Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 40
Filtrar
1.
Eur Radiol ; 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although expert consensus recommendations suggest 2-3 h as the time interval between bone-seeking radiotracers injection and acquisition, it has been reported that images obtained early after [99mTc]Tc-HMDP administration are sufficient to diagnose cardiac amyloidosis. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of [99mTc]Tc-DPD early phase whole body scan with respect to late phase imaging. METHODS: We qualitatively and semiquantitatively reviewed [99mTc]Tc-DPD imaging of 53 patients referred for suspect cardiac amyloidosis. Findings of early and late phase images were compared with SPECT results (considered the standard-of-reference) determining sensitivity and specificity for visual analysis of each phase imaging and for each semiquantitative index. RESULTS: SPECT imaging was negative for cardiac accumulation in 25 patients and positive in 28. Visual analysis of early phase whole body scan had an extremely significant capability to predict SPECT results; nevertheless, complete agreement was not reached. Visual analysis of late phase imaging showed slightly better results. Semiquantitative analysis of early phase images, namely heart to mediastinum ratio, performed better than semiquantitative analysis of late phase images. CONCLUSION: Visual analysis of [99mTc]Tc-DPD early phase whole body scan is promising in diagnosing cardiac amyloidosis; further studies are needed to confirm our results in different clinical scenarios. KEY POINTS: • Visual analysis of early phase planar imaging using [99mTc]Tc-DPD is accurate to diagnose cardiac amyloidosis and may be satisfactory at least in frail patients with high cardiac burden of amyloid fibrils.

2.
Clin Nucl Med ; 47(1): e39-e40, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269732

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: A 71-year-old woman was operated on for undifferentiated lung adenocarcinoma. Four months after surgery, she developed bone and adrenal metastases. She underwent palliative radiation therapy of left scapula and right iliac bone. Thereafter, she started immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy with anti-PD-1 antibodies achieving complete tumor response. Twenty months later, a follow-up 18F-FDG PET/CT confirmed tumor response and revealed high radiotracer accumulation in correspondence of retroperitoneal and subcutaneous fat opacities. The contiguous fasciae were mildly thickened. The temporal relation with ICI therapy together with tumor response and corticosteroids therapy effectiveness led to conclude for ICI-related adverse events.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Paniculite , Idoso , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950969

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess and compare clinical outcomes and costs, to the Italian healthcare system, of three therapeutic options approved in the management of adult patients with gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs). METHODS: We compared the efficacy, safety, and costs of [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE, everolimus (both originator and generic products), and sunitinib in patients with advanced GEP-NETs (NET G1 and G2) that had progressed following treatment with somatostatin analogs (SSAs). A cost-consequence model was developed and validated by a panel of clinical experts from three NET reference centres in Italy. The clinical outcomes included in the model were median progression-free survival and the incidence of grade 3 or 4 adverse events (AEs), as reported in pivotal clinical trials. The costs for acquisition and administration of each treatment, and of managing AEs, were calculated from the perspective of the Italian national health service. Treatment costs per progression-free month were calculated separately for patients with NETs of pancreatic (PanNETs; all three treatments) and gastrointestinal (GI-NETs; [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE and everolimus only) origin. RESULTS: In patients with PanNETs, total costs per progression-free month were €2989 for [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE, €4975 for originator everolimus, €3472 for generic everolimus, and €5337 for sunitinib. In patients with GI-NETs, total costs per progression-free month were €3189 for [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE, €4990 for originator everolimus, and €3483 for generic everolimus. CONCLUSIONS: [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE was associated with lower costs per progression-free month versus relevant treatment options in patients with GI-NETs or PanNETs (NET G1-G2; progressed following SSA treatment), although acquisition and administration costs are higher. These findings provide further economic arguments in the overall context of treatment decision-making.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725726

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted PET is increasingly used for staging prostate cancer (PCa) with high accuracy to detect significant PCa (sigPCa). [68 Ga]PSMA-11 PET/MRI-guided biopsy showed promising results but also persisting limitation of sampling error, due to impaired image fusion. We aimed to assess the possibility of intraoperative quantification of [18F]PSMA-1007 PET/CT uptake in core biopsies as an instant confirmation for accurate lesion sampling. METHODS: In this IRB-approved, prospective, proof-of-concept study, we included five consecutive patients with suspected PCa. All underwent [18F]PSMA-1007 PET/CT scans followed by immediate PET/CT-guided and saturation template biopsy (3.1 ± 0.3 h after PET). The activity in biopsy cores was measured as counts per minute (cpm) in a gamma spectrometer. Pearson's test was used to correlate counts with histopathology (WHO/ISUP), tumor length, and membranous PSMA expression on immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: In 43 of 113 needles, PCa was present. The mean cpm was overall significantly higher in needles with PCa (263 ± 396 cpm) compared to needles without PCa (73 ± 44 cpm, p < 0.001). In one patient with moderate PSMA uptake (SUVmax 8.7), 13 out of 24 needles had increased counts (100-200 cpm) but only signs of inflammation and PSMA expression in benign glands on IHC. Excluding this case, ROC analysis resulted in an AUC of 0.81, with an optimal cut-off to confirm PCa at 75 cpm (sens/spec of 65.1%/87%). In all 4 patients with PCa, the first or second PSMA PET-guided needle was positive for sigPCa with high counts (156-2079 cpm). CONCLUSIONS: [18F]PSMA-1007 uptake in PCa can be used to confirm accurate lesion sampling of the dominant tumor intraoperatively. This technique could improve confidence in imaging-based biopsy guidance and reduce the need for saturation biopsy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03187990, 15/06/2017.

5.
SN Compr Clin Med ; : 1-3, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541458

RESUMO

Introduction: Large-scale worldwide COVID-19 vaccination programs are being rapidly deployed, and high-risk patients with comorbidity are now receiving the first doses of the vaccine. Physicians should be, therefore, aware of new pitfalls associated with the current pandemic vaccination program, also in the case of [18F]Florbetaben PET/CT.Case PresentationWe described the first image of [18F]Florbetaben PET/CT in the evaluation of a 70-year-old male with suspicious Alzheimer disease and unclear history of heart disease. We detailed the diagnostic imaging PET/CT workup with different findings. Conclusion: In this case, [18F]Florbetaben PET/CT can demonstrate potential beta-amyloid immune-reactivity and deposition associated with the current COVID-19 pandemic vaccination programs.

6.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(12): 4042-4053, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386839

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA-) PET has become a promising tool in staging and restaging of prostate carcinoma (PCa). However, specific primary tumour features might impact accuracy of PSMA-PET for PCa detection. We investigated histopathological parameters and immunohistochemical PSMA expression patterns on radical prostatectomy (RPE) specimens and correlated them to the corresponding 68Ga-PSMA-11-PET examinations. METHODS: RPE specimens of 62 patients with preoperative 68Ga-PSMA-11-PET between 2016 and 2018 were analysed. WHO/ISUP grade groups, growth pattern (expansive vs. infiltrative), tumour area and diameter as well as immunohistochemical PSMA heterogeneity, intensity and negative tumour area (PSMA%neg) were correlated with spatially corresponding SUVmax on 68Ga-PSMA-11-PET in a multidisciplinary analysis. RESULTS: All tumours showed medium to strong membranous (2-3 +) and weak to strong cytoplasmic (1-3 +) PSMA expression. Heterogeneously expressed PSMA was found in 38 cases (61%). Twenty-five cases (40%) showed at least 5% and up to 80% PSMA%neg. PSMA%neg, infiltrative growth pattern, smaller tumour area and diameter and WHO/ISUP grade group 2 significantly correlated with lower SUVmax values. A ROC curve analysis revealed 20% PSMA%neg as an optimal cutoff with the highest sensitivity and specificity (89% and 86%, AUC 0.923) for a negative PSMA-PET scan. A multiple logistic regression model revealed tumoural PSMA%neg (p < 0.01, OR = 9.629) and growth pattern (p = 0.0497, OR = 306.537) as significant predictors for a negative PSMA-PET scan. CONCLUSIONS: We describe PSMA%neg, infiltrative growth pattern, smaller tumour size and WHO/ISUP grade group 2 as parameters associated with a lower 68Ga-PSMA-11 uptake in prostate cancer. These findings can serve as fundament for future biopsy-based biomarker development to enable an individualized, tumour-adapted imaging approach.


Assuntos
Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Neoplasias da Próstata , Ácido Edético , Isótopos de Gálio , Radioisótopos de Gálio , Humanos , Masculino , Oligopeptídeos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
Clin Transl Imaging ; : 1-41, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277510

RESUMO

Aim: The diagnosis, severity and extent of a sterile inflammation or a septic infection could be challenging since there is not one single test able to achieve an accurate diagnosis. The clinical use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging in the assessment of inflammation and infection is increasing worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to achieve an Italian consensus document on [18F]FDG PET/CT or PET/MRI in inflammatory and infectious diseases, such as osteomyelitis (OM), prosthetic joint infections (PJI), infective endocarditis (IE), prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), cardiac implantable electronic device infections (CIEDI), systemic and cardiac sarcoidosis (SS/CS), diabetic foot (DF), fungal infections (FI), tuberculosis (TBC), fever and inflammation of unknown origin (FUO/IUO), pediatric infections (PI), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), spine infections (SI), vascular graft infections (VGI), large vessel vasculitis (LVV), retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF) and COVID-19 infections. Methods: In September 2020, the inflammatory and infectious diseases focus group (IIFG) of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) proposed to realize a procedural paper about the clinical applications of [18F]FDG PET/CT or PET/MRI in inflammatory and infectious diseases. The project was carried out thanks to the collaboration of 13 Italian nuclear medicine centers, with a consolidate experience in this field. With the endorsement of AIMN, IIFG contacted each center, and the pediatric diseases focus group (PDFC). IIFG provided for each team involved, a draft with essential information regarding the execution of [18F]FDG PET/CT or PET/MRI scan (i.e., indications, patient preparation, standard or specific acquisition modalities, interpretation criteria, reporting methods, pitfalls and artifacts), by limiting the literature research to the last 20 years. Moreover, some clinical cases were required from each center, to underline the teaching points. Time for the collection of each report was from October to December 2020. Results: Overall, we summarized 291 scientific papers and guidelines published between 1998 and 2021. Papers were divided in several sub-topics and summarized in the following paragraphs: clinical indications, image interpretation criteria, future perspectivess and new trends (for each single disease), while patient preparation, image acquisition, possible pitfalls and reporting modalities were described afterwards. Moreover, a specific section was dedicated to pediatric and PET/MRI indications. A collection of images was described for each indication. Conclusions: Currently, [18F]FDG PET/CT in oncology is globally accepted and standardized in main diagnostic algorithms for neoplasms. In recent years, the ever-closer collaboration among different European associations has tried to overcome the absence of a standardization also in the field of inflammation and infections. The collaboration of several nuclear medicine centers with a long experience in this field, as well as among different AIMN focus groups represents a further attempt in this direction. We hope that this document will be the basis for a "common nuclear physicians' language" throughout all the country. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40336-021-00445-w.

8.
Curr Oncol ; 28(4): 2481-2495, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review aims to provide a summary of the clinical indications and limitations of PET imaging with different radiotracers, including 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and other radiopharmaceuticals, in pediatric neuro-oncology, discussing both supratentorial and infratentorial tumors, based on recent literature (from 2010 to present). METHODS: A literature search of the PubMed/MEDLINE database was carried out searching for articles on the use of PET in pediatric brain tumors. The search was updated until December 2020 and limited to original studies published in English after 1 January 2010. RESULTS: 18F-FDG PET continues to be successfully employed in different settings in pediatric neuro-oncology, including diagnosis, grading and delineation of the target for stereotactic biopsy, estimation of prognosis, evaluation of recurrence, treatment planning and assessment of treatment response. Nevertheless, non-18F-FDG tracers, especially amino acid analogues seem to show a better performance in each clinical setting. CONCLUSIONS: PET imaging adds important information in the diagnostic work-up of pediatric brain tumors. International or national multicentric studies are encouraged in order to collect larger amount of data.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
9.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 24(4): 1198-1207, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to test whether the prognostic value of 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) extends to the estimation of systemic treatment response duration. METHODS: mCRPC patients submitted to FDG-PET/CT in four Italian centers from 2005 to 2020 were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical and biochemical data at the time of imaging were collected, and SUV max of the hottest lesion, total metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were calculated. The correlation between PET- and biochemical-derived parameters with Overall Survival (OS) was analysed. The prediction of treatment response duration was assessed in the subgroup submitted to FDG-PET/CT in the six months preceding Chemotherapy (namely Docetaxel or Cabazitaxel, 24 patients) or Androgen-Receptor Targeted Agents (ARTA, namely Abiraterone or Enzalutamide, 20 patients) administration. RESULTS: We enrolled 114 mCRPC patients followed-up for a median interval lasting 15 months. While at univariate analysis, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), MTV, and TLG were associated with OS, at the multivariate Cox regression analysis, the sole MTV could independently predict OS (p < 0.0001). In the subgroup submitted to FDG-PET/CT before the systemic treatment initiation, PSA and TLG could also predict treatment response duration independently (p < 0.05). Of note, while PSA could not indicate the best treatment choice, lower TLG was associated with higher success rates for ARTA but had no impact on chemotherapy efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET/CT's prognostic value extends to predicting treatment response duration in mCRPC, thus potentially guiding the systemic treatment selection.

10.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920423

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is an effective therapeutic option for several cancers. In the last years, the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has shifted the therapeutic landscape in oncology and improved patient prognosis in a variety of neoplastic diseases. However, to date, the selection of the best patients eligible for these therapies, as well as the response assessment is still challenging. Patients are mainly stratified using an immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of antigens on biopsy specimens, such as PD-L1 and PD-1, on tumor cells, on peritumoral immune cells and/or in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Recently, the use and development of imaging biomarkers able to assess in-vivo cancer-related processes are becoming more important. Today, positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) is used routinely to evaluate tumor metabolism, and also to predict and monitor response to immunotherapy. Although highly sensitive, FDG-PET in general is rather unspecific. Novel radiopharmaceuticals (immuno-PET radiotracers), able to identify specific immune system targets, are under investigation in pre-clinical and clinical settings to better highlight all the mechanisms involved in immunotherapy. In this review, we will provide an overview of the main new immuno-PET radiotracers in development. We will also review the main players (immune cells, tumor cells and molecular targets) involved in immunotherapy. Furthermore, we report current applications and the evidence of using [18F]FDG PET in immunotherapy, including the use of artificial intelligence (AI).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/terapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/síntese química , Inteligência Artificial , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/administração & dosagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/química , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/química , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
12.
Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 55(1): 38-45, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643488

RESUMO

Purpose: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy represents a therapeutic option for neuroendocrine neoplasms; to date, experiences with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms are still limited. We report our experience with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasm patients. Materials and Methods: Clinical records of 14 pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasm patients (7 female and 7 male) who received at least 2 cycles of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Tumoural uptake of somatostatin analogues at pre-treatment imaging was graded as 2 to 3 in all patients. RECIST criteria were used to evaluate response. Results: No treated patient had significant toxicity. Partial response was found in 3 (21.4%) patients, stable disease in 7 (50%), and progressive disease in 4 (28.6%). A statistically significant difference between disease state at enrolment and after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy was found. Conclusions: Our data furtherly support peptide receptor radionuclide therapy as a safe and effective treatment of patients affected by pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms allowing disease control in about 71% of patients without showing significant toxicity. Other studies are needed to confirm our results.

13.
Nucl Med Commun ; 42(8): 839-845, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741854

RESUMO

AIM: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging may play an important role in the restaging of patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC),, nevertheless, a systematic review of literature was still missing in this setting. The aim of this review was to summarize the evidence on literature regarding the utility of 18F-FDG PET imaging in restaging patients with SCLC. METHODS: A literature search was performed to retrieve original studies using 18F-FDG PET or 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) in a minimum of 10 patients with SCLC at restaging. RESULTS: The selected literature (17 studies) was discussed in four sections: detection rate, impact on management, prediction of prognosis and evaluation of the response to therapy. According to the literature, PET imaging may result in discordance with conventional imaging, mainly contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT), and detect additional lesions in a certain proportion of cases, leading to upstaging or downstaging. A variable level of disagreement between PET and conventional imaging has been reported also in the evaluation of response to therapy. A positive PET study is associated with shorter survival, especially in the presence of distant metastases. According to some studies, semiquantitative parameters are also inversely associated with overall survival and progression-free survival. Although the retrieved articles proved the utility of 18F-FDG PET imaging in each clinical setting, literature is still limited. CONCLUSIONS: This review encourages the use of 18F-FDG PET imaging, especially in conjunction with ceCT in recurrent SCLC patients. Further level I evidence is needed to further assess the diagnostic and prognostic capability of 18F-FDG PET/ceCT findings in SCLC.

