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1.
Circulation ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597453

RESUMO

Background: Obesity-related hypertension is a common disorder, and attempts to combat the underlying obesity are often unsuccessful. We previously revealed that mice globally deficient in the inhibitory IgG receptor FcγRIIB are protected from obesity-induced hypertension. However, how FcγRIIB participates is unknown. Studies were designed to determine if alterations in IgG contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension. Methods: Involvement of IgG was studied using IgG µ heavy chain-null mice deficient in mature B cells, and by IgG transfer. Participation of FcγRIIB was interrogated in mice with global or endothelial cell-specific deletion of the receptor. Obesity was induced by high fat diet (HFD) and BP was measured by radiotelemetry or tail cuff. The relative sialylation of the Fc glycan on mouse IgG, which influences IgG activation of Fc receptors, was evaluated by SNAlectin blotting. Effects of IgG on endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) were assessed in human aortic endothelial cells. IgG Fc glycan sialylation was interrogated in 3442 human subjects by mass spectrometry, and the relationship between sialylation and BP was evaluated. Effects of normalizing IgG sialylation were determined in HFD-fed mice administered the sialic acid precursor N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). Results: Mice deficient in B cells were protected from obesity-induced hypertension. Compared to IgG from control chow-fed mice, IgG from HFD-fed mice was hyposialylated, and it raised BP when transferred to recipients lacking IgG; the hypertensive response was absent if recipients were FcγRIIB-deficient. Neuraminidase (NA)-treated IgG lacking the Fc glycan terminal sialic acid also raised BP. In cultured endothelial cells, via FcγRIIB, IgG from HFD-fed mice and NAtreated IgG inhibited VEGF activation of eNOS by altering eNOS phosphorylation. In humans obesity was associated with lower IgG sialylation, and systolic BP was inversely related to IgG sialylation. Mice deficient in FcγRIIB in endothelium were protected from obesity-induced hypertension. Furthermore, in HFD-fed mice, ManNAc normalized IgG sialylation and prevented obesity-induced hypertension. Conclusions: Hyposialylated IgG and FcγRIIB in endothelium are critically involved in obesityinduced hypertension in mice, and supportive evidence was obtained in humans. Interventions targeting these mechanisms, such as ManNAc supplementation, may provide novel means to break the link between obesity and hypertension.

2.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591262

RESUMO

Glycosylation is a topic of intense current interest in the development of biopharmaceuticals since it is related to drug safety and efficacy. This work describes results of an interlaboratory study on the glycosylation of the Primary Sample (PS) of NISTmAb, a monoclonal antibody reference material. Seventy­six laboratories from industry, university, research, government, and hospital sectors in Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia submitted a total of 103 reports on glycan distributions. The principal objective of this study was to report and compare results for the full range of analytical methods presently used in the glycosylation  analysis of mAbs. Therefore, participation was unrestricted, with laboratories choosing their own measurement techniques. Protein glycosylation was determined in various ways, including at the level of intact mAb, protein fragments, glycopeptides, or released glycans, using a wide variety of methods for derivatization, separation, identification, and quantification. Consequently, the diversity of results was enormous, with the number of glycan compositions identified by each laboratory ranging from 4 to 48. In total, one hundred sixteen glycan compositions were reported, of which 57 compositions could be assigned consensus abundance values. These consensus medians provide community-derived values for NISTmAb PS. Agreement with the consensus medians did not depend on the specific method or laboratory type.. The study provides a view of the current state-of-the-art for biologic glycosylation measurement and suggests a clear need for harmonization of glycosylation analysis methods.

3.
Biomark Med ; 13(15): 1273-1287, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559833

RESUMO

Aim: The study sought to apply N-glycosylation profiles to understand the interplay between suboptimal health status (SHS) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Materials & methods: In this study, 262 Ghanaians were recruited from May to July 2016. After completing a health survey, plasma samples were collected for clinical assessments while ultra performance liquid chromatography was used to measure plasma N-glycans. Results: Four glycan peaks were found to predict case status (MetS and SHS) using a step-wise Akaike's information criterion logistic regression model selection. This model yielded an area under the curve of MetS: 83.1% (95% CI: 78.0-88.1%) and SHS: 67.1% (60.6-73.7%). Conclusion: Our results show that SHS is a significant, albeit modest, risk factor for MetS and N-glycan complexity was associated with MetS.

4.
J R Soc Med ; : 141076819865863, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526214

RESUMO

The importance of sugars to protein function is real and is of significant clinical relevance. Technology advances enable large population studies to be carried out, shedding light on individual sugar variation and variations with time. Three-dimensional mass spectroscopy on solid pathological specimens is going to open up a whole new world of pathology visualisation. The door is now open to exploit carbohydrate recognition in new therapeutics by identifying novel biomarkers in cancer to aid diagnosis, and also providing therapeutic targets for treatment. Glycan age correlates with biological age. This means we can map the reversal of biological age with exercise and diet.

5.
OMICS ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526239

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common complex trait arising from interactions among multiple environmental, genomic, and postgenomic factors. We report here the first attempt to investigate the association between immunoglobulin G (IgG) N-glycan patterns, T2DM, and their clinical risk factors in an Australian population. N-glycosylation of proteins is one of the most frequently observed co- and post-translational modifications, reflecting, importantly, the real-time status of the interplay between the genomic and postgenomic factors. In a community-based case-control study, 849 participants (217 cases and 632 controls) were recruited from an urban community in Busselton, Western Australia. We applied the ultraperformance liquid chromatography method to analyze the composition of IgG N-glycans. We then conducted Spearman's correlation analyses to explore the association between glycan biomarker candidates and clinical risk factors. We performed area under the curve (AUC) analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curves by fivefold cross-validation for clinical risk factors, IgG glycans, and their combination. Two directly measured and four derived glycan peaks were significantly associated with T2DM, after correction for extensive clinical confounders and false discovery rate, thus suggesting that IgG N-glycan traits are highly correlated with T2DM clinical risk factors. Moreover, adding the IgG glycan profiles to fasting blood glucose in the logistic regression model increased the AUC from 0.799 to 0.859. The AUC for IgG glycans alone was 0.623 with a 95% confidence interval 0.580-0.666. In addition, our study provided new evidence of diversity in T2DM complex trait by IgG N-glycan stratification. Six IgG glycan traits were firmly associated with T2DM, which reflects an increased proinflammatory and biological aging status. In summary, our study reports novel associations between the IgG N-glycome and T2DM in an Australian population and the putative role of proinflammatory mechanisms. Furthermore, IgG N-glycomic alterations offer future prospects as inflammatory biomarker candidates for T2DM diagnosis, and monitoring of T2DM progression to cardiovascular disease or renal failure.

6.
Curr Protoc Protein Sci ; 97(1): e95, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517449

RESUMO

Glycans are a class of macromolecules essential for all forms of life. They embellish various proteins and other macromolecules in organisms and are responsible for their proper functioning. Because their complex structure is determined by genetic and environmental factors, analysis of such molecules is rather demanding. Liquid chromatography (high-performance and ultra-performance, HPLC and UPLC, respectively) analysis has been used for the purpose of glycoprofiling for years and it is a well-established method regarding its robustness, reproducibility, and high throughput. Another orthogonal method that is now used in glycoprofiling is capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) because it offers powerful separation and distinct sensitivity. The purpose of the following protocols is to present all steps required for release and fluorescent labeling of total N-glycans from blood plasma/serum or isolated glycoprotein (for example, IgG) and their subsequent UPLC or CGE analysis. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

7.
OMICS ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393219

RESUMO

Aberrant immunoglobulin G (IgG) N-glycosylation offers new prospects to detect changes in cell metabolism and by extension, for biomarker discovery in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, past studies did not analyze the individual IgG subclasses in relation to T2DM pathophysiology. We report here original findings through a comparison of the IgG subclass-specific fragment crystallizable (Fc) glycan biosignatures in 115 T2DM patients with 122 healthy controls within the Uyghur population in China. IgG Fc glycosylation profiles were analyzed using nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to exclude changes attributed to fragment antigen binding N-glycosylation. After correction for clinical covariates, 27 directly measured and 4 derived glycan traits of the IgG subclass-specific N-glycopeptides were significantly associated with T2DM. Furthermore, we observed in T2DM a decrease in bisecting N-acetylglucosamine of IgG2 and agalactosylation of IgG4, and an increase in sialylation of IgG4 and digalactosylation of IgG2. Classification model based on IgG subclass-specific N-glycan traits was able to distinguish patients with T2DM from controls with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.927 (95% confidence interval 0.894-0.960, p < 0.001). In conclusion, a robust association between the IgG subclass-specific Fc N-glycomes and T2DM was observed in the Uyghur population sample in China, suggesting a potential for the IgG Fc glycosylation as a biomarker candidate for type 2 diabetes. The integration of glycomics with other system science biomarkers might offer further hope for innovation in diagnosis and treatment of T2DM in the future. Finally, it is noteworthy that "Population Glycomics" is an emerging approach to biomarker discovery for common complex diseases.

8.
Glycobiology ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410450

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycans are emerging as a new putative biomarker for biological age and different diseases, requiring a robust workflow for IgG glycome analysis, ideally beginning with a simple and undemanding sampling procedure. Here we report the first comprehensive study on total N-glycans of IgG isolated from dried blood spots (DBS), which was performed in a high-throughput mode. We compared the IgG N-glycan profiles originating from DBS with those originating from plasma, compared different media for DBS collection, evaluated analytical variation and assessed IgG N-glycan profile stability for different storage conditions. In conclusion, we show DBS are a good and stable source material for a robust IgG N-glycan analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), suitable for blood sampling in conditions where no trained personnel and necessary lab equipment are available.

9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(18): 9637-9657, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410472

RESUMO

Establishing causal relationship between epigenetic marks and gene transcription requires molecular tools, which can precisely modify specific genomic regions. Here, we present a modular and extensible CRISPR/dCas9-based toolbox for epigenetic editing and direct gene regulation. It features a system for expression of orthogonal dCas9 proteins fused to various effector domains and includes a multi-gRNA system for simultaneous targeting dCas9 orthologs to up to six loci. The C- and N-terminal dCas9 fusions with DNMT3A and TET1 catalytic domains were thoroughly characterized. We demonstrated simultaneous use of the DNMT3A-dSpCas9 and TET1-dSaCas9 fusions within the same cells and showed that imposed cytosine hyper- and hypo-methylation altered level of gene transcription if targeted CpG sites were functionally relevant. Dual epigenetic manipulation of the HNF1A and MGAT3 genes, involved in protein N-glycosylation, resulted in change of the glycan phenotype in BG1 cells. Furthermore, simultaneous targeting of the TET1-dSaCas9 and VPR-dSpCas9 fusions to the HNF1A regulatory region revealed strong and persistent synergistic effect on gene transcription, up to 30 days following cell transfection, suggesting involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in maintenance of the reactivated state. Also, modulation of dCas9 expression effectively reduced off-target effects while maintaining the desired effects on target regions.

10.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1863(10): 1595-1601, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis is still not well understood. It is considered to result from genetic susceptibility, environment, microbiota composition and aberrant immune response. Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), forms of IBD, are sometimes indistinguishable by typical laboratory and clinical characteristics making timely diagnosis and subsequent therapy hit-and-miss. Glycosylation has shown a promising biomarker potential for early IBD diagnosis and effective response to treatment prediction. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This mini-review briefly covers present knowledge of IBD pathophysiology, with a focus on recent research on the role of glycosylation in IBD pathogenesis and disease progression. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant glycosylation significantly changes functionality of key proteins in intestinal niche and is involved in IBD etiology. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Elucidating mechanisms of IBD development is one of critical goals in managing this disease. Glycans are important for fine-tuning of intestinal processes that ensure homeostatic conditions which, if disrupted, lead to IBD.

11.
OMICS ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313980

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is a common complex trait that calls for next-generation biomarkers for precision diagnostics and therapeutics. The most common type of post-translational protein modification involves glycosylation. Glycans participate in key intercellular and intracellular functions, such as protein quality control, cell adhesion, cell-cell recognition, signal transduction, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation. In this context, immunoglobulin G (IgG) N-glycans affect the anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory responses of IgG, and are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors such as aging, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia. Yet, the role of such glycomic biomarkers requires evaluation in diverse world populations. We report here original observations on association of IgG N-glycan biosignatures with 15 cardiometabolic risk factors in a community-based cross-sectional study conducted in 701 Chinese Han participants. After controlling for age and sex, we found that the 16, 21, and 18 IgG N-glycan traits were significantly different in participants with and without metabolic syndrome, hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype, or abdominal obesity, respectively. The canonical correlation analysis showed that IgG N-glycan profiles were significantly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors (r = 0.469, p < 0.001). Classification models based on IgG N-glycan traits were able to differentiate participants with (1) metabolic syndrome, (2) hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype, or (3) abdominal obesity from controls, with an area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) of 0.632 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.574-0.691, p < 0.001), 0.659 (95% CI, 0.587-0.730, p < 0.001), and 0.610 (95% CI, 0.565-0.656, p < 0.001), respectively. These new data suggest that IgG N-glycans may play an important role in cardiometabolic disease pathogenesis by regulating the proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses of IgG. Looking into the future, IgG N-glycan biosignatures warrant further research in other world population samples with a view to applications in clinical cardiology and public health practice.

12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(12): 2062-2077, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163085

RESUMO

Glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of proteins. Glycosylation is associated with a number of human diseases. Defining genetic factors altering glycosylation may provide a basis for novel approaches to diagnostic and pharmaceutical applications. Here we report a genome-wide association study of the human blood plasma N-glycome composition in up to 3811 people measured by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) technology. Starting with the 36 original traits measured by UPLC, we computed an additional 77 derived traits leading to a total of 113 glycan traits. We studied associations between these traits and genetic polymorphisms located on human autosomes. We discovered and replicated 12 loci. This allowed us to demonstrate an overlap in genetic control between total plasma protein and IgG glycosylation. The majority of revealed loci contained genes that encode enzymes directly involved in glycosylation (FUT3/FUT6, FUT8, B3GAT1, ST6GAL1, B4GALT1, ST3GAL4, MGAT3 and MGAT5) and a known regulator of plasma protein fucosylation (HNF1A). However, we also found loci that could possibly reflect other more complex aspects of glycosylation process. Functional genomic annotation suggested the role of several genes including DERL3, CHCHD10, TMEM121, IGH and IKZF1. The hypotheses we generated may serve as a starting point for further functional studies in this research area.

13.
FEBS Lett ; 593(13): 1598-1615, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215021

RESUMO

N-glycosylation is a ubiquitous protein modification, and N-glycosylation profiles are emerging as both biomarkers and functional effectors in various types of diabetes. Genome-wide association studies identified glycosyltransferase genes as candidate causal genes for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Studies focused on N-glycosylation changes in type 2 diabetes demonstrated that patients can be distinguished from healthy controls based on N-glycome composition. In addition, individuals at an increased risk of future disease development could be identified based on N-glycome profiles. Moreover, accumulating evidence indicates that N-glycans have a major role in preventing the impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by maintaining the glucose transporter in proper orientation, indicating that interindividual variation in protein N-glycosylation might be a novel risk factor contributing to diabetes development. Defective N-glycosylation of T cells has been implicated in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. Furthermore, studies of N-glycan alterations have successfully been used to identify individuals with rare types of diabetes (such as the HNF1A-MODY), and also to evaluate functional significance of novel diabetes-associated mutations. In conclusion, both N-glycans and glycosyltransferases emerge as potential therapeutic targets in diabetes.

14.
Front Immunol ; 10: 907, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134054

RESUMO

Exercise and exercise-induced weight loss have a beneficial effect on overall health, including positive effects on molecular pathways associated with immune function, especially in overweight individuals. The main aim of our study was to assess how energy deprivation (i.e., "semi-starvation") leading to substantial fat mass loss affects the immune system and immunosuppression in previously normal weight individuals. Thus, to address this hypothesis, we applied a high-throughput systems biology approach to better characterize potential key pathways associated with immune system modulation during intensive weight loss and subsequent weight regain. We examined 42 healthy female physique athletes (age 27.5 ± 4.0 years, body mass index 23.4 ± 1.7 kg/m2) volunteered into either a diet group (n = 25) or a control group (n = 17). For the diet group, the energy intake was reduced and exercise levels were increased to induce loss of fat mass that was subsequently regained during a recovery period. The control group was instructed to maintain their typical lifestyle, exercise levels, and energy intake at a constant level. For quantification of systems biology markers, fasting blood samples were drawn at three time points: baseline (PRE), at the end of the weight loss period (MID 21.1 ± 3.1 weeks after PRE), and at the end of the weight regain period (POST 18.4 ± 2.9 weeks after MID). In contrast to the control group, the diet group showed significant (false discovery rate <0.05) alteration of all measured immune function parameters-white blood cells (WBCs), immunoglobulin G glycome, leukocyte transcriptome, and cytokine profile. Integrative omics suggested effects on multiple levels of immune system as dysregulated hematopoiesis, suppressed immune cell proliferation, attenuated systemic inflammation, and loss of immune cell function by reduced antibody and chemokine secretion was implied after intense weight loss. During the weight regain period, the majority of the measured immune system parameters returned back to the baseline. In summary, this study elucidated a number of molecular pathways presumably explaining immunosuppression in individuals going through prolonged periods of intense training with low-energy availability. Our findings also reinforce the perception that the way in which weight loss is achieved (i.e., dietary restriction, exercise, or both) has a distinct effect on how the immune system is modulated.

15.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 16(2): 151-168, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707400

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glycoimmunology is an emerging field focused on understanding how immune responses are mediated by glycans (carbohydrates) and their interaction with glycan-binding proteins called lectins. How glycans influence immunological functions is increasingly well understood. In a parallel way, in the HIV field, it is increasingly understood how the host immune system controls HIV persistence and immunopathogenesis. However, what has mostly been overlooked, despite its potential for therapeutic applications, is the role that the host glycosylation machinery plays in modulating the persistence and immunopathogenesis of HIV. Here, we will survey four areas in which the links between glycan-lectin interactions and immunology and between immunology and HIV are well described. For each area, we will describe these links and then delineate the opportunities for the HIV field in investigating potential interactions between glycoimmunology and HIV persistence/immunopathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies show that the human glycome (the repertoire of human glycan structures) plays critical roles in driving or modulating several cellular processes and immunological functions that are central to maintaining HIV infection. Understanding the links between glycoimmunology and HIV infection may create a new paradigm for discovering novel glycan-based therapies that can lead to eradication, functional cure, or improved tolerance of lifelong infection.

16.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1864(5): 643-653, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641224

RESUMO

AIMS: Human plasma lipoproteins are known to contain various glycan structures whose composition and functional importance are starting to be recognized. We assessed N-glycosylation of human plasma HDL and LDL and the role of their glycomes in cellular cholesterol metabolism. METHODS: N-glycomic profiles of native and neuraminidase-treated HDL and LDL were obtained using HILIC-UHPLC-FLD. Relative abundance of the individual chromatographic peaks was quantitatively expressed as a percentage of total integrated area and N-glycan structures present in each peak were elucidated by MALDI-TOF MS. The capacity of HDL to mediate cellular efflux of cholesterol and the capacity of LDL to induce cellular accumulation of cholesteryl esters were evaluated in THP-1 cells. RESULTS: HILIC-UHPLC-FLD analysis of HDL and LDL N-glycans released by PNGase F resulted in 22 and 18 distinct chromatographic peaks, respectively. The majority of N-glycans present in HDL (~70%) and LDL (~60%) were sialylated with one or two sialic acid residues. The most abundant N-glycan structure in both HDL and LDL was a complex type biantennary N-glycan with one sialic acid (A2G2S1). Relative abundances of several N-glycan structures were dramatically altered by the neuraminidase treatment, which selectively removed sialic acid residues. Native HDL displayed significantly greater efficacy in removing cellular cholesterol from THP-1 cells as compared to desialylated HDL (p < 0.05). Cellular accumulation of cholesteryl esters in THP-1 cells was significantly higher after incubations with desialylated LDL particles as compared to native LDL (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: N-glycome of human plasma lipoproteins reveals a high level of diversity, which directly impacts functional properties of the lipoproteins.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025792

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stressor-related disorder that develops in a subset of individuals exposed to a traumatic experience. Factors associated with vulnerability to PTSD are still not fully understood. PTSD is frequently comorbid with various psychiatric and somatic disorders, moderate response to treatment and remission rates. The term "theranostics" combines diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy and offers targeted therapy based on specific analyses. Theranostics, combined with novel techniques and approaches called "omics", which integrate genomics, transcriptomic, proteomics and metabolomics, might improve knowledge about biological underpinning of PTSD, and offer novel therapeutic strategies. The focus of this review is on metabolomic and glycomic data in PTSD. Metabolomics evaluates changes in the metabolome of an organism by exploring the set of small molecules (metabolites), while glycomics studies the glycome, a complete repertoire of glycan structures with their functional roles in biological systems. Both metabolome and glycome reflect the physiological and pathological conditions in individuals. Only a few studies evaluated metabolic and glycomic changes in patients with PTSD. The metabolomics studies in PTSD patients uncovered different metabolites that might be associated with psychopathological alterations in PTSD. The glycomics study in PTSD patients determined nine N-glycan structures and found accelerated and premature aging in traumatized subjects and subjects with PTSD based on a GlycoAge index. Therefore, further larger studies and replications are needed. Better understanding of the biological basis of PTSD, including metabolomic and glycomic data, and their integration with other "omics" approaches, might identify new molecular targets and might provide improved therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Glicômica/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos
18.
Immunobiology ; 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased body fat may be associated with an increased risk of developing an underlying pro-inflammatory state, thus leading to greater risk of developing certain chronic conditions. Immunoglobulin G has the ability to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects, and the N-glycosylation of the fragment crystallisable portion is involved in mediating this process. Body mass index, a rudimentary yet gold standard indication for body fat, has been shown to be associated with agalactosylated immunoglobulin G N-glycans. AIM: We aimed to determine the association between increased body fat and the immunoglobulin G glycosylation features, comparing body mass index to other measures of body fat distribution. METHODS: We investigated a sample of 637 community-based 45-69 year olds, with mixed phenotypes, residing in Busselton, Western Australia. Body mass index and the waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratios were calculated using anthropometry, while dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was performed to gain an accurate measure of total and area specific body fat. Serum immunoglobulin GN-glycans were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Twenty-two N-glycan peaks were found to be associated with at least one of the fat measures. While the previous association of body mass index to agalactosylated immunoglobulin G was replicated, measures of central adiposity explained the most variation in the immunoglobulin G glycome. CONCLUSION: Central adiposity is associated with an increased pro-inflammatory fraction of immunoglobulin G, suggesting that the android/gynoid ratio or waist-to-height ratio instead be considered when controlling for adiposity in immunoglobulin G glycome biomarker studies.

19.
Diabetes Care ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) due to variants in HNF1A is the commonest type of monogenic diabetes. Frequent misdiagnosis results in missed opportunity to use sulfonylureas as first-line treatment. A nongenetic biomarker could improve selection of subjects for genetic testing and increase diagnosis rates. We previously reported that plasma levels of antennary fucosylated N-glycans and hs-CRP are reduced in individuals with HNF1A-MODY. In this study, we examined the potential use of N-glycans and hs-CRP in discriminating individuals with damaging HNF1A alleles from those without HNF1A variants in an unselected population of young adults with nonautoimmune diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed the plasma N-glycan profile, measured hs-CRP, and sequenced HNF1A in 989 individuals with diabetes diagnosed when younger than age 45, persistent endogenous insulin production, and absence of pancreatic autoimmunity. Systematic assessment of rare HNF1A variants was performed. RESULTS: We identified 29 individuals harboring 25 rare HNF1A alleles, of which 3 were novel, and 12 (in 16 probands) were considered pathogenic. Antennary fucosylated N-glycans and hs-CRP were able to differentiate subjects with damaging HNF1A alleles from those without rare HNF1A alleles. Glycan GP30 had a receiver operating characteristic curve area under the curve (AUC) of 0.90 (88% sensitivity, 80% specificity, cutoff 0.70%), whereas hs-CRP had an AUC of 0.83 (88% sensitivity, 69% specificity, cutoff 0.81 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: Half of rare HNF1A sequence variants do not cause MODY. N-glycan profile and hs-CRP could both be used as tools, alone or as adjuncts to existing pathways, for identifying individuals at high risk of carrying a damaging HNF1A allele.

20.
J Transl Med ; 16(1): 323, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex condition, whose diagnosis requires spirometric assessment. However, considering its heterogeneity, subjects with similar spirometric parameters do not necessarily have the same functional status. To overcome this limitation novel biomarkers for COPD have been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to explore the potential value of N-glycans as COPD biomarkers and to examine the individual variation of plasma protein and immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycosylation profiles in subjects with COPD and healthy controls. METHODS: Both the total plasma protein and IgG N-glycome have been profiled in the total of 137 patients with COPD and 95 matching controls from Croatia. Replication cohort consisted of 61 subjects with COPD and 148 controls recruited at another Croatian medical centre. RESULTS: Plasma protein N-glycome in COPD subjects exhibited significant decrease in low branched and conversely, an increase in more complex glycan structures (tetragalactosylated, trisialylated, tetrasialylated and antennary fucosylated glycoforms). We also observed a significant decline in plasma monogalactosylated species, and the same change replicated in IgG glycome. N-glycans also showed value in distinguishing subjects in different COPD GOLD stages, where the relative abundance of more complex glycan structures increased as the disease progressed. Glycans also showed statistically significant associations with the frequency of exacerbations and demonstrated to be affected by smoking, which is the major risk factor for COPD development. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that complexity of glycans associates with COPD, mirroring also the disease severity. Moreover, changes in N-glycome associate with exacerbation frequency and are affected by smoking. In general, this study provided new insights into plasma protein and IgG N-glycome changes occurring in COPD and pointed out potential novel markers of the disease progression and severity.

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