Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 98
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17185, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567961

RESUMO

Infections caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA) mostly present as recurrent skin abscesses and furunculosis. However, life-threatening infections (eg, necrotizing pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, and osteomyelitis) caused by PVL-SA have also been reported.We assessed the clinical phenotype, frequency, clinical implications (surgery, length of treatment in hospitals/intensive care units, and antibiotic treatments), and potential preventability of severe PVL-SA infections in children.Total, 75 children treated for PVL-SA infections in our in- and outpatient units from 2012 to 2017 were included in this retrospective study.Ten out of 75 children contracted severe infections (PVL-methicillin resistant S aureus n = 4) including necrotizing pneumonia (n = 4), necrotizing fasciitis (n = 2), pyomyositis (n = 2; including 1 patient who also had pneumonia), mastoiditis with cerebellitis (n = 1), preorbital cellulitis (n = 1), and recurrent deep furunculosis in an immunosuppressed patient (n = 1). Specific complications of PVL-SA infections were venous thrombosis (n = 2), sepsis (n = 5), respiratory failure (n = 5), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 3). The median duration of hospital stay was 14 days (range 5-52 days). In 6 out of 10 patients a history suggestive for PVL-SA colonization in the patient or close family members before hospital admission was identified.PVL-SA causes severe to life-threatening infections requiring lengthy treatments in hospital in a substantial percentage of symptomatic PVL-SA colonized children. More than 50% of severe infections might be prevented by prompt testing for PVL-SA in individuals with a history of abscesses or furunculosis, followed by decolonization measures.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Exotoxinas/metabolismo , Leucocidinas/metabolismo , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pneumonia Necrosante/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia
2.
Allergy ; 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Urticaria is a frequent skin condition, but reliable prevalence estimates from population studies particularly of the chronic form are scarce. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate and summarize the prevalence of chronic urticaria by evaluating population-based studies worldwide. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PUBMED and EMBASE for population-based studies of cross-sectional or cohort design and studies based on health insurance/system databases. Risk of bias was assessed using a specific tool for prevalence studies. For meta-analysis, we used a random effects model. RESULTS: Eighteen studies were included in the systematic evaluation and 11 in the meta-analysis including data from over 86 000 000 participants. Risk of bias was mainly moderate, whereas the statistical heterogeneity (I2 ) between the studies was high. Asian studies combined showed a higher point prevalence of chronic urticaria (1.4%, 95%-CI 0.5-2.9) than those from Europe (0.5%, 0.2-1.0) and Northern American (0.1%, 0.1-0.1). Women were slightly more affected than men, whereas in children < 15 years we did not find a sex-specific difference in the prevalence. The four studies that examined time trends indicated an increasing prevalence of chronic urticaria over time. CONCLUSIONS: On a global level, the prevalence of chronic urticaria showed considerable regional differences. There is a need to obtain more sex-specific population-based and standardized international data particularly for children and adolescents, different chronic urticaria subtypes and potential risk and protective factors.

3.
Allergy ; 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074873
4.
Allergy ; 74(5): 855-873, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095767

RESUMO

Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been in use for the treatment of allergic disease for more than 100 years. Asthma treatment relies mainly on corticosteroids and other controllers recommended to achieve and maintain asthma control, prevent exacerbations, and improve quality of life. AIT is underused in asthma, both in children and in adults. Notably, patients with allergic asthma not adequately controlled on pharmacotherapy (including biologics) represent an unmet health need. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology has developed a clinical practice guideline providing evidence-based recommendations for the use of house dust mites (HDM) AIT as add-on treatment for HDM-driven allergic asthma. This guideline was developed by a multi-disciplinary working group using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. HDM AIT was separately evaluated by route of administration and children and adults: subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual AIT (SLIT), drops, and tablets. Recommendations were formulated for each. The important prerequisites for successful treatment with HDM AIT are (a) selection of patients most likely to respond to AIT and (b) use of allergen extracts and desensitization protocols of proven efficacy. To date, only AIT with HDM SLIT-tablet has demonstrated a robust effect in adults for critical end points (exacerbations, asthma control, and safety). Thus, it is recommended as an add-on to regular asthma therapy for adults with controlled or partially controlled HDM-driven allergic asthma (conditional recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). HDM SCIT is recommended for adults and children, and SLIT drops are recommended for children with controlled HDM-driven allergic asthma as the add-on to regular asthma therapy to decrease symptoms and medication needs (conditional recommendation, low-quality evidence).

5.
Allergy ; 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070805

RESUMO

The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) organized the first European Strategic Forum on Allergic Diseases and Asthma. The main aim was to bring together all relevant stakeholders and decision-makers in the field of allergy, asthma and clinical Immunology around an open debate on contemporary challenges and potential solutions for the next decade. The Strategic Forum was an upscaling of the EAACI White Paper aiming to integrate the Academy's output with the perspective offered by EAACI's partners. This collaboration is fundamental for adapting and integrating allergy and asthma care into the context of real-world problems. The Strategic Forum on Allergic Diseases brought together all partners who have the drive and the influence to make positive change: national and international societies, patients' organizations, regulatory bodies and industry representatives. An open debate with a special focus on drug development and biomedical engineering, big data and information technology and allergic diseases and asthma in the context of environmental health concluded that connecting science with the transformation of care and a joint agreement between all partners on priorities and needs are essential to ensure a better management of allergic diseases and asthma in the advent of precision medicine together with global access to innovative and affordable diagnostics and therapeutics.

6.
Eur Respir J ; 52(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209194

RESUMO

The parallel epidemics of childhood asthma and obesity over the past few decades have spurred research into obesity as a risk factor for asthma. However, little is known regarding the role of asthma in obesity incidence. We examined whether early-onset asthma and related phenotypes are associated with the risk of developing obesity in childhood.This study includes 21 130 children born from 1990 to 2008 in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK. We followed non-obese children at 3-4 years of age for incident obesity up to 8 years of age. Physician-diagnosed asthma, wheezing and allergic rhinitis were assessed up to 3-4 years of age.Children with physician-diagnosed asthma had a higher risk for incident obesity than those without asthma (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.66, 95% CI 1.18-2.33). Children with active asthma (wheeze in the last 12 months and physician-diagnosed asthma) exhibited a higher risk for obesity (aHR 1.98, 95% CI 1.31-3.00) than those without wheeze and asthma. Persistent wheezing was associated with increased risk for incident obesity compared to never wheezers (aHR 1.51, 95% CI 1.08-2.09).Early-onset asthma and wheezing may contribute to an increased risk of developing obesity in later childhood.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We present an overview of important results obtained during the first 20 years of the Multicenter Allergy Study (MAS), one of the first and longest-running population-based birth cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy. DATA SOURCE/STUDY: The MAS is an observational population-based allergy-risk enriched cohort of 1,314 newborns enrolled in Germany in 1990. Assessments of various lifestyle and environmental exposures took place at 19 points, including 9 clinical visits for physical examinations and biosampling up to age 20 years. RESULTS: A positive allergic family history was a strong predictor of asthma from childhood up to adulthood, more so for allergic multimorbidity than single allergic entities. For asthma prevalence, the early male preponderance shifted toward females during adolescence, leading to a sex-balanced distribution by age 20 years. Eczema prevalence switched toward a clear and persisting female predominance, whereas allergic rhinitis continued to affect more males up to age 20 years. The immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibody response to grass evolved in many allergic children from a simple, often mono- and oligomolecular to a polymolecular sensitization stage ("molecular spreading"). Indoor allergen exposure increased the risk for specific sensitization, which was linked to asthma and impaired lung function at early school-age. Moreover, the MAS birth cohort has made important contributions to the investigation of genetic factors in the manifestation of clinical subphenotypes and in the long-term temporal trajectory of allergic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Follow-up assessments over 2 decades provided new insights into risk factors and predictors for eczema, rhinitis, and asthma up to adulthood to develop better prevention strategies.

9.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 29(5): 481-489, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interaction between respiratory multimorbidity and lung function has not been examined in longitudinal population studies. We aimed to assess the association of multimorbidity of asthma and rhinitis with lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in comparison with single and no allergies from early school age to young adulthood. METHODS: In 1990, the Multicenter Allergy Study birth cohort recruited 1314 newborns from 5 German cities. At 7, 13, and 20 years, we performed lung function and bronchial challenge tests. We assessed symptoms, medications, and doctor's diagnoses for asthma and rhinitis for 3 outcomes: current multimorbidity (both coexisting), asthma only, and rhinitis only. RESULTS: From 7 to 20 years, multimorbidity prevalence more than doubled from 3.5% to 7.7%, current asthma only (without rhinitis co-occurring) decreased by half from 2.8% to 1.3%, and current rhinitis only (without asthma co-occurring) increased from 14.3% to 41.6%. Resting lung function parameters differed between allergic and asymptomatic participants but showed no considerable differences between the allergic phenotypes. Frequency and severity of bronchial hyperresponsiveness were particularly associated with multimorbidity. At the age of 20 years, participants with multimorbidity showed a clearly higher severity in hyperresponsiveness compared to participants who suffered only asthma (P = .049) or rhinitis (P = .008) or were asymptomatic (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Single lung function measurements from childhood ongoing do not seem to discriminate between subjects with multimorbidity, single allergies, and no allergy. Our results show that multimorbidity is associated with more severe symptoms compared to those suffering only a single allergic disease.

