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1.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595946

RESUMO

We used differences in state school policies as natural experiments to evaluate the joint influence of educational quantity and quality on late-life physical and mental health. Using US census microsample data, historical measures of state compulsory schooling and school quality (term length, student-teacher ratio, and attendance rates) were combined via regression modeling on a scale corresponding to years of education (Policy Predicted Years of Education [PPYEd]). PPYEd values were linked to individual-level records for 8,920 black and 14,605 white participants aged 45+ in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study (2003-2007). Linear and quantile regression models estimated the association between PPYEd and Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) from the Short Form Health Survey. Models examined interactions by race and included adjustment for sex, birth year, state-of-residence at age 6, and year of study enrollment. Higher PPYEd was associated with better median PCS (ß=1.28; 95%CI: 0.40,1.49) and possibly better median MCS (ß=0.46; 95%CI:-0.01,0.94). Effect estimates were higher in blacks than whites (PCS x race interaction-ß=0.22; 95%CI:-0.62,1.05) (MCS x race interaction-ß=0.18; 95%CI:-0.08,0.44). When incorporating both school quality and duration, this quasi-experimental analysis found mixed evidence for a causal effect of education on health decades later.

2.
Am J Hypertens ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a handful of genetic discovery efforts in apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) have been described. METHODS: We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) of aTRH among persons treated for hypertension, using data from 10 cohorts of European ancestry (EA) and 5 cohorts of African ancestry (AA). Cases were treated with 3 different antihypertensive medication classes and had blood pressure (BP) above goal (systolic (SBP)≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic (DBP)≥90 mm Hg) or 4 or more medication classes regardless of BP control (nEA =931, nAA= 228). Both a normotensive control group and a treatment-responsive control group were considered in separate analyses. Normotensive controls were untreated (nEA = 14210, nAA= 2480) and had SBP/DBP <140/90 mm Hg. Treatment-responsive controls (nEA = 5266, nAA= 1817) had BP at goal (<140/90 mm Hg) while treated with one antihypertensive medication class. Individual cohorts used logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, study site and principal components for ancestry to examine the association of SNPs with case-control status. Inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analyses were carried out using METAL. RESULTS: The known hypertension locus, CASZ1, was a top finding among EAs (P=1.1*10-8) and in the race-combined analysis (P=1.5*10-9) using the normotensive control group (rs12046278 OR=0.71[95% CI 0.6-0.8]). SNPs in this locus were robustly replicated in the Million Veterans Program (MVP) study in consideration of a treatment-responsive control group. There were no statistically significant findings for the discovery analyses including treatment-responsive controls. CONCLUSION: This genomic discovery effort for aTRH identified CASZ1 as an aTRH risk locus.

3.
Neurology ; 93(15): e1425-e1432, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) can predate the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD), associations with underlying PD pathogenesis are unknown. Our objective is to determine if EDS is related to brain Lewy pathology (LP), a marker of PD pathogenesis, using clinical assessments of EDS with postmortem follow-up. METHODS: Identification of LP was based on staining for α-synuclein in multiple brain regions in a sample of 211 men. Data on EDS were collected at clinical examinations from 1991 to 1999 when participants were aged 72-97 years. RESULTS: Although EDS was more common in the presence vs absence of LP (p = 0.034), the association became stronger in neocortical regions. When LP was limited to the olfactory bulb, brainstem, and basal forebrain (Braak stages 1-4), frequency of EDS was 10% (4/40) vs 17.5% (20/114) in decedents without LP (p = 0.258). In contrast, compared to the absence of LP, EDS frequency doubled (36.7% [11/30], p = 0.023) when LP reached the anterior cingulate gyrus, insula mesocortex, and midfrontal, midtemporal, and inferior parietal neocortex (Braak stage 5). With further infiltration into the primary motor and sensory neocortices (Braak stage 6), EDS frequency increased threefold (51.9% [14/27], p < 0.001). Findings were similar across sleep-related features and persisted after adjustment for age and other covariates, including the removal of PD and dementia with Lewy bodies. CONCLUSIONS: The association between EDS and PD includes relationships with extensive topographic LP expansion. The neocortex could be especially vulnerable to adverse relationships between sleep disorders and aggregation of misfolded α-synuclein and LP formation.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3669, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413261

RESUMO

Human longevity is heritable, but genome-wide association (GWA) studies have had limited success. Here, we perform two meta-analyses of GWA studies of a rigorous longevity phenotype definition including 11,262/3484 cases surviving at or beyond the age corresponding to the 90th/99th survival percentile, respectively, and 25,483 controls whose age at death or at last contact was at or below the age corresponding to the 60th survival percentile. Consistent with previous reports, rs429358 (apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4) is associated with lower odds of surviving to the 90th and 99th percentile age, while rs7412 (ApoE ε2) shows the opposite. Moreover, rs7676745, located near GPR78, associates with lower odds of surviving to the 90th percentile age. Gene-level association analysis reveals a role for tissue-specific expression of multiple genes in longevity. Finally, genetic correlation of the longevity GWA results with that of several disease-related phenotypes points to a shared genetic architecture between health and longevity.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221474, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The debate whether "asymptomatic hyperuricemia" should be treated is still ongoing. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze whether hyperuricema in the elderly is associated with joint pain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants in the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study (males 2195, females 2975, mean age 76(6)) answered standardized questions about joint pain. In addition they recorded intermittent hand joint pain by marking a diagram of the hand. In males, no association was found between hyperuricemia and pain. Females however, showed a positive association between hyperuricemia and joint pain at many sites. After adjustment for age, BMI and hand osteoarthritis however, only intermittent hand joint pain (OR 1.30(1.07-1.58), p = 0.008) and intermittent pain in ≥10 hand joints (OR 1.75(1.32-2.31), p<0.001) remained significant. The best model for describing the relationship between serum uric acid levels (SUA) and intermittent hand joint pain in ≥10 joints was non-linear with a cut-off at 372 µmol/L. The attributable surplus number of symptomatic females with SUA ≥372 µmol/L was approximately 2.0% of the study population for those reporting pain in ≥10 hand joints. Next after having severe hand osteoarthritis, SUA ≥372 was an independent predictive factor of intermittent pain in ≥10 hand joints. Intermittent hand joint pain was also an independent risk factor for worse general health description. CONCLUSION: Results from this population based study indicate that hyperuricemia in elderly females may be a rather frequent cause of intermittent hand joint pain, often in many joints. The most likely explanation relates to low-grade urate crystal induced inflammation. Our data do not allow for assessment of the severity of symptoms or whether they merit specific treatment, but intermittent hand joint pain was an independent predictor of worse general health. These findings may be an important contribution to the debate on whether hyperuricemia should be treated.

6.
Lancet Neurol ; 18(10): 906-908, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444143
7.
JAMA ; 322(6): 524-534, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408137

RESUMO

Importance: The effect of intensive blood pressure lowering on brain health remains uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the association of intensive blood pressure treatment with cerebral white matter lesion and brain volumes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A substudy of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of hypertensive adults 50 years or older without a history of diabetes or stroke at 27 sites in the United States. Randomization began on November 8, 2010. The overall trial was stopped early because of benefit for its primary outcome (a composite of cardiovascular events) and all-cause mortality on August 20, 2015. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a subset of participants at baseline (n = 670) and at 4 years of follow-up (n = 449); final follow-up date was July 1, 2016. Interventions: Participants were randomized to a systolic blood pressure (SBP) goal of either less than 120 mm Hg (intensive treatment, n = 355) or less than 140 mm Hg (standard treatment, n = 315). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in total white matter lesion volume from baseline. Change in total brain volume was a secondary outcome. Results: Among 670 recruited patients who had baseline MRI (mean age, 67.3 [SD, 8.2] years; 40.4% women), 449 (67.0%) completed the follow-up MRI at a median of 3.97 years after randomization, after a median intervention period of 3.40 years. In the intensive treatment group, based on a robust linear mixed model, mean white matter lesion volume increased from 4.57 to 5.49 cm3 (difference, 0.92 cm3 [95% CI, 0.69 to 1.14]) vs an increase from 4.40 to 5.85 cm3 (difference, 1.45 cm3 [95% CI, 1.21 to 1.70]) in the standard treatment group (between-group difference in change, -0.54 cm3 [95% CI, -0.87 to -0.20]). Mean total brain volume decreased from 1134.5 to 1104.0 cm3 (difference, -30.6 cm3 [95% CI, -32.3 to -28.8]) in the intensive treatment group vs a decrease from 1134.0 to 1107.1 cm3 (difference, -26.9 cm3 [95% CI, 24.8 to 28.8]) in the standard treatment group (between-group difference in change, -3.7 cm3 [95% CI, -6.3 to -1.1]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among hypertensive adults, targeting an SBP of less than 120 mm Hg, compared with less than 140 mm Hg, was significantly associated with a smaller increase in cerebral white matter lesion volume and a greater decrease in total brain volume, although the differences were small. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01206062.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Substância Branca/patologia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Fatores de Risco
8.
Neurology ; 93(7): e688-e694, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We used magnetization transfer imaging to assess white matter tissue integrity in migraine, to explore whether white matter microstructure was more diffusely affected beyond visible white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), and to explore whether focal invisible microstructural changes precede visible focal WMHs in migraineurs. METHODS: We included 137 migraineurs (79 with aura, 58 without aura) and 74 controls from the Cerebral Abnormalities in Migraine, an Epidemiological Risk Analysis (CAMERA) study, a longitudinal population-based study on structural brain lesions in migraine patients, who were scanned at baseline and at a 9-year follow-up. To assess microstructural brain tissue integrity, baseline magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) values were calculated for whole brain white matter. Baseline MTR values were determined for areas of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) that had progressed into MRI-detectable WMHs at follow-up and compared to MTR values of contralateral NAWM. RESULTS: MTR values for whole brain white matter did not differ between migraineurs and controls. In migraineurs, but not in controls, NAWM that later progressed to WMHs at follow-up had lower mean MTR (mean [SD] 0.354 [0.009] vs 0.356 [0.008], p = 0.047) at baseline as compared to contralateral white matter. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence for widespread microstructural white matter changes in migraineurs compared to controls. However, our findings suggest that a gradual or stepwise process might be responsible for evolution of focal invisible microstructural changes into focal migraine-related visible WMHs.

9.
Cancer ; 125(16): 2877-2885, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Cancer Research Fund classifies as "strong evidence" the link between obesity and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. In light of the different hormonal profiles associated with where adipose is stored, this study investigated the role of objectively measured body fat distribution and the risk of clinically relevant prostate cancer. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 1832 men in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik study. From 2002 to 2006, participants underwent baseline computed tomography imaging of fat deposition, bioelectric impedance analysis, and measurement of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Men were followed through linkage with nationwide cancer registries for the incidence of total (n = 172), high-grade (Gleason grade ≥8; n = 43), advanced (≥cT3b/N1/M1 at diagnosis or fatal prostate cancer over follow-up; n = 41), and fatal prostate cancer (n = 31) through 2015. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between adiposity measures and prostate cancer outcomes. RESULTS: Among all men, visceral fat (hazard ratio [HR], 1.31 per 1-standard deviation [SD] increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.72) and thigh subcutaneous fat (HR, 1.37 per 1-SD increase; 95% CI, 1.00-1.88) were associated with risk of advanced and fatal disease, respectively. Among men who were leaner based on BMI, visceral fat was associated with both advanced and fatal disease. BMI and waist circumference were associated with a higher risk of advanced and fatal disease. No adiposity measures were associated with total or high-grade disease. CONCLUSIONS: Specific fat depots as well as BMI and waist circumference were associated with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, which may help to elucidate underlying mechanisms and target intervention strategies.

10.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107514

RESUMO

Importance: It is uncertain whether unrecognized myocardial infarction (MI) is a risk factor for cerebral infarction. Objective: To determine whether unrecognized MI detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with cerebral infarction. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a cross-sectional study of ICELAND MI, a cohort substudy of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study conducted in Iceland. Enrollment occurred from January 2004 to January 2007 from a community-dwelling cohort of older Icelandic individuals. Participants aged 67 to 93 years who underwent both brain MRI and late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI were included. Data analysis was performed from September 2018 to March 2019. Exposures: Unrecognized MI identified by cardiac MRI. Main Outcomes and Measures: Unrecognized MI was defined as cardiac MRI evidence of MI without a history of clinically evident MI. Recognized MI was defined as cardiac MRI evidence of MI with a history of clinically evident MI. Cerebral infarctions on brain MRI were included regardless of associated symptoms. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between MI status (no MI, unrecognized MI, or recognized MI) and cerebral infarction after adjustment for demographic factors and vascular risk factors. In addition, we evaluated the association between unrecognized MI and embolic infarcts of undetermined source. Results: Five enrolled participants had nondiagnostic brain MRI studies and were excluded. Among 925 participants, 480 (51.9%) were women; the mean (SD) age was 75.9 (5.3) years. There were 221 participants (23.9%) with cardiac MRI evidence of MI, of whom 68 had recognized MI and 153 unrecognized MI. There were 308 participants (33.3%) with brain MRI evidence of cerebral infarction; 93 (10.0%) had embolic infarcts of undetermined source. After adjustment for demographic factors and vascular risk factors, the likelihood (odds ratio) of having cerebral infarction was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.2-3.4; P = .01) for recognized MI and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.02-2.2; P = .04) for unrecognized MI. After adjustment for demographics and vascular risk factors, unrecognized MI was also associated with embolic infarcts of undetermined source (odds ratio, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.1-3.5]; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In a population-based sample, we found an association between unrecognized MI and cerebral infarction. These findings suggest that unrecognized MI may be a novel risk factor for cardiac embolism and cerebral infarction.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the association of baseline left atrial (LA) phasic function measured with cardia magnetic resonance (CMR) and incident ischemic cerebrovascular events (CVE). BACKGROUND: LA remodeling is a known predictor of atrial fibrillation (AF), which is a risk factor for ischemic CVE. Despite studies showing an association between LA remodeling and ischemic CVE, the association of LA mechanical function with ischemic CVE in a population free of known cardiovascular disease is not fully studied. METHODS: Phasic LA volumes; total, passive, and active LA emptying fractions (LAEF); and peak longitudinal LA strain were measured using feature-tracking CMR in 4,261 MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) participants (61 ± 10 years of age; 48% male). All individuals were free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline. Participants were followed for 11.6 ± 3.5 years for the diagnosis of incident ischemic CVE, defined as ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack adjudicated by vascular neurologists. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 193 (1.26 per 1,000 person-years) ischemic CVE (134 ischemic strokes and 59 TIAs) occurred. Individuals with incident ischemic CVE had larger LA volumes and lower passive, active, and total LAEFs at baseline. In multivariate analysis adjusted for known CVE risk factors, left ventricular mass and interim AF, total LAEF was associated with incident ischemic CVE (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.85 per SD; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74 to 0.98; p = 0.027). The unadjusted HR for the lowest tertile of total LAEF compared to the highest tertile was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.43 to 2.79; p < 0.001), and the adjusted HR was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.04 to 2.05; p = 0.031). Addition of total LAEF to known clinical risk factors of CVE and left ventricular mass resulted in an improved predictive accuracy (C statistic of 0.76 vs. 0.73, respectively; p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced total LAEF was associated with incident ischemic CVE independent of known cerebrovascular risk factors and incident AF. Assessment of LA function may add further information in stratifying asymptomatic individuals at risk for ischemic stroke.

12.
J Sports Sci ; 37(15): 1746-1754, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929574

RESUMO

Dynamic sitting, such as fidgeting and desk work, might be associated with health, but remains difficult to identify out of accelerometry data. We examined, in a laboratory study, whether dynamic sitting can be identified out of triaxial activity counts. Among 18 participants (56% men, 27.3 ± 6.5 years), up to 236 counts per minute were recorded in the anteroposterior and mediolateral axes during dynamic sitting using a hip-worn accelerometer. Subsequently, we examined in 621 participants (38% men, 80.0 ± 4.7 years) from the AGES-Reykjavik Study whether dynamic sitting was associated with cardio-metabolic health. Compared to participants who recorded the fewest dynamic sitting minutes (Q1), those with more dynamic sitting minutes had a lower BMI (Q2 = -1.39 (95%CI = -2.33;-0.46); Q3 = -1.87 (-2.82;-0.92); Q4 = -3.38 (-4.32;-2.45)), a smaller waist circumference (Q2 = -2.95 (-5.44;-0.46); Q3 = -3.47 (-6.01;-0.93); Q4 = -8.21 (-10.72;-5.71)), and a lower odds for the metabolic syndrome (Q2 = 0.74 [0.45;1.20] Q3 = 0.58 [0.36;0.95]; Q4 = 0.36 [0.22;0.59]). Our findings suggest that dynamic sitting might be identified using accelerometry and that this behaviour was associated with health. This might be important given the large amounts of time people spend sitting. Future studies with a focus on validation, causation and physiological pathways are needed to further examine the possible relevance of dynamic sitting.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Metabolismo Energético , Exercício/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Postura Sentada , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
13.
Brain ; 142(4): 1009-1023, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859180

RESUMO

We report a composite extreme phenotype design using distribution of white matter hyperintensities and brain infarcts in a population-based cohort of older persons for gene-mapping of cerebral small vessel disease. We demonstrate its application in the 3C-Dijon whole exome sequencing (WES) study (n = 1924, nWESextremes = 512), with both single variant and gene-based association tests. We used other population-based cohort studies participating in the CHARGE consortium for replication, using whole exome sequencing (nWES = 2,868, nWESextremes = 956) and genome-wide genotypes (nGW = 9924, nGWextremes = 3308). We restricted our study to candidate genes known to harbour mutations for Mendelian small vessel disease: NOTCH3, HTRA1, COL4A1, COL4A2 and TREX1. We identified significant associations of a common intronic variant in HTRA1, rs2293871 using single variant association testing (Pdiscovery = 8.21 × 10-5, Preplication = 5.25 × 10-3, Pcombined = 4.72 × 10-5) and of NOTCH3 using gene-based tests (Pdiscovery = 1.61 × 10-2, Preplication = 3.99 × 10-2, Pcombined = 5.31 × 10-3). Follow-up analysis identified significant association of rs2293871 with small vessel ischaemic stroke, and two blood expression quantitative trait loci of HTRA1 in linkage disequilibrium. Additionally, we identified two participants in the 3C-Dijon cohort (0.4%) carrying heterozygote genotypes at known pathogenic variants for familial small vessel disease within NOTCH3 and HTRA1. In conclusion, our proof-of-concept study provides strong evidence that using a novel composite MRI-derived phenotype for extremes of small vessel disease can facilitate the identification of genetic variants underlying small vessel disease, both common variants and those with rare and low frequency. The findings demonstrate shared mechanisms and a continuum between genes underlying Mendelian small vessel disease and those contributing to the common, multifactorial form of the disease.

14.
Hypertension ; 73(5): 998-1006, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905192

RESUMO

Animal models support a role for the gut microbiota in the development of hypertension. There has been a lack of epidemiological cohort studies to confirm these findings in human populations. We examined cross-sectional associations between measures of gut microbial diversity and taxonomic composition and blood pressure (BP) in 529 participants of the biracial (black and white) CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults). We sequenced V3-V4 regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA marker gene using DNA extracted from stool samples collected at CARDIA's Year 30 follow-up examination (2015-2016; aged 48-60 years). We quantified associations between BP (hypertension [defined as systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg or antihypertension medication use] and systolic BP) and within and between-person diversity measures. We conducted genera-specific multivariable-adjusted regression analysis, accounting for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate. Hypertension and systolic BP were inversely associated with measures of α-diversity, including richness and the Shannon Diversity Index, and were distinguished with respect to principal coordinates based on a similarity matrix of genera abundance. Several specific genera were significantly associated with hypertension and systolic BP, though results were attenuated with adjustment for body mass index. Our findings support associations between within-person and between-person gut microbial community diversity and taxonomic composition and BP in a diverse population-based cohort of middle-aged adults. Future study is needed to define functional pathways that underlie observed associations and identify specific microbial targets for intervention.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 78, 2019 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741945

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking has been associated with dementia and dementia-related brain changes, notably gray matter (GM) volume atrophy. These associations are thought to reflect the co-morbidity of smoking and vascular, respiratory, and substance use/psychological conditions. However, the extent and localization of the smoking-GM relationship and the degree to which vascular, respiratory, and substance use/psychological factors influence this relationship remain unclear. In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults CARDIA cohort (n = 698; 52% women; 40% black participants; age = 50.3 (SD = 3.5)), we examined the associations of smoking status with total GM volume and GM volume of brain regions linked to neurocognitive and addiction disorders. Linear regression models were used to adjust for vascular, respiratory, and substance use/psychological factors and to examine whether they modify the smoking-GM relationship. Compared to never-smokers, current smokers had smaller total GM volume (-8.86 cm3 (95%CI = -13.44, -4.29). Adjustment for substance use/psychological - but not vascular or respiratory - factors substantially attenuated this association (coefficients = -5.54 (95% CI = -10.32, -0.76); -8.33 (95% CI = -12.94, -3.72); -7.69 (95% CI = -6.95, -4.21), respectively). There was an interaction between smoking and alcohol use such that among alcohol non-users, smoking was not related to GM volumes and among alcohol users, those who currently smoked had -12 cm3 smaller total GM, specifically in the frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, cingulate, and insula. Results suggest a large-magnitude association between smoking and smaller GM volume at middle age, accounting for vascular, respiratory, and substance use/psychological factors, and that the association was strongest in alcohol users. Regions suggested to be most vulnerable are those where cognition and addiction processes overlap.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/patologia
16.
Neurology ; 92(10): e1086-e1097, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated differences in the anatomical distribution of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) on MRI, hypothesized to indicate the type of underlying cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), between Eastern and Western general populations. METHODS: We analyzed data from 11 studies identified by a PubMed search between 1996 and April 2014 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data. Study quality measures indicated low or medium risk of bias. We included stroke-free participants from populations aged between 55 and 75 years, categorized by geographic location (Eastern or Western). We categorized CMB distribution (strictly lobar, deep and/or infratentorial [D/I], or mixed [i.e., CMBs located in both lobar and D/I regions]). We tested the hypothesis that Eastern and Western populations have different anatomical distributions of CMBs using multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and hypertension and clustering by institution. RESULTS: Among 8,595 stroke-free individuals (mean age [SD] 66.7 [5.6] years; 48% male; 42% from a Western population), 624 (7.3%) had CMBs (strictly lobar in 3.1%; D/I or mixed in 4.2%). In multivariable mixed effects models, Eastern populations had higher odds of D/I or mixed CMBs (adjusted odds ratio 2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.77-4.35) compared to Western populations. Eastern populations had a higher number of D/I or mixed CMBs (adjusted prevalence ratio 2.83, 95% CI 1.27-6.31). CONCLUSIONS: Eastern and Western general populations have different anatomical distributions of CMBs, suggesting differences in the spectrum of predominant underlying SVDs, with potential implications for SVD diagnosis and treatment.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated whether carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is associated with measures of cerebral blood flow (CBF), white matter hyperintensities and brain volume in a bi-racial cohort of middle-aged individuals. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional cohort study based on data from a multicenter, population-based study Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA). Using linear and logistic regression, we estimated the association of the composite cIMT measured in 3 segments of carotid arteries (common carotid artery, carotid artery bulb and internal carotid artery) with volume (cm3) and CBF (ml/100 g/min) in the total brain and gray matter as well as volume of white matter hyperintensities (cm3). RESULTS: 461 participants (54% women, 34% African Americans) were included in the analysis. Greater cIMT was associated with lower CBF in gray matter (ß=-1.36; p=0.04) and total brain (ß=-1.26; p=0.04), adjusting for age, sex, race, education and total brain volume. The associations became statistically non-significant after further controlling for cardiovascular risk factors. CIMT was not associated with volumes of total brain, gray matter and white matter hyperintensities. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that lower CBF in middle-age is associated with markers of atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. This association may reflect early long-term exposure to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Early intervention on atherosclerotic risk factors may modulate the trajectory of CBF as people age and develop brain pathology.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212293, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether classes of diabetes medications are associated with cognitive health and dementia risk, above and beyond their glycemic control properties. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Findings were pooled from 5 population-based cohorts: the Framingham Heart Study, the Rotterdam Study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, the Aging Gene-Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES) and the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA). Differences between users and non-users of insulin, metformin and sulfonylurea were assessed in each cohort for cognitive and brain MRI measures using linear regression models, and cognitive decline and dementia/AD risk using mixed effect models and Cox regression analyses, respectively. Findings were then pooled using meta-analytic techniques, including 3,590 individuals with diabetes for the prospective analysis. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders including indices of glycemic control, insulin use was associated with increased risk of new-onset dementia (pooled HR (95% CI) = 1.58 (1.18, 2.12);p = 0.002) and with a greater decline in global cognitive function (ß = -0.014±0.007;p = 0.045). The associations with incident dementia remained similar after further adjustment for renal function and excluding persons with diabetes whose treatment was life-style change only. Insulin use was not related to cognitive function nor to brain MRI measures. No significant associations were found between metformin or sulfonylurea use and outcomes of brain function and structure. There was no evidence of significant between-study heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite its advantages in controlling glycemic dysregulation and preventing complications, insulin treatment may be associated with increased adverse cognitive outcomes possibly due to a greater risk of hypoglycemia.

19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(4): 656-663, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657841

RESUMO

Not much is known about brain structural change in younger populations and minorities. The cross-sectional relationship between depressive symptomatology and racial discrimination with structural measures of brain tissue volume was investigated using magnetic resonance images of 710 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults CARDIA Study in 2010. Those reporting depressive symptoms and racial discrimination had lower total brain matter volume compared with those who reported neither (-8.8 mL, 95% confidence interval (CI): -16.4, -1.2), those who reported depressive symptoms only (-10.9 mL, 95% CI: -20.4, -1.4), and those who reported racial discrimination only (-8.6 mL, 95% CI: -16.5, -0.8). Results were similar for total normal white matter. There were 103% higher odds (odds ratio = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.32, 3.14) of being in the highest quartile of white matter hyperintensities in those with depressive symptoms only compared to those without. Although tests for interaction by race were not statistically significant, sensitivity analyses stratified by race revealed inverse associations with total brain matter and total white matter volumes only among black participants with combined depressive symptomatology and experience of racial discrimination, and positive associations only among white participants with depressive symptoms with presence of white matter hyperintensities, suggesting future studies may focus on race.

20.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 7, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipids are implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The relationship between systemic lipids and AMD has not been well characterized. The objective was to investigate the relationship between serum lipids and AMD in older adults using a lipidomic approach. METHODS: In a case-control study, 240 adults, aged ≥66 years, a third each having geographic atrophy, neovascular AMD, or no signs of AMD, were selected from a population-based sample of participants in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. The exposure was serum lipids and risk factors for AMD. The outcome was late AMD, assessed through fundus images taken through dilated pupils using a 45-degree digital camera and grading for neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. RESULTS: Of 177 serum lipid species measured, there were no significant differences in serum lipids between controls and those with geographic atrophy or neovascular AMD, respectively. Adults with neovascular AMD had higher total serum lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (P = 0.004) and serum LPC 18:0 (P = 0.0002) compared to those with geographic atrophy. CONCLUSION: Late AMD was not characterized by alterations in systemic lipids compared with normal controls. These findings suggest that there may be differences in the LPC pathway between adults with neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy.


Assuntos
Atrofia Geográfica/sangue , Degeneração Macular/sangue , Neovascularização Retiniana/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Atrofia Geográfica/diagnóstico , Atrofia Geográfica/patologia , Humanos , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Masculino , Neovascularização Retiniana/diagnóstico , Neovascularização Retiniana/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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