14.
Eur Radiol ; 31(7): 4595-4605, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was (1) to investigate the application of texture analysis of choline PET/CT images in prostate cancer (PCa) patients and (2) to propose a machine-learning radiomics model able to select PET features predictive of disease progression in PCa patients with a same high-risk class at restaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-four high-risk PCa patients who underwent restaging Cho-PET/CT were analyzed. Follow-up data were recorded for a minimum of 13 months after the PET/CT scan. PET images were imported in LIFEx toolbox to extract 51 features from each lesion. A statistical system based on correlation matrix and point-biserial-correlation coefficient has been implemented for features reduction and selection, while Discriminant analysis (DA) was used as a method for features classification in a whole sample and sub-groups for primary tumor or local relapse (T), nodal disease (N), and metastatic disease (M). RESULTS: In the whole group, 2 feature (HISTO_Entropy_log10; HISTO_Energy_Uniformity) results were able to discriminate the occurrence of disease progression at follow-up, obtaining the best performance in DA classification (sensitivity 47.1%, specificity 76.5%, positive predictive value (PPV) 46.7%, and accuracy 67.6%). In the sub-group analysis, the best performance in DA classification for T was obtained by selecting 3 features (SUVmin; SHAPE_Sphericity; GLCM_Correlation) with a sensitivity of 91.6%, specificity 84.1%, PPV 79.1%, and accuracy 87%; for N by selecting 2 features (HISTO = _Energy Uniformity; GLZLM_SZLGE) with a sensitivity of 68.1%, specificity 91.4%, PPV 83%, and accuracy 82.6%; and for M by selecting 2 features (HISTO_Entropy_log10 - HISTO_Entropy_log2) with a sensitivity 64.4%, specificity 74.6%, PPV 40.6%, and accuracy 72.5%. CONCLUSION: This machine learning model demonstrated to be feasible and useful to select Cho-PET features for T, N, and M with valuable association with high-risk PCa patients' outcomes. KEY POINTS: • Artificial intelligence applications are feasible and useful to select Cho-PET features. • Our model demonstrated the presence of specific features for T, N, and M with valuable association with high-risk PCa patients' outcomes. • Further prospective studies are necessary to confirm our results and to develop the application of artificial intelligence in PET imaging of PCa.


Assuntos
Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Neoplasias da Próstata , Inteligência Artificial , Colina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Curr Radiopharm ; 14(3): 209-219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564769

RESUMO

In medical imaging, Artificial Intelligence is described as the ability of a system to properly interpret and learn from external data, acquiring knowledge to achieve specific goals and tasks through flexible adaptation. The number of possible applications of Artificial Intelligence is also huge in clinical medicine and cardiovascular diseases. To describe for the first time in literature, the main results of articles about Artificial Intelligence potential for clinical applications in molecular imaging techniques, and to describe its advancements in cardiovascular diseases assessed with nuclear medicine imaging modalities. A comprehensive search strategy was used based on SCOPUS and PubMed databases. From all studies published in English, we selected the most relevant articles that evaluated the technological insights of AI in nuclear cardiology applications. Artificial Intelligence may improve patient care in many different fields, from the semi-automatization of the medical work, through the technical aspect of image preparation, interpretation, the calculation of additional factors based on data obtained during scanning, to the prognostic prediction and risk-- group selection. Myocardial implementation of Artificial Intelligence algorithms in nuclear cardiology can improve and facilitate the diagnostic and predictive process, and global patient care. Building large databases containing clinical and image data is a first but essential step to create and train automated diagnostic/prognostic models able to help the clinicians to make unbiased and faster decisions for precision healthcare.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Cardiologia/tendências , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Molecular/tendências , Humanos , Medicina Nuclear/tendências , Prognóstico
17.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(12)2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287195