10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(4): 047005, 2018 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of tobacco smoke exposure in the development and persistence of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis through childhood into adolescence is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the associations of parental smoking from fetal life through adolescence with asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis during childhood and adolescence. METHODS: We analyzed data for 10,860 participants of five European birth cohort studies from the Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy (MeDALL) consortium. Parental smoking habits and health outcomes (early transient, persistent, and adolescent-onset asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis) were based on questionnaires covering the period from pregnancy to 14-16 y of age. Data were combined and analyzed using a one-stage and two-stage individual participant data meta-analysis. RESULTS: Overall, any maternal smoking during pregnancy tended to be associated with an increased odds of prevalent asthma [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.19 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.43)], but not prevalent rhinoconjunctivitis [aOR=1.05 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.22)], during childhood and adolescence. In analyses with phenotypes related to age of onset and persistence of disease, any maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with early transient asthma [aOR=1.79 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.83)]. Maternal smoking of ≥10 cigarettes/day during pregnancy was associated with persistent asthma [aOR=1.66 (95% CI: 1.29, 2.15)] and persistent rhinoconjunctivitis [aOR=1.55 (95% CI, 1.09, 2.20)]. Tobacco smoke exposure during fetal life, infancy, childhood, and adolescence was not associated with adolescent-onset asthma or rhinoconjunctivitis. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this combined analysis of five European birth cohorts strengthen evidence linking early exposure to tobacco smoke with asthma during childhood and adolescence. Children with high early-life exposure were more likely than unexposed children to have early transient and persistent asthma and persistent rhinoconjunctivitis. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2738.

11.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 29(1): 28-33, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mepolizumab was originally intended as a therapeutic agent for atopic asthma in adults, and consequently, little is known about its use in children. Up to now, corticosteroids have formed the basis of the initial treatment of hypereosinophilic syndromes and are shown to be effective in most patients. To analyze the effect of mepolizumab in children is the aim of this study. METHODS: We are reporting the experience of the effect of mepolizumab in 2 pediatric patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome that was not sufficiently controlled by other drugs. In addition, the literature regarding the treatment with mepolizumab in pediatric and adult patients is reviewed for the most important studies regarding safety and efficacy. RESULTS: Mepolizumab therapy showed in 2 pediatric patients with severe hypereosinophilic syndrome a safe and efficient therapeutic approach. No significant intolerances appeared. Furthermore, treatment with systemic corticosteroids was terminated, and therefore, severe side effects were avoided in our pediatric cases. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-IL-5 antibodies, which can be applied without substantial drug intolerances, are a new, safe, and effective treatment option for pediatric patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Hipereosinofílica/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-5/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Broncoscopia/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome Hipereosinofílica/diagnóstico , Contagem de Leucócitos/métodos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Ital J Pediatr ; 43(1): 89, 2017 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28962626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upper and lower airways diseases share in part their pathogenic mechanisms and frequently occur simultaneously as "United Airway Disease." Local treatment with nebulizers delivers anti-symptomatic drugs in either the upper or the lower airways, according to the particle size generated by the nebulizer. To our knowledge, no nebulizer combines both application ways. The aim of this study is to test the efficacy and usability of a new nebulizer (OMRON A3 complete), generating aerosols with particles diameters of 2-4.5 µm, 4.5-7.5 µm or >7.5 µm, according to the user's choice. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients between 5 and 17 years of age with a diagnosis of rhinitis or asthma were examined. Oxymetazoline or Salbutamol were prescribed according to best clinical practice guidelines. Both drugs were administered through the OMRON A3 Complete nebulizer, with a particle dimension of >7.5 µm to treat nasal obstruction and 2-4.5 µm for bronchial obstruction. The efficacy of treatment was assessed by total nasal inspiratory airflow and FEV-1, Tiffeneau index (FEV1/FVC) and MMEF 25/75 respectively, 10 min before and after treatment. Symptom improvement and usability were measured by patients' and doctors' questionnaires. RESULTS: Overall, 77 patients seeking care for acute respiratory symptoms were assigned to the upper (n = 39) or lower (n = 38) airways disease group. For symptoms of the upper airways, 92% (95% CI, 77-97%) of the patients reported subjective improvement, while 87% (95% CI, 73-94%) did so for the lower airways. The average total nasal inspiratory airflow improved significantly (p = 0.030) among the patients with upper airways symptoms, from 275 ml/s (95% CI, 207-342 ml/s) to 359 ml/s (95% CI, 300-419 ml/s) after Oxymetazoline administration. All selected lung function parameters (FEV1, Tiffeneau Index and MMEF25-75) significantly improved among the patients with lower airways symptoms after inhalation of Salbutamol (p < 0.001). The nebulizer was assessed as "easy to use" by over 95% of participants in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The OMRON A3 efficiently delivers anti-symptomatic drugs in both upper and lower airways in a user-friendly way. This device may be useful to facilitate adherence to a complete treatment of respiratory symptoms in patients with symptoms of the so-called United Airway Disease.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Rinite/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Asma/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Oximetazolina/administração & dosagem , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rinite/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 28(8): 728-745, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28902467

