and MUC5B promoter genotype in the FHS. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that increased measures of lung density may be helpful in determining the severity of lung volume reduction, but alone, are not strongly predictive of ILA defined by visual assessment. Moreover, HAAs were not associated with MUC5B promoter genotype.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/genética , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucina-5B/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/genética , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Espirometria , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Capacidade Pulmonar Total , Capacidade Vital
19.
BMC Med Genomics ; 8: 10, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25889241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that recognize sites of complementarity of target messenger RNAs, resulting in transcriptional regulation and translational repression of target genes. In Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion, miRNA dyregulation has been reported, which may impact gene expression and modify the progression and severity of HD. METHODS: We performed next-generation miRNA sequence analysis in prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 9) from 26 HD, 2 HD gene positive, and 36 control brains. Neuropathological information was available for all HD brains, including age at disease onset, CAG-repeat size, Vonsattel grade, and Hadzi-Vonsattel striatal and cortical scores, a continuous measure of the extent of neurodegeneration. Linear models were performed to examine the relationship of miRNA expression to these clinical features, and messenger RNA targets of associated miRNAs were tested for gene ontology term enrichment. RESULTS: We identified 75 miRNAs differentially expressed in HD brain (FDR q-value <0.05). Among the HD brains, nine miRNAs were significantly associated with Vonsattel grade of neuropathological involvement and three of these, miR-10b-5p, miR-10b-3p, and miR-302a-3p, significantly related to the Hadzi-Vonsattel striatal score (a continuous measure of striatal involvement) after adjustment for CAG length. Five miRNAs (miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, miR-196b-5p, miR-10b-3p, and miR-106a-5p) were identified as having a significant relationship to CAG length-adjusted age of onset including miR-10b-5p, the mostly strongly over-expressed miRNA in HD cases. Although prefrontal cortex was the source of tissue profiled in these studies, the relationship of miR-10b-5p expression to striatal involvement in the disease was independent of cortical involvement. Correlation of miRNAs to the clinical features clustered by direction of effect and the gene targets of the observed miRNAs showed association to processes relating to nervous system development and transcriptional regulation. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that miRNA expression in cortical BA9 provides insight into striatal involvement and support a role for these miRNAs, particularly miR-10b-5p, in HD pathogenicity. The miRNAs identified in our studies of postmortem brain tissue may be detectable in peripheral fluids and thus warrant consideration as accessible biomarkers for disease stage, rate of progression, and other important clinical characteristics of HD.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Doença de Huntington/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Eur J Radiol ; 84(7): 1413-8, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25868675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and distribution of paraseptal emphysema on chest CT images in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) population, and assess its impact on pulmonary function. Also pursued was the association with interstitial lung abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed 2633 participants in the FHS for paraseptal emphysema on chest CT. Characteristics of the participants, including age, sex, smoking status, clinical symptoms, and results of pulmonary function tests, were compared between those with and without paraseptal emphysema. The association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities was investigated. RESULTS: Of the 2633 participants, 86 (3%) had pure paraseptal emphysema (defined as paraseptal emphysema with no other subtypes of emphysema other than paraseptal emphysema or a very few centrilobular emphysema involved) in at least one lung zone. The upper zone of the lungs was almost always involved. Compared to the participants without paraseptal emphysema, those with pure paraseptal emphysema were significantly older, and were more frequently male and smokers (mean 64 years, 71% male, mean 36 pack-years, P<0.001) and had significantly decreased FEV1/FVC% (P=0.002), and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) (P=0.002). There was a significant association between pure paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of pure paraseptal emphysema was 3% in the FHS population, predominantly affects the upper lung zone, and contributes to decreased pulmonary function. Cigarette smoking, aging, and male gender were the factors associated with the presence of paraseptal emphysema. Significant association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities was observed.


Assuntos
Pulmão/anormalidades , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Monóxido de Carbono , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA