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1.
Vet Microbiol ; 247: 108798, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768239

RESUMO

Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common Yersinia species causing foodborne infections in humans. Pathogenic strains carry the chromosomal ail gene, which is essential for bacterial attachment to and invasion into host cells and for serum resistance. This gene is commonly amplified in several PCR assays detecting pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in food samples and discriminating pathogenic isolates from non-pathogenic ones. We have isolated several non-pathogenic ail-positive Yersinia strains from various sources in Finland. For this study, we selected 16 ail-positive Yersinia strains, which were phenotypically and genotypically characterised. Eleven strains were confirmed to belong to Y. enterocolitica and five strains to Yersinia kristensenii using whole-genome alignment, Parsnp and the SNP phylogenetic tree. All Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to non-pathogenic biotype 1A. We found two copies of the ail gene (ail1 and ail2) in all five Y. kristensenii strains and in one Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strain. All 16 Yersinia strains carried the ail1 gene consisting of three different sequence patterns (A6-A8), which were highly similar with the ail gene found in high-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica biotype 1B strains (A2). The Ail protein encoded by the ail1 gene was highly conserved compared to the Ail protein encoded by the ail2 gene. Multiple sequence alignment of the ail gene and Ail protein were conducted with MAFF. In total, 10 ail sequence variations have been identified, of which 8 conserved ones belonged to the ail1 gene. According to our results, the detection of ail alone is not sufficient to predict the pathogenicity of Yersinia isolates.

2.
Food Microbiol ; 78: 82-88, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497611

RESUMO

Hunting is currently a very popular activity, and interest in game meat is increasing. However, only limited research is available on the bacterial quality and safety of moose (Alces alces) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested by hunters. Poor hunting hygiene can spread bacteria onto the carcasses, and inadequate chilling of the carcasses may increase the bacterial load on the carcass surface. We studied the bacterial contamination level on carcasses of 100 moose and 100 white-tailed deer shot in southern Finland. Hunters eviscerated carcasses in the field and skinned them in small slaughter facilities. During the sampling, same person visited 25 facilities located in 12 municipalities of four provinces. Moose carcasses had mean mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), Enterobacteriaceae (EB) and Escherichia coli (EC) values of 4.2, 2.6 and 1.2 log10 cfu/cm2, respectively, while deer carcass values were 4.5, 1.5 and 0.7 log10 cfu/cm2, respectively. Moose carcasses were significantly more contaminated with EB and EC than deer carcasses. High bacterial counts (MAB>5.0 log10 cfu/cm2 and EB > 2.5 log10 cfu/cm2) on the carcasses were associated with the smallest facilities having only one room. The outdoor temperature and days between hunting and sampling affected the bacterial counts. High EB counts on the carcasses indicated a gut hit. Male gender was significantly more contaminated by EC and meat-borne pathogenic bacteria: Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., enteropathogenic Yersinia spp., stx-harbouring EC (STEC) and Listeria monocytogenes. STEC (28/200) and L. monocytogenes (20/200) were the most commonly detected bacteria by PCR. L. monocytogenes isolates of different sequence types (ST7, 18, 29, 37, 249, 412, 451 and 611) belonged to serotypes 1/2a (seven isolates) and 4b (three isolates). The virulence gene ail was detected in four Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A isolates and one Yersinia kristensenii isolate. The bacterial counts on the moose and deer carcasses varied highly, and more attention should be paid to hunting hygiene and training of hunters. Game meat may be a source of meat-borne pathogens, and close attention should therefore be paid when handling and preparing game.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana/estatística & dados numéricos , Cervos/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Carga Bacteriana/métodos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Feminino , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Sorogrupo , Yersinia enterocolitica/isolamento & purificação
3.
Ecohealth ; 15(1): 209-227, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330676

RESUMO

Having gained momentum in the last decade, the One Health initiative promotes a holistic approach to address complex global health issues. Before recommending its adoption to stakeholders, however, it is paramount to first compile quantitative evidence of the benefit of such an approach. The aim of this scoping review was to identify and summarize primary research that describes monetary and non-monetary outcomes following adoption of a One Health approach. An extensive literature search yielded a total of 42,167 references, of which 85 were included in the final analysis. The top two biotic health issues addressed in these studies were rabies and malaria; the top abiotic health issue was air pollution. Most studies described collaborations between human and animal (n = 42), or human and environmental disciplines (n = 41); commonly reported interventions included vector control and animal vaccination. Monetary outcomes were commonly expressed as cost-benefit or cost-utility ratios; non-monetary outcomes were described using disease frequency or disease burden measurements. The majority of the studies reported positive or partially positive outcomes. This paper illustrates the variety of health challenges that can be addressed using a One Health approach, and provides tangible quantitative measures that can be used to evaluate future implementations of the One Health approach.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental/organização & administração , Saúde Única , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Saúde Ambiental/economia , Saúde Ambiental/normas , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Relações Interprofissionais , Pesquisa/normas
4.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 17(5): 303-311, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332937

RESUMO

Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are important zoonotic bacteria causing human enteric yersiniosis commonly reported in Europe. All Y. pseudotuberculosis strains are considered pathogenic, while Y. enterocolitica include both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains which can be divided into six biotypes (1A, 1B, and 2-5) and about 30 serotypes. The most common types causing yersiniosis in Europe are Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9. Strains belonging to biotype 1A are considered as nonpathogenic because they are missing important virulence genes like the attachment-invasion-locus (ail) gene in the chromosome and the virulence plasmid. The role of wild small mammals as a reservoir of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. is still obscure. In this study, the presence of Yersinia spp. was examined from 1840 wild small mammals, including voles, mice, and shrews, trapped in Finland during a 7-year period. We isolated seven Yersinia species. Y. enterocolitica was the most common species, isolated from 8% of the animals; while most of these isolates represented nonpathogenic biotype 1A, human pathogenic bioserotype 2/O:9 was also isolated from a field vole. Y. pseudotuberculosis of bioserotype 1/O:2 was isolated from two shrews. The ail gene, which is typically only found in the isolates of biotypes 1B and 2-5 associated with yersiniosis, was frequently (23%) detected in the nonpathogenic isolates of biotype 1A and sporadically (6%) in Yersinia kristensenii isolates. Our results suggest that wild small mammals, especially voles, may serve as carriers for ail-positive Y. enterocolitica 1A and Y. kristensenii. We also demonstrate that voles and shrews sporadically excrete pYV-positive Y. enterocolitica 2/O:9 and Y. pseudotuberculosis 1/O:2, respectively, in their feces and, thus, can serve as a contamination source for vegetables by contaminating the soil.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Roedores , Musaranhos/microbiologia , Yersiniose/veterinária , Yersinia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Yersinia/classificação , Yersiniose/epidemiologia , Yersiniose/microbiologia
5.
Vet Microbiol ; 197: 78-82, 2016 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27938687

RESUMO

Yersinia enterocolitica is a heterogeneous species including non-pathogenic strains belonging to biotype 1A and pathogenic strains belonging to biotypes 1B and 2-5. Pathogenic strains of biotypes 2-4 carrying the ail virulence gene have frequently been isolated from domestic pigs at slaughter. In sheep, mostly non-pathogenic biotype 1A strains have been reported. In our study, the prevalence of ail-positive Y. enterocolitica was studied by PCR and culturing in 406 young sheep (<1year of age) and 139 older sheep at slaughter in Finland. When using PCR, the detection rate was 11% (45/406) in young sheep originating from 11 (18%) farms. Surprisingly, Y. enterocolitica belonging to bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 5/O:3, carrying both chromosomal and plasmid-borne virulence genes, were isolated from the fecal samples of 10 (2%) and 23 (4%) sheep, respectively. All isolates of bioserotypes 2/O:9 (19 isolates) and 5/O:3 (53 isolates) carried the chromosomal virulence genes ail, inv, ystA, and myfA, and almost all isolates (71/72) also carried the virulence genes virF and yadA located on the virulence plasmid. The isolates showed high susceptibility to tested antimicrobials and low genetic diversity by PFGE. Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 5/O:3 is a very rare bioserotype, and has earlier only sporadically been reported in European wildlife and in sheep in Australia and New Zealand. Bioserotype 2/O:9 is a common bioserotype found in humans with yersiniosis, and has sporadically been isolated in wild and domestic animals.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Sorogrupo , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Yersiniose/veterinária , Yersinia enterocolitica , Animais , Portador Sadio , Ovinos , Yersiniose/microbiologia , Yersinia enterocolitica/genética
6.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 13(6): 289-95, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26990517

RESUMO

A total of 253 multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) types among 634 isolates were discovered while studying the genetic diversity of porcine Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates from eight different European countries. Six variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci V2A, V4, V5, V6, V7, and V9 were used to study the isolates from 82 farms in Belgium (n = 93, 7 farms), England (n = 41, 8 farms), Estonia (n = 106, 12 farms), Finland (n = 70, 13 farms), Italy (n = 111, 20 farms), Latvia (n = 66, 3 farms), Russia (n = 60, 10 farms), and Spain (n = 87, 9 farms). Cluster analysis revealed mainly country-specific clusters, and only one MLVA type consisting of two isolates was found from two countries: Russia and Italy. Also, farm-specific clusters were discovered, but same MLVA types could also be found from different farms. Analysis of multiple isolates originating either from the same tonsils (n = 4) or from the same farm, but 6 months apart, revealed both identical and different MLVA types. MLVA showed a very good discriminatory ability with a Simpson's discriminatory index (DI) of 0.989. DIs for VNTR loci V2A, V4, V5, V6, V7, and V9 were 0.916, 0.791, 0.901, 0.877, 0.912, and 0.785, respectively, when studying all isolates together, but variation was evident between isolates originating from different countries. Locus V4 in the Spanish isolates and locus V9 in the Latvian isolates did not differentiate (DI 0.000), and locus V9 in the English isolates showed very low discriminatory power (DI 0.049). The porcine Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were diverse, but the variation in DI demonstrates that the well discriminating loci V2A, V5, V6, and V7 should be included in MLVA protocol when maximal discriminatory power is needed.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Variação Genética , Repetições Minissatélites , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Yersiniose/veterinária , Yersinia enterocolitica/genética , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Carne , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Yersiniose/epidemiologia , Yersinia enterocolitica/classificação , Yersinia enterocolitica/isolamento & purificação
7.
Food Microbiol ; 43: 50-2, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24929882

RESUMO

Samples from pork cuts for minced meat and cheeks from processing plants and a slaughterhouse, and modified atmosphere (MA) packaged pork from retail were studied to estimate the prevalence of pathogenic, i.e. virulence plasmid bearing, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pork, as well as to quantify pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in pork cuts. Pathogenic (virF-positive) Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 17 pig cheeks (23%) but not from any of the MA-packaged 54 retail pork samples and only from one of the 155 pork cut (0.6%). Most (16/17) of the cheek samples were contaminated with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and one with bioserotype 2/O:9. No Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. The prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was clearly higher (39%) in 155 pork cuts when studied with nested PCR targeting yadA on the virulence plasmid pYV although the contamination level was low varying between 0.1 and 1.6 MPN/g. Raw pork cuts and especially pig cheeks may serve as possible sources for yersiniosis caused by pathogenic Y. enterocolitica.


Assuntos
Bochecha/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Yersiniose/veterinária , Yersinia enterocolitica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Carne/microbiologia , Suínos , Yersiniose/microbiologia , Yersinia enterocolitica/classificação , Yersinia enterocolitica/genética , Yersinia enterocolitica/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(18): 6768-73, 2014 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24753568

RESUMO

The genus Yersinia has been used as a model system to study pathogen evolution. Using whole-genome sequencing of all Yersinia species, we delineate the gene complement of the whole genus and define patterns of virulence evolution. Multiple distinct ecological specializations appear to have split pathogenic strains from environmental, nonpathogenic lineages. This split demonstrates that contrary to hypotheses that all pathogenic Yersinia species share a recent common pathogenic ancestor, they have evolved independently but followed parallel evolutionary paths in acquiring the same virulence determinants as well as becoming progressively more limited metabolically. Shared virulence determinants are limited to the virulence plasmid pYV and the attachment invasion locus ail. These acquisitions, together with genomic variations in metabolic pathways, have resulted in the parallel emergence of related pathogens displaying an increasingly specialized lifestyle with a spectrum of virulence potential, an emerging theme in the evolution of other important human pathogens.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Virulência/genética , Yersinia/genética , Yersinia/patogenicidade , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Yersinia/metabolismo , Yersinia enterocolitica/genética , Yersinia enterocolitica/metabolismo , Yersinia enterocolitica/patogenicidade
9.
Res Vet Sci ; 94(2): 209-13, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23102547

RESUMO

The prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pigs at farms and slaughter in relation to potential farming risk factors in Lithuania was examined. Pig faeces and carcase swab samples from 11 farms were studied at slaughterhouses. Nine of the 11 farms were visited again 3-5 months later, and pooled feacal samples and environmental samples were collected. Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was found in 64% and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in 45% of the sampled pig farms. All obtained isolates belonged to bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:3, respectively. Low biosecurity level was associated with a high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica on farms. Characterization with PFGE of 64 Y. enterocolitica and 27 Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates revealed seven and two different genotypes, respectively. Dominant enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. genotypes were obtained in both pig feacal and carcase samples. The high contamination of pig carcases (25%) with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. may be an important factor contributing to the high incidence of human yersiniosis in Lithuania.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Yersiniose/veterinária , Yersinia/genética , Animais , Variação Genética , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Yersiniose/epidemiologia , Yersiniose/microbiologia
10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 78(8): 3000-3, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22307302

RESUMO

To study the origin and spread of Yersinia enterocolitica among pigs, fecal and blood samples were repeatedly taken on a fattening farm. A few piglets were found to be already infected on breeding farms. After the piglets were mixed, the infection spread through the whole unit. Eventually, all the pigs excreted the pathogen.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Yersiniose/veterinária , Yersinia enterocolitica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Sangue/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Repetições Minissatélites , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem Molecular , Yersiniose/epidemiologia , Yersiniose/microbiologia
11.
Environ Microbiol ; 13(12): 3114-27, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21951486

RESUMO

Multilocus sequence analysis of 417 strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis revealed that it is a complex of four populations, three of which have been previously assigned species status [Y. pseudotuberculosis sensu stricto (s.s.), Yersinia pestis and Yersinia similis] and a fourth population, which we refer to as the Korean group, which may be in the process of speciation. We detected clear signs of recombination within Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. as well as imports from Y. similis and the Korean group. The sources of genetic diversification within Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. were approximately equally divided between recombination and mutation, whereas recombination has not yet been demonstrated in Y. pestis, which is also much more genetically monomorphic than is Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. Most Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. belong to a diffuse group of sequence types lacking clear population structure, although this species contains a melibiose-negative clade that is present globally in domesticated animals. Yersinia similis corresponds to the previously identified Y. pseudotuberculosis genetic type G4, which is probably not pathogenic because it lacks the virulence factors that are typical for Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. In contrast, Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s., the Korean group and Y. pestis can all cause disease in humans.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Recombinação Genética , Yersinia pestis/classificação , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/classificação , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Mutação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Yersinia pestis/genética , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/genética
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