RESUMO

In this review, the performance of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the diagnostic workup of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is evaluated. A comprehensive literature search up to September 2020 was performed, selecting studies with the presence of: sample size ≥10 patients and index test (i.e., "FDG" or "18F-FDG" AND "pancreatic adenocarcinoma" or "pancreas cancer" AND "PET" or "positron emission tomography"). The methodological quality was evaluated using the revised quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2) tool and presented according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Basic data (authors, year of publication, country and study design), patients' characteristics (number of enrolled subjects and age), disease phase, type of treatment and grading were retrieved. Forty-six articles met the adopted research criteria. The articles were divided according to the considered clinical context. Namely, besides conventional anatomical imaging, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), molecular imaging with FDG PET/CT is an important tool in PDAC, for all disease stages. Further prospective studies will be necessary to confirm the cost-effectiveness of such imaging techniques by testing its real potential improvement in the clinical management of PDAC.

18.
Clin Transl Imaging ; : 1-3, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989416

RESUMO

Introduction: To summarize and comment the available surveys on the impact of COVID-19 on Nuclear Medicine (NM) departments. Methods: Recent surveys about the impact of COVID-19 on Nuclear Medicine (NM) departments have been searched on available scientific database. Results: Three surveys have been found and commented. Some differences among the surveys should be kept in mind. All studies agreed that COVID-19 had a relevant impact on NM departments. Conclusion: Surveys about the impact of COVID-19 in NM could improve the departments' daily activities, to find a compromise between the security protocols suggested by international guidelines.

19.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(8)2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824388

RESUMO

We investigated the diagnostic performance of Somatostatin Receptor Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (SSR-PET/CT) for the detection of primary lesion and initial staging of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). A comprehensive literature search up to January 2020 was performed selecting studies in presence of: sample size ≥10 patients; index test (i.e., 68Ga-DOTATOC or 68Ga-DOTANOC or 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT); and outcomes (i.e., detection rate (DR), true positive, true negative, false positive, and false-negative). The methodological quality was evaluated with QUADAS-2. Pooled DR and pooled sensitivity and specificity for the identification of the primary tumor were assessed by a patient-based and a lesion-based analysis. Thirty-eight studies were selected for the qualitative analysis, while 18 papers were included in the meta-analysis. The number of pNET patients ranged from 10 to 142, for a total of 1143 subjects. At patient-based analysis, the pooled sensitivity and specificity for the assessment of primary pNET were 79.6% (95% confidence interval (95%CI): 71-87%) and 95% (95%CI: 75-100%) with a heterogeneity of 59.6% and 51.5%, respectively. Pooled DR for the primary lesion was 81% (95%CI: 65-90%) and 92% (95%CI: 80-97%), respectively, at patient-based and lesion-based analysis. In conclusion, SSR-PET/CT has high DR and diagnostic performances for primary lesion and initial staging of pNETs.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiomic features are increasingly utilized to evaluate tumor heterogeneity in PET imaging but to date its role has not been investigated for Cho-PET in prostate cancer. The potential application of radiomics features analysis using a machine-learning radiomics algorithm was evaluated to select 18F-Cho PET/CT imaging features to predict disease progression in PCa. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed high-risk PCa patients who underwent restaging 18F-Cho PET/CT from November 2013 to May 2018. 18F-Cho PET/CT studies and related structures containing volumetric segmentations were imported in the "CGITA" toolbox to extract imaging features from each lesion. A Machine-learning model has been adapted using NCA for feature selection, while DA was used as a method for feature classification and performance analysis. RESULTS: 106 imaging features were extracted for 46 lesions for a total of 4876 features analyzed. No significant differences between the training and validating sets in terms of age, sex, PSA values, lesion location and size (p > 0.05) were demonstrated by the machine-learning model. Thirteen features were able to discriminate FU disease status after NCA selection. Best performance in DA classification was obtained using the combination of the 13 selected features (sensitivity 74%, specificity 58% and accuracy 66%) compared to the use of all features (sensitivity 40%, specificity 52%, and accuracy 51%). Per-site performance of the 13 selected features in DA classification were as follow: T= sensitivity 63%, specificity 83%, accuracy 71%; N= sensitivity 87%, specificity 91% of and accuracy 90%; bone-M= sensitivity 33%, specificity 77% and accuracy 66%. CONCLUSIONS: An artificial intelligence model demonstrated to be feasible and able to select a panel of 18F-Cho PET/CT features with valuable association with PCa patients' outcome.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...