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1.
Pers Individ Dif ; : 111316, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629577

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to pose unprecedented threat globally. Adolescents and youth may be especially susceptible to the long-term impact of these stressors, thus intervening early is an important priority. However, it is also crucial to understand how young people maintain psychological well-being in the face of adversity, particularly given that many nations are experiencing further waves of the pandemic. The understanding of such resilient outcomes could inform the development of programs to encourage positive mental health.We explored adolescents' resilience to the COVID-19 pandemic stress by examining core aspects of well-being across countries using network analysis. Using the short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, cross-sectional data was collected online from adolescents from India (N = 310; Males = 159, Females = 151, aged 12-18), Israel (N = 306; Males = 154, Females = 152, aged 12-18) and the United Kingdom (UK; N = 1666; Males = 598, Females = 1068, aged 12-25). Two highly similar network clusters were identified for UK and Israel, with three clusters emerging for India. UK and Israeli networks centred on "dealing with problems well" while Indian centred on "feeling useful". As central items highlight aspects of well-being that influence or are influenced by other aspects, these findings may inform interventions to safeguard adolescent mental health during future phases of the pandemic.

2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 403, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are common, disabling and frequently start in youth, underscoring the need for effective, accessible early interventions. Empirical data and consultations with lived experience youth representatives suggest that maladaptive cognitive patterns contribute to and maintain anxiety and depression in daily life. Promoting adaptive cognitive patterns could therefore reflect "active ingredients" in the treatment and/or prevention of youth anxiety and depression. Here, we described and compared different therapeutic techniques that equipped young people with a more flexible capacity to use attention and/or promoted a tendency to positive/benign (over threatening/negative) interpretations of uncertain situations. METHODS: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and PsycARTICLES) for studies containing words relating to: intervention; youth; anxiety and/or depression and attention and/or interpretation, and selected studies which sought to reduce self-reported anxiety/depression in youth by explicitly altering attention and/or interpretation patterns. Ten young people with lived experiences of anxiety and depression and from diverse backgrounds were consulted on the relevance of these strategies in managing emotions in their daily lives and also whether there were additional strategies that could be targeted to promote adaptive thinking styles. RESULTS: Two sets of techniques, each targeting different levels of responding with different strengths and weaknesses were identified. Cognitive bias modification training (CBM) tasks were largely able to alter attention and interpretation biases but the effects of training on clinical symptoms was more mixed. In contrast, guided instructions that teach young people to regulate their attention or to evaluate alternative explanations of personally-salient events, reduced symptoms but there was little experimental data establishing the intervention mechanism. Lived experience representatives suggested that strategies such as deliberately recalling positive past experiences or positive aspects of oneself to counteract negative thinking. DISCUSSION: CBM techniques target clear hypothesised mechanisms but require further co-design with young people to make them more engaging and augment their clinical effects. Guided instructions benefit from being embedded in clinical interventions, but lack empirical data to support their intervention mechanism, underscoring the need for more experimental work. Feedback from young people suggest that combining complimentary techniques within multi-pronged "toolboxes" to develop resilient thinking patterns in youth is empowering.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Depressão , Adolescente , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Atenção , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Emoções , Humanos
3.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(9): 836-852, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419188

RESUMO

Emotional mental imagery is a powerful part of our mental landscape. Given its capacity to depict, process, and generate emotional events, mental imagery could have an important role in psychological therapies. This Series paper explores whether harnessing emotional mental imagery is meaningful to young people; ways in which interventions use emotional mental imagery; contextual and individual factors influencing intervention effectiveness; and mechanisms underpinning imagery techniques. We completed a systematic review of imagery interventions and consulted young people with lived experience (n=10) and leading international experts (n=7). The systematic search identified 86 papers covering a diverse range of imagery interventions. Across the seven categories of techniques reviewed, imagery rescripting for aversive memories, techniques targeting positive imagery, and imagery-enhanced protocols indicated the most potential. The report suggests that harnessing emotional mental imagery in psychological interventions could be a promising approach to reduce anxiety and depression and that mental health science could inform the development of new interventions and help to maximise intervention effectiveness.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Emoções , Imagens, Psicoterapia/métodos , Imaginação , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Behav Res Ther ; 144: 103913, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214822

RESUMO

Maladaptive cognitive styles confer vulnerability for emotional disorders and may emerge in childhood. In three phases, we developed and evaluated a novel parent-led intervention (My Memory Forest) to target overgeneral memory and avoidance of negative memories. In phase 1, the intervention was co-designed using two focus groups (n = 30 children) and consultation with teachers and parents. The acceptability, feasibility, and clinical potential of My Memory Forest was initially evaluated in phase two (n = 12 children aged 6 to 9) and then in a feasibility randomised controlled trial in phase three, against an active control (n = 56 aged 6 to 9). Acceptability and engagement were good, and no harm was reported by parents or participants. Phase 2 identified decreases in self-reported anxiety (d = 1.08), depression (d = 0.51) and vividness of negative events (d = 0.53). There was little change in parent-reported symptoms. In phase 3, recruitment was highly feasible and participant retention excellent (100%) but parent retention poor (55%). Descriptive statistics indicated similar changes in anxiety and depression for both groups. Changes between Phases 2 and 3 (e.g. methods of recruitment) could explain the discrepancy between results. Further development is necessary before proceeding to another trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN13142918.

5.
Behav Res Ther ; 143: 103876, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098409

RESUMO

Brief, evidence-based interventions for adolescent depression are urgently required, particularly for school-settings. Cognitive mechanisms research suggests dysfunctional mental imagery and overgeneral memory could be promising targets to improve mood. This feasibility randomised controlled trial with parallel symptomatic groups (n = 56) compared a novel imagery-based cognitive behavioural intervention (ICBI) to non-directive supportive therapy (NDST) in school settings. Blind assessments (of clinical symptoms and cognitive mechanisms) took place pre-intervention, post-intervention and follow-up three months later. The trial aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the methodology and interventions, and estimate the likely range of effects of the intervention on self-reported depression. The pre-defined criteria for proceeding to a definitive RCT were met: full recruitment occurred within eleven months; retention was 89%; ICBI acceptability was above satisfactory; and no harm was indicated. Intention-to-treat analysis found large effects in favour of ICBI (relative to NDST) at post-intervention in reducing depressive symptoms (d = -1.34, 95% CI [-1.87, -0.80]) and improving memory specificity (d = 0.79 [0.35, 1.23]), a key cognitive target. The findings suggest that ICBI may not only improve mood but also strengthen abilities associated with imagining and planning the future, critical skills at this life stage. A fully powered evaluation of ICBI is warranted. Trial Registration: https://www.isrctn.com/; ISRCTN85369879.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 352, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131108

RESUMO

The human gut microbiome influence on brain function and mental health is an emerging area of intensive research. Animal and human research indicates adolescence as a sensitive period when the gut-brain axis is fine-tuned, where dietary interventions to change the microbiome may have long-lasting consequences for mental health. This study reports a systematic review and meta-analysis of microbiota-targeted (psychobiotics) interventions on anxiety in youth, with discussion of a consultation on the acceptability of psychobiotic interventions for mental health management amongst youth with lived experience. Six databases were searched for controlled trials in human samples (age range: 10-24 years) seeking to reduce anxiety. Post intervention outcomes were extracted as standard mean differences (SMDs) and pooled based on a random-effects model. 5416 studies were identified: 14 eligible for systematic review and 10 eligible for meta-analysis (total of 324 experimental and 293 control subjects). The meta-analysis found heterogeneity I2 was 12% and the pooled SMD was -0.03 (95% CI: -0.21, 0.14), indicating an absence of effect. One study presented with low bias risk, 5 with high, and 4 with uncertain risk. Accounting for risk, sensitivities analysis revealed a SMD of -0.16 (95% CI: -0.38, 0.07), indicative of minimal efficacy of psychobiotics for anxiety treatment in humans. There is currently limited evidence for use of psychobiotics to treat anxiety in youth. However, future progress will require a multidisciplinary research approach, which gives priority to specifying mechanisms in the human models, providing causal understanding, and addressing the wider context, and would be welcomed by anxious youths.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Ansiedade , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adulto Jovem
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 645183, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095054

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed unprecedented stress to young people. Despite recent speculative suggestions of poorer mental health in young people in India since the start of the pandemic, there have been no systematic efforts to measure these. Here we report on the content of worries of Indian adolescents and identify groups of young people who may be particularly vulnerable to negative emotions along with reporting on the impact of coronavirus on their lives. Three-hundred-and-ten young people from North India (51% male, 12-18 years) reported on their personal experiences of being infected by the coronavirus, the impact of the pandemic and its' restrictions across life domains, their top worries, social restrictions, and levels of negative affect and anhedonia. Findings showed that most participants had no personal experience (97.41%) or knew anyone (82.58%) with COVID-19, yet endorsed moderate-to-severe impact of COVID-19 on their academics, social life, and work. These impacts in turn associated with negative affect. Participants' top worries focused on academic attainments, social and recreational activities, and physical health. More females than males worried about academic attainment and physical health while more males worried about social and recreational activities. Thus, Indian adolescents report significant impact of the pandemic on various aspects of their life and are particularly worried about academic attainments, social and recreational activities and physical health. These findings call for a need to ensure provisions and access to digital education and medical care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Pain ; 162(3): 687-701, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960534

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Previous meta-analyses investigating attentional biases towards pain have used reaction time measures. Eye-tracking methods have been adopted to more directly and reliably assess biases, but this literature has not been synthesized in relation to pain. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the nature and time course of attentional biases to pain-related stimuli in participants of all ages with and without chronic pain using eye-tracking studies and determine the role of task parameters and theoretically relevant moderators. After screening, 24 studies were included with a total sample of 1425 participants. Between-group analyses revealed no significant overall group differences for people with and without chronic pain on biases to pain-related stimuli. Results indicated significant attentional biases towards pain-related words or pictures across both groups on probability of first fixation (k = 21, g = 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.71, P = 0.002), how long participants looked at each picture in the first 500 ms (500-ms epoch dwell: k = 5, g = 0.69, 95% CI 0.034-1.35, P = 0.039), and how long participants looked at each picture overall (total dwell time: k = 25, g = 0.44, 95% CI 0.15-0.72, P = 0.003). Follow-up analyses revealed significant attentional biases on probability of first fixation, latency to first fixation and dwell time for facial stimuli, and number of fixations for sensory word stimuli. Moderator analyses revealed substantial influence of task parameters and some influence of threat status and study quality. Findings support biases in both vigilance and attentional maintenance for pain-related stimuli but suggest attentional biases towards pain are ubiquitous and not related to pain status.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Dor Crônica , Atenção , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
9.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(10): 3349-3363, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931347

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine group and individual differences in attentional bias toward and away from socially threatening facial stimuli among adolescents who stutter and age- and sex-matched typically fluent controls. Method Participants included 86 adolescents (43 stuttering, 43 controls) ranging in age from 13 to 19 years. They completed a computerized dot-probe task, which was modified to allow for separate measurement of attentional engagement with and attentional disengagement from facial stimuli (angry, fearful, neutral expressions). Their response time on this task was the dependent variable. Participants also completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) and provided a speech sample for analysis of stuttering-like behaviors. Results The adolescents who stutter were more likely to engage quickly with threatening faces than to maintain attention on neutral faces, and they were also more likely to disengage quickly from threatening faces than to maintain attention on those faces. The typically fluent controls did not show any attentional preference for the threatening faces over the neutral faces in either the engagement or disengagement conditions. The two groups demonstrated equivalent levels of social anxiety that were both, on average, very close to the clinical cutoff score for high social anxiety, although degree of social anxiety did not influence performance in either condition. Stuttering severity did not influence performance among the adolescents who stutter. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence for a vigilance-avoidance pattern of attentional allocation to threatening social stimuli among adolescents who stutter.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Gagueira , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade , Atenção , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 153: 18-26, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320713

RESUMO

Reduced responsiveness to emotional stimuli ('emotional dampening') has been observed in normotensives with elevated blood pressure (BP) and hypertensives but it is not known whether this is due to aberrant responding to emotional information at the involuntary level and whether it is also associated with minimal elevations in BP in the normal range. In this study, we examined emotional dampening using the affect-modulated startle paradigm given its proven sensitivity to motivational states of approach and withdrawal, typically independent of conscious intentional control. Acoustically elicited startle eye-blink modulation was measured using electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle beneath the left eye in 59 healthy individuals while they viewed pleasant, unpleasant and neutral standardized pictures. The expected startle attenuation to pleasant pictures, and startle potentiation to unpleasant pictures, relative to neutral pictures, was found in people in the comparison (N = 29) but not elevated BP (N = 30) group. This finding was further supported by significant moderating effect (assessed using ANCOVA and sub-sample analysis) of BP on valence-startle amplitude relationship. The comparison BP group also showed slower latencies to response onset for pleasant stimuli compared to neutral and unpleasant, with no effect of valence in the elevated BP group. However, BP did not moderate the valence-onset latency relationship. Our findings indicate that previously reported emotional dampening associated with elevated BP extends to reduced involuntary emotional reactivity and to individuals with even minimal BP elevations (i.e. higher but still within the normal range). Future research needs to confirm these findings in hypertensive individuals, preferably using within-subjects designs.

11.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 59(1): 88-99.e1, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Attention biases for threat may reflect an early risk marker for anxiety disorders. Yet questions remain regarding the direction and time-course of anxiety-linked biased attention patterns in youth. A meta-analysis of eye-tracking studies of biased attention for threat was used to compare the presence of an initial vigilance toward threat and a subsequent avoidance in anxious and nonanxious youths. METHOD: PubMed, PsycARTICLES, Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase were searched using anxiety, children and adolescent, and eye-tracking-related key terms. Study inclusion criteria were as follows: studies including participants ≤18 years of age; reported anxiety using standardized measures; measured attention bias using eye tracking with a free-viewing task; comparison of attention toward threatening and neutral stimuli; and available data to allow effect size computation for at least one relevant measure. A random effects model estimated between- and within-group effects of first fixations toward threat and overall dwell time on threat. RESULTS: Thirteen eligible studies involving 798 participants showed that neither youths with or without anxiety showed significant bias in first fixation to threat versus neutral stimuli. However anxious youths showed significantly less overall dwell time on threat versus neutral stimuli than nonanxious controls (g = -0.26). CONCLUSION: Contrasting with adult eye-tracking data and child and adolescent data from reaction time indices of attention biases to threat, there was no vigilance bias toward threat in anxious youths. Instead, anxious youths were more avoidant of threat across the time course of stimulus viewing. Developmental differences in brain circuits contributing to attention deployment to emotional stimuli and their relationship with anxiety are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Viés de Atenção , Emoções/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade , Criança , Humanos
12.
Pain ; 161(2): 319-327, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634340

RESUMO

The tendency to select threatening over benign interpretations of ambiguous bodily sensations and cues characterises young people with chronic pain. However, previous studies disagree over whether these biases extend to nonbodily harm situations such as social evaluation. Understanding the content of these biases is crucial to the development of pain management strategies seeking to modify such biases. Two hundred forty-three young people aged 16 to 19 years completed an expanded version of the Adolescent Interpretation of Bodily Threat task. Using a factor-analytic approach, we removed items that did not consistently associate with bodily harm or social evaluation. Next, we examined whether the variance underlying negative and benign interpretations of bodily harm and social evaluation situations were best represented as a common factor (ie, one-factor model), 2 distinct factors (ie, 2-factor model), or one common and 2 distinct factors (ie, 2-factor bifactor model) in all adolescents. We then compared youth with and without persistent and impairing pain on factor scores derived from the best-fitting model. Although negative interpretations of bodily harm and social evaluation situations emerged as distinct factors, benign interpretations across situations were best captured by a common factor and 2 situation-specific factors (ie, bifactor model). Group comparisons showed that young people with moderate-to-high pain interference were more likely to endorse negative interpretations across all situations, and less likely to manifest a general benign interpretational style, than youth without interfering pain, although some of these group differences were explained by co-occurring anxiety and depressive symptoms. Replication of these findings is needed.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/psicologia , Processos Mentais , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Behav Res Ther ; 124: 103508, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855697

RESUMO

Distressing intrusive images commonly occur in anxiety. Worry may function to reduce the emotional power of intrusive imagery, but this also prevents emotional processing. As worry is a future-orientated process, suppression of intrusive future imagery could be particularly pertinent to generalized anxiety. Here, we investigate whether youth high in symptoms of generalized anxiety (compared to depression and social anxiety) experience greater impact of future imagery (more intrusions, hyperarousal and avoidance), and whether this relationship varies as a function of the tendency to suppress or reappraise emotional experience. These relationships are important in adolescence, when generalized anxiety commonly begins and emotional regulation strategies develop. Participants (n = 352, age 11-16) completed measures of symptomatology, the impact of prospective personally-relevant imagery (IFES) and emotional regulation strategies. IFES scores correlated with an established measure of prospective imagery. Higher IFES scores were uniquely associated with more symptoms of generalized anxiety and depression, but not with social anxiety. A tendency to supress emotion was related to higher IFES scores and moderated the relationship between generalized anxiety and IFES (but not between depression and IFES). This provides initial impetus to develop novel approaches to investigate and intervene cognitively with negative prospective imagery in adolescent generalized anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Imaginação/fisiologia , Repressão Psicológica , Adolescente , Criança , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; 48(3): 370-375, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tendencies to attend to threatening cues in the environment and to interpret ambiguous situations with negative/hostile intent maintain and may even precipitate internalizing and externalizing problems in young people with a history of maltreatment. Challenging maladaptive information-processing styles using cognitive bias modification (CBM) training may reduce symptoms. AIMS: To investigate the acceptability of CBM training in nine young people attending alternate education provision units in the UK, and 10 young people living in out-of-home care institutions in Nepal with a history of maltreatment. METHOD: CBM training consisted of five sessions of training over a 2-week period; each training session consisted of one module targeting attention biases and one module targeting interpretation biases for threat. A feedback form administered after training measured acceptability. Pre- and post-intervention measures of internalizing and externalizing symptoms were also taken. RESULTS: Most young people (89%) found the training helpful and 84% found the training materials realistic. There were reductions in many symptom domains, but with individual variation. Although limited by the lack of a control condition, we established generalizability of acceptability across participants from two cultural settings. CONCLUSIONS: Replication of these findings in larger feasibility randomized controlled trials with measures of attention and interpretation bias before and after intervention, are needed to assess the potential of CBM in reducing anxiety symptoms and its capacity to engage targeted mechanisms.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Adolescente , Ansiedade , Atenção , Viés , Humanos
15.
Biol Psychol ; 148: 107746, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470072

RESUMO

The tendency to interpret ambiguous information in a consistent (e.g., negative) manner (interpretation bias) may maintain worry. This study explored whether high and low worriers generate different interpretations and examined at which stages of information processing these interpretations can occur. Participants completed interpretation assessment tasks yielding behavioural and N400 event-related potential indices, which index whether a given interpretation was generated. High worriers lacked the benign interpretation bias found in low worriers. This was evident for early "online" interpretations (reflected in reaction times to relatedness judgments and lexical decisions, as well as at a neurophysiological level, N400, for lexical decisions only), to later "offline" interpretations (observed at a behavioural level on the scenario task and recognition task) when participants had time for reflection. Results suggest that a benign interpretation bias may be a protective factor for low worriers, and that these interpretations remain active across online and offline stages of processing.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Pain ; 20(4): 453-461, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385320

RESUMO

Persistent pain in young people in the community is common, but individuals vary in how much pain impacts daily life. Information-processing accounts of chronic pain partly attribute the fear and avoidance of pain, as well as associated interference, to a set of involuntary biases, including the preferential allocation of attention resources toward potential threats. Far less research has focused on the role of voluntary goal-directed attention control processes, the ability to flexibly direct attention toward and away from threats, in explaining pain-associated interference. Using a visual search task, we explored a poor attention control account of pain interference in young people with persistent pain from the community. One hundred and forty five young people aged 16 to 19 years were categorized into three groups: non-chronic pain (n = 68), low-interfering persistent pain (n = 40), and moderate- to high-interfering persistent pain (n = 22). We found that only adolescents with moderate-to high-interfering persistent pain but not the other two groups of adolescents were affected by a search task preceded by a pain face (compared to a neutral face), but this within-group difference emerged only under low perceptual load conditions. Because low perceptual load conditions are thought to require more strategic attention resources to suppress the interfering effects of pain face primes, our findings are consistent with a poor attention control account of pain interference in young people. Analyses further showed that these differences in task performance were not explained by confounding effects of anxiety. If replicated, these findings may have implications for understanding and managing the pain-associated disability in adolescents with chronic pain. PERSPECTIVE: Young people with moderately and highly interfering pain responded slower on an easy search task after seeing a pain face than after seeing a neutral face. If replicated, these findings could mean that boosting the ability to control attention toward and away from threatening cues is an effective strategy for managing interference from pain.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 50(3): 425-438, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368618

RESUMO

Recent approaches have begun to identify common variance across co-occurring childhood adversities (CAs) and their associations with symptoms of psychopathology. However, few studies have investigated these questions in high-risk samples, and in different cultural contexts. This study examined common variance amongst 18 types of CAs and associated symptomatology in 457 children and adolescents living in 24 residential homes in Japan. Principal component analysis identified four significant components that explained 35.1% of the variance: parental abuse, parental psychosocial risks, parental absence, and parental neglect. Path analysis revealed general as well as differential associations with negative outcomes: parental abuse, parental neglect, and parental psychosocial risks significantly associated with conduct problems, whereas parental abuse uniquely associated with peer problems, and parental neglect with hyperactivity/inattention. As well as confirming prior knowledge, these findings also extended understanding of these associations to a new cultural context. Future studies should take into account the multidimensional nature when assessing CAs.


Assuntos
Adolescente Institucionalizado , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Filho de Pais Incapacitados , Criança Institucionalizada , Transtornos Mentais , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adolescente Institucionalizado/psicologia , Adolescente Institucionalizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Sintomas Comportamentais/diagnóstico , Sintomas Comportamentais/psicologia , Criança , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Criança Institucionalizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pais , Psicopatologia
19.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 62: 146-153, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Anxiety in adolescence is characterised by disturbances in attentional processes and the overgeneralisation of fear, however, little is known about the combined and reciprocal effects of and between these factors on youth anxiety. The present study investigated whether attention (attention allocation and control) and fear generalisation processes together predict more variance on adolescent anxiety symptoms than each factor in isolation, and explored their interrelations. METHODS: 197 adolescents completed a novel conditioning task, which paired balloon cues with mildly aversive or neutral outcomes. A spatial cueing task, and self-report measures of emotional attentional control and anxiety, were also completed. RESULTS: Threat-avoidant attention allocation biases, impaired attention control, and exaggerated fear generalisation together predicted greater variance in anxiety symptoms (55.3%), than each set of fear and attention processes in isolation. Results also provided evidence of an interplay between these factors. Individual differences in threat-avoidant attention allocation biases predicted variability in the generalisation of fear, whilst the association between heightened anxiety and the overgeneralization of fear was moderated by poor attention control. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides unique evidence of the combined effects of attention and fear generalisation mechanisms in explaining youth anxiety, and interrelations between these factors. Importantly, results suggested that deficiencies in attention control may bring out anxiety-associated impairments in fear generalisation. LIMITATIONS: We relied on self-reported ratings of fear during generalization and also of attention control. Thus demand effects cannot be discounted. Reaction-time measures of attention focus are also indirect assessments of attention that may lack precision.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Generalização Psicológica/fisiologia , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Cogn Emot ; 33(3): 512-523, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29629816

RESUMO

Difficulties with inhibiting fear have been associated with the emergence of anxiety problems and poor response to cognitive-behavioural treatment. Fear inhibition problems measured using experimental paradigms involving aversive stimuli may be inappropriate for vulnerable samples and may not capture fear inhibition problems evident in everyday life. We present the Fear Inhibition Questionnaire (FIQ), a self-report measure of fear inhibition abilities. We assess the FIQ's factor structure across two cultures and how well it correlates with fear inhibition indices derived experimentally. Adolescent participants from Hong Kong and England completed the FIQ, with the English participants also completing a conditioning and extinction task to assess fear inhibition problems. Across both cultures, the FIQ showed a single factor structure and low FIQ scores, or worse fear inhibition problems, were associated with self-reports of heightened anxiety. Correlation of FIQ scores with experimental indices, whilst controlling for anxious symptoms, suggests that the FIQ represents a valid and unique measure of fear inhibition abilities. The FIQ might be used to assess more ecologically valid fear inhibition problems particularly amongst people who have or who are at risk of anxiety diagnoses.


Assuntos
Medo/psicologia , Inibição Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Criança , Condicionamento Psicológico , Inglaterra , Extinção Psicológica , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato
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