RESUMO

Allergic diseases are common and frequently coexist. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a disease-modifying treatment for IgE-mediated allergic disease with effects beyond cessation of AIT that may include important preventive effects. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) has developed a clinical practice guideline to provide evidence-based recommendations for AIT for the prevention of (i) development of allergic comorbidities in those with established allergic diseases, (ii) development of first allergic condition, and (iii) allergic sensitization. This guideline has been developed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE II) framework, which involved a multidisciplinary expert working group, a systematic review of the underpinning evidence, and external peer-review of draft recommendations. Our key recommendation is that a 3-year course of subcutaneous or sublingual AIT can be recommended for children and adolescents with moderate-to-severe allergic rhinitis (AR) triggered by grass/birch pollen allergy to prevent asthma for up to 2 years post-AIT in addition to its sustained effect on AR symptoms and medication. Some trial data even suggest a preventive effect on asthma symptoms and medication more than 2 years post-AIT. We need more evidence concerning AIT for prevention in individuals with AR triggered by house dust mites or other allergens and for the prevention of allergic sensitization, the first allergic disease, or for the prevention of allergic comorbidities in those with other allergic conditions. Evidence for the preventive potential of AIT as disease-modifying treatment exists but there is an urgent need for more high-quality clinical trials.


Assuntos
Dessensibilização Imunológica/normas , Hipersensibilidade/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos
15.
ERJ Open Res ; 3(3)2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28845428

RESUMO

While there is evidence for variations in prevalence rates of childhood wheeze and asthma between countries, longitudinal, individual-level data are needed to understand these differences. The aim of this study was to examine variations in prevalence rates of childhood asthma, wheeze and wheeze with asthma in Europe. We analysed datasets from 10 MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy) cohorts in eight countries, representing 26 663 children, to calculate prevalence rates of wheeze and asthma by child age and wheeze with asthma at age 4 years. Harmonised variables included outcomes parent-reported wheeze and parent-reported doctor-diagnosed asthma, and covariates maternal education, parental smoking, pets, parental asthma, doctor-diagnosed allergic rhinitis, doctor-diagnosed eczema and wheeze severity. At age 4 years, asthma prevalence varied from 1.72% in Germany to 13.48% in England and the prevalence of wheeze varied from 9.82% in Greece to 55.37% in Spain. Adjusted estimates of the proportion of 4-year-old children with wheeze diagnosed with asthma remained highest in England (38.14%, 95% CI 31.38-44.90%) and lowest in Spain (15.94%, 95% CI 6.16-25.71%). The large differences in prevalence rates of asthma, wheeze and wheeze with asthma at age 4 years between European cohorts may indicate that childhood asthma is more readily diagnosed in some countries while going unrecognised elsewhere.

16.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 28(7): 628-640, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28779496

RESUMO

Immunization is highly effective in preventing infectious diseases and therefore an indispensable public health measure. Allergic patients deserve access to the same publicly recommended immunizations as non-allergic patients unless risks associated with vaccination outweigh the gains. Whereas the number of reported possible allergic reactions to vaccines is high, confirmed vaccine-triggered allergic reactions are rare. Anaphylaxis following vaccination is rare, affecting <1/100 000, but can occur in any patient. Some patient groups, notably those with a previous allergic reaction to a vaccine or its components, are at heightened risk of allergic reaction and require special precautions. Allergic reactions, however, may occur in patients without known risk factors and cannot be predicted by currently available tools. Unwarranted fear and uncertainty can result in incomplete vaccination coverage for children and adults with or without allergy. In addition to concerns about an allergic reaction to the vaccine itself, there is fear that routine childhood immunization may promote the development of allergic sensitization and disease. Thus, although there is no evidence that routine childhood immunization increases the risk of allergy development, such risks need to be discussed.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Lactente , Vacinas/imunologia
17.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 7: 25, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28775845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is clinical uncertainty about the effectiveness and safety of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for the treatment of allergic asthma. OBJECTIVES: To undertake a systematic overview of the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT for the treatment of allergic asthma. METHODS: We searched nine electronic databases from inception to October 31, 2015. Systematic reviews were independently screened by two reviewers against pre-defined eligibility criteria and critically appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme quality assessment tool for systematic reviews. Data were descriptively and thematically synthesized. RESULTS: We identified nine eligible systematic reviews; these focused on delivery of AIT through the following routes: subcutaneous (SCIT; n = 3); sublingual (SLIT; n = 4); and both SCIT and SLIT (n = 2). This evidence found that AIT delivered by SCIT and SLIT can improve medication and symptom scores and measures of bronchial hyper-reactivity. The impact on measures of lung function or asthma control was however less clear. We found no systematic review level evidence on the cost-effectiveness of SCIT or SLIT. SLIT had a favorable safety profile when compared to SCIT, particularly in relation to the risk of systemic reactions. CONCLUSIONS: AIT has the potential to achieve reductions in symptom and medication scores, but there is no clear or consistent evidence that measures of lung function can be improved. Bearing in mind the limitations of synthesizing evidence from systematic reviews and the fact that these reviews include mainly dated studies, a systematic review of current primary studies is now needed to update this evidence base, estimate the effectiveness of AIT on asthma outcomes and to investigate the relative effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of SCIT and SLIT.

18.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 28(6): 525-534, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28544337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of serum total IgE (t-IgE) were not able to discriminate well-enough atopic from non-atopic subjects, that is, with or without serum-specific IgE antibodies to allergens. OBJECTIVES: To model growth curves of the total IgE levels in children without atopic sensitization (hereafter defined as "normal" t-IgE levels) and to test their usefulness in predicting atopic sensitization. METHODS: The German Multicentre Allergy Study (MAS), a birth cohort with 1314 recruited newborns, began in 1990 and examined the participants until age 20 years. Total and specific IgE (t-IgE, s-IgE) were analyzed with a fluorescent enzyme immunoassay ImmunoCAP (TFS, Sweden) at ages 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 13, and 20 years. Participants were classified as "never atopic" if all their available serum samples had negative response (cutoff: <0.35 kUA /L) for s-IgE to the nine common foodborne and airborne allergenic extracts (milk, egg, soy, wheat, house dust mite, cat, dog, birch, and grass) tested in the MAS birth cohort. By contrast, participants were defined as atopic if they had, for at least at one available serum sample, s-IgE≥0.35 kUA /L to at least one allergenic extract tested. The evolution of t-IgE levels in the "never atopic" children was described by growth curves, estimated by exploiting a quantile regression model. A "reference" percentile, based on the t-IgE value measured at age 5 years, was assigned to each child with no IgE sensitization at that age. Upward deviations from the own "reference" quantile of t-IgE in atopic and "never atopic" children were calculated and a ROC analysis was used to identify the best cutoff point for predicting atopic sensitization. RESULTS: Overall, 1113 of 1314 children were included in this analysis. Of these, 469 were "never atopic" and 644 atopic. Quantile trajectories of t-IgE levels in "never atopic" subjects were stable from 5 years of age, increased to a plateau at age 10-13 years, and decreased slightly afterward. The onset of atopic s-IgE responses was characterized by an upward deviation of serum t-IgE levels from their "reference" trajectory. T-IgE quantiles predicted the onset of atopy with high efficiency (AUC>80%). ROC analysis showed that deviations from the t-IgE level "reference" quantile above 0.32, 0.41, 0.42, 0.30, and 0.58 kU/L (log-units) at 6, 7, 10, 13, and 20 years of age, respectively, predicted an atopic sensitization. CONCLUSION: The growth curves of "normal" serum t-IgE concentrations were estimated in "never atopic" children; for each individual who was non-atopic at 5 years of age a "reference" quantile was identified that represented the individual's "normal" level of t-IgE production. Upward deviations of observed t-IgE levels from the own "reference" quantile, from 6 to 20 years of age, predicted at each year the occurrence of atopic sensitization. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The trajectory of t-IgE levels can be elaborated since age 5 years in non-atopic children. A child whose t-IgE levels are consistently higher than those predicted by his/her growth curve may have developed atopic sensitization.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Imediata/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/imunologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(2): 541-549.e8, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27793411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evolution of the IgE response to the numerous allergen molecules of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is still unknown. OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterize the evolutionary patterns of the IgE response to 12 molecules of D pteronyssinus from birth to adulthood and to investigate their determinants and clinical relevance. METHODS: We investigated the clinical data and sera of 722 participants in the German Multicenter Allergy Study, a birth cohort started in 1990. Diagnoses of current allergic rhinitis (AR) related to mite allergy and asthma were based on yearly interviews at the ages of 1 to 13 years and 20 years. IgE to the extract and 12 molecules of D pteronyssinus were tested by means of ImmunoCAP and microarray technology, respectively, in sera collected at ages 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 13, and 20 years. Exposure to mites at age 6 and 18 months was assessed by measuring Der p 1 weight/weight concentration in house dust. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-one (26.5%) of 722 participants ever had IgE to D pteronyssinus extract (≥0.35 kUA/L). At age 20 years, their IgE recognized most frequently Der p 2, Der p 1, and Der p 23 (group A molecules; prevalence, >40%), followed by Der p 5, Der p 7, Der p 4, and Der p 21 (group B molecules; prevalence, 15% to 30%) and Der p 11, Der p 18, clone 16, Der p 14, and Der p 15 (group C molecules; prevalence, <10%). IgE sensitization started almost invariably with group A molecules and expanded sequentially first to group B and finally to group C molecules. Early IgE sensitization onset, parental hay fever, and higher exposure to mites were associated with a broader polymolecular IgE sensitization pattern. Participants reaching the broadest IgE sensitization stage (ie, ABC) had significantly higher risk of mite-related AR and asthma than unsensitized participants. IgE to Der p 1 or Der p 23 at age 5 years or less predicted asthma at school age. CONCLUSIONS: Parental hay fever and early exposure to D pteronyssinus allergens promote IgE polysensitization to several D pteronyssinus molecules, which in turn predicts current mite-related AR and current/future asthma. These results might inspire predictive algorithms and prevention strategies against the progression of IgE sensitization to mites toward AR and asthma.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Dermatophagoides/imunologia , Asma/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Animais , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Reações Cruzadas , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 28(1): 18-29, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27653623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need to establish the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and safety of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for the prevention of allergic disease. METHODS: Two reviewers independently screened nine international biomedical databases. Studies were quantitatively synthesized using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: A total of 32 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Overall, meta-analysis found no conclusive evidence that AIT reduced the risk of developing a first allergic disease over the short term (RR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.04-2.09) and no randomized controlled evidence was found in relation to its longer-term effects for this outcome. There was, however, a reduction in the short-term risk of those with allergic rhinitis developing asthma (RR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.30-0.54), with this finding being robust to a pre-specified sensitivity analysis. We found inconclusive evidence that this benefit was maintained over the longer term: RR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.31-1.23. There was evidence that the risk of new sensitization was reduced over the short term, but this was not confirmed in the sensitivity analysis: RR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.24-2.18. There was no clear evidence of any longer-term reduction in the risk of sensitization: RR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.08-2.77. AIT appeared to have an acceptable side effect profile. CONCLUSIONS: AIT did not result in a statistically significant reduction in the risk of developing a first allergic disease. There was, however, evidence of a reduced short-term risk of developing asthma in those with allergic rhinitis, but it is unclear whether this benefit was maintained over the longer term. We are unable to comment on the cost-effectiveness of AIT.


Assuntos
Asma/prevenção & controle , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Rinite , Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA