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1.
Biointerphases ; 11(2): 021006, 2016 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27129919

RESUMO

The mechanism of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) inhibition was investigated using ellipsometric measurements of the interaction of MMP-8 with a surface bound peptide inhibitor, tether-metal abstraction peptide (MAP), bound to self-assembled monolayer films. MMP-8 is a collagenase whose activity and dysregulation have been implicated in a number of disease states, including cancer metastasis, diabetic neuropathy, and degradation of biomedical reconstructions, including dental restorations. Regulation of activity of MMP-8 and other matrix metalloproteinases is thus a significant, but challenging, therapeutic target. Strong inhibition of MMP-8 activity has recently been achieved via the small metal binding peptide tether-MAP. Here, the authors elucidate the mechanism of this inhibition and demonstrate that it occurs through the direct interaction of the MAP Tag and the Zn(2+) binding site in the MMP-8 active site. This enhanced understanding of the mechanism of inhibition will allow the design of more potent inhibitors as well as assays important for monitoring critical MMP levels in disease states.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 8 da Matriz/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Coenzimas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Zinco/metabolismo
2.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 44(4): 576-90, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26851242

RESUMO

This symposium summary, sponsored by the ASPET, was held at Experimental Biology 2015 on March 29, 2015, in Boston, Massachusetts. The symposium focused on: 1) the interactions of cytochrome P450s (P450s) with their redox partners; and 2) the role of the lipid membrane in their orientation and stabilization. Two presentations discussed the interactions of P450s with NADPH-P450 reductase (CPR) and cytochrome b5. First, solution nuclear magnetic resonance was used to compare the protein interactions that facilitated either the hydroxylase or lyase activities of CYP17A1. The lyase interaction was stimulated by the presence of b5 and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, whereas the hydroxylase reaction was predominant in the absence of b5. The role of b5 was also shown in vivo by selective hepatic knockout of b5 from mice expressing CYP3A4 and CYP2D6; the lack of b5 caused a decrease in the clearance of several substrates. The role of the membrane on P450 orientation was examined using computational methods, showing that the proximal region of the P450 molecule faced the aqueous phase. The distal region, containing the substrate-access channel, was associated with the membrane. The interaction of NADPH-P450 reductase (CPR) with the membrane was also described, showing the ability of CPR to "helicopter" above the membrane. Finally, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was shown to be heterogeneous, having ordered membrane regions containing cholesterol and more disordered regions. Interestingly, two closely related P450s, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, resided in different regions of the ER. The structural characteristics of their localization were examined. These studies emphasize the importance of P450 protein organization to their function.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/fisiologia , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/fisiologia , Relatório de Pesquisa , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/química , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
3.
J Biol Chem ; 291(8): 3990-4003, 2016 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26719338

RESUMO

To accomplish key physiological processes ranging from drug metabolism to steroidogenesis, human microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes require the sequential input of two electrons delivered by the FMN domain of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Although some human microsomal P450 enzymes can instead accept the second electron from cytochrome b5, for human steroidogenic CYP17A1, the cytochrome P450 reductase FMN domain delivers both electrons, and b5 is an allosteric modulator. The structural basis of these key but poorly understood protein interactions was probed by solution NMR using the catalytically competent soluble domains of each protein. Formation of the CYP17A1·FMN domain complex induced differential line broadening of the NMR signal for each protein. Alterations in the exchange dynamics generally occurred for residues near the surface of the flavin mononucleotide, including 87-90 (loop 1), and for key CYP17A1 active site residues. These interactions were modulated by the identity of the substrate in the buried CYP17A1 active site and by b5. The FMN domain outcompetes b5 for binding to CYP17A1 in the three-component system. These results and comparison with previous NMR studies of the CYP17A1·b5 complex suggest a model of CYP17A1 enzyme regulation.


Assuntos
Mononucleotídeo de Flavina/química , Modelos Moleculares , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/química , Mononucleotídeo de Flavina/genética , Humanos , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética
4.
Dent Mater ; 32(4): 519-28, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26764171

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A novel tertiary amine compound containing three methacrylate-urethane groups was synthesized for application in dentin adhesives. The synthesis, photopolymerization kinetics, and leaching were examined in an earlier study using this novel compound as the co-initiator (0.5 and 1.75wt% based on the total resin mass). The objective of this work was to investigate the potential of TUMA (8-(2-(((2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)carbamoyl)oxy)propyl)-6,10-dimethyl-4,12-dioxo-5,11-dioxa-3,8,13-triazapentadecane-1,15-diyl bis(2-methylacrylate)) to serve simultaneously as a co-initiator and co-monomer (15-45wt% based on the total resin mass) in dentin adhesive formulations. The polymerization kinetics, water sorption and dynamic mechanical properties of these novel formulations were determined. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The monomer system contained Bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA), 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and TUMA (synthesized in our lab) at the mass ratio of 45/(55-x)/x. Two photoinitiator (PI) systems were compared. One initiator system contains three components: camphorquinone (CQ), diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (DPIHP) and ethyl-4-(dimethylamino) benzoate (EDMAB) and the second initiator system contains CQ and DPIHP. The control adhesive formulations are: C0-3: HEMA/BisGMA 45/55 (w/w) and 3-component PI and C0-2: HEMA/BisGMA 45/55 (w/w) and 2-component PI. These controls were used as a comparison to the experimental adhesive resins (Ex-3 or Ex-2), in which x represents the weight percentage of synthesized co-monomer (TUMA) to replace part of BisGMA. The control and experimental adhesive formulations were photo-polymerized and compared with regard to the degree of conversion (DC), polymerization rate (Rp), water sorption and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) under both dry and wet conditions. RESULTS: C0-3 and Ex-3 formulations had similar DC, while the DC of Ex-2 formulation was higher than C0-2. The DC was similar when comparing the two- component with the three-component photoinitiator system when TUMA was used at the same concentration. DMA under dry conditions shows higher rubbery storage modulus for all experimental formulations, while storage modulus at rubbery region under wet conditions was decreased as compared with control (C0-3). There was no statistically significant difference for the DMA results under both dry and wet conditions when comparing two- and three-component initiator systems with the same TUMA concentration. SIGNIFICANCE: The newly synthesized TUMA could serve simultaneously as a co-monomer and co-initiator in the absence of commercial co-initiator. This study provides information for the future development of new co-monomer/co-initiator for dentin adhesives and dental composites.


Assuntos
Cimentos Dentários/química , Dentina/química , Cura Luminosa de Adesivos Dentários , Metacrilatos/química , Fotoiniciadores Dentários/química , Aminas/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato/química , Cânfora/análogos & derivados , Cânfora/química , Cimentos Dentários/síntese química , Teste de Materiais , Oniocompostos/química , Polimerização , Resistência à Tração , para-Aminobenzoatos/química
5.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 104(5): 841-52, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25953619

RESUMO

Resin chemistries for dental composite are evolving as noted by the introduction of silorane-based composites in 2007. This shift in the landscape from methacrylate-based composites has fueled the quest for versatile methacrylate-silorane adhesives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the polymerization behavior and structure/property relationships of methacrylate-silorane hybrid systems. Amine compound ethyl-4-(dimethylamino) benzoate (EDMAB) or silane compound tris(trimethylsilyl) silane (TTMSS) was selected as coinitiators. The mechanical properties of the copolymer were improved significantly at low concentrations (15, 25, or 35 wt %) of silorane when EDMAB was used as coinitiator. The rubbery moduli of these experimental copolymers were increased by up to 260%, compared with that of the control (30.8 ± 1.9 MPa). Visible phase separation appeared in these formulations if the silorane concentrations in the formulations were 50-75 wt %. The use of TTMSS as coinitiator decreased the phase separation, but there was a concomitant decrease in mechanical properties. In the neat methacrylate formulations, the maximum rates of free-radical polymerization with EDMAB or TTMSS were 0.28 or 0.06 s(-1) , respectively. In the neat silorane resin, the maximum rates of cationic ring-opening polymerization with EDMAB or TTMSS were 0.056 or 0.087 s(-1) , respectively. The phase separation phenomenon may be attributed to differences in the rates of free-radical polymerization of methacrylates and cationic ring-opening polymerization of silorane. In the hybrid systems, free-radical polymerization initiated with EDMAB led to higher crosslink density and better mechanical properties under dry/wet conditions. These beneficial effects were, however, associated with an increase in heterogeneity in the network structure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 841-852, 2016.


Assuntos
Metacrilatos/química , Modelos Químicos , Processos Fotoquímicos , Resinas de Silorano/química
6.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 309(9): F764-9, 2015 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26336161

RESUMO

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a devastating condition associated with gadolinium (Gd3+)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in patients with kidney disease. The release of toxic Gd3+ from GBCAs likely plays a major role in NSF pathophysiology. The cause and etiology of Gd3+ release from GBCAs is unknown. Increased Acidic Serine Aspartate Rich MEPE-associated peptides (ASARM peptides) induce bone mineralization abnormalities and contribute to renal phosphate-handling defects in inherited hypophosphatemic rickets and tumor-induced osteomalacia. The proteolytic cleavage of related bone matrix proteins with ASARM motifs results in release of ASARM peptide into bone and circulation. ASARM peptides are acidic, reactive, phosphorylated inhibitors of mineralization that bind Ca2+ and hydroxyapatite. Since the ionic radius of Gd3+ is close to that of Ca2+, we hypothesized that ASARM peptides increase the risk of NSF by inducing release of Gd3+ from GBCAs. Here, we show 1) ASARM peptides bind and induce release of Gd3+ from GBCAs in vitro and in vivo; 2) A bioengineered peptide (SPR4) stabilizes the Gd3+-GBCA complex by specifically binding to ASARM peptide in vitro and in vivo; and 3) SPR4 peptide infusion prevents GBCA-induced NSF-like pathology in a murine model with increased ASARM peptide (Hyp mouse). We conclude ASARM peptides may play a role in NSF and SPR4 peptide is a candidate adjuvant for preventing or reducing risk of disease.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Gadolínio DTPA , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Meglumina/análogos & derivados , Dermopatia Fibrosante Nefrogênica/prevenção & controle , Compostos Organometálicos , Endopeptidase Neutra Reguladora de Fosfato PHEX/farmacologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Citoproteção , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/complicações , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/genética , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/metabolismo , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dermopatia Fibrosante Nefrogênica/induzido quimicamente , Dermopatia Fibrosante Nefrogênica/diagnóstico , Dermopatia Fibrosante Nefrogênica/genética , Dermopatia Fibrosante Nefrogênica/metabolismo , Endopeptidase Neutra Reguladora de Fosfato PHEX/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Transdução de Sinais , Microtomografia por Raio-X
7.
Dent Mater ; 31(10): 1245-53, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26342639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Neutralization of the acidic micro-environment at the tooth/material interface is expected to provide enhanced durability for dental composite restorations. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of amine-containing monomer formulations and the crosslinking density of the resultant polymers on the neutralization capacity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The co-monomer system was varied systematically to obtain different proportions of Bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), while maintaining a constant amount of amine-containing methacrylate monomer. A series of amine-containing monomers covering a range of pKa values were examined. Crosslinking density of formed copolymers was controlled by adjusting the weight content of the dimethacrylate monomer BisGMA. Lactic acid (LA) was used as a probe to analyze the effectiveness of the basic polymers to neutralize acid. The neutralization capacity of each amine-containing crosslinked copolymer was characterized by measuring pH as a function of time when the specimens were soaked in 1-mM LA solution, and the results were compared to the control formulations composed solely of BisGMA and HEMA. Polymer surfaces were examined using the methyl orange (MO) assay to quantify the amount of accessible amine groups. RESULTS: For each amine-containing crosslinked co-polymer, the neutralization capacity is enhanced by decreasing crosslinking density (e.g., by reducing BisGMA concentration in the formulation). In addition, more amine groups were accessible when crosslinking density was decreased. For different amine-containing polymers with the same BisGMA concentration, the neutralization capacity is higher when the amino monomers with higher pKa values were used in the formulations. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first time that the neutralization capacity based on crosslinked dental polymers has been studied. The information is important for future development of durable dentin adhesives.


Assuntos
Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato/química , Adesivos Dentinários/química , Metacrilatos/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/química , Teste de Materiais , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Polimerização , Polímeros/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Fatores de Tempo
8.
MAbs ; 7(5): 901-11, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26121230

RESUMO

Fragmentation in the hinge region of an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) can affect product stability, potentially causing changes in potency and efficacy. Metals ions, such as Cu(2+), can bind to the mAb and undergo hydrolysis or oxidation, which can lead to cleavage of the molecule. To better understand the mechanism of Cu(2+)-mediated mAb fragmentation, hinge region cleavage products and their rates of formation were studied as a function of pH with and without Cu(2+). More detailed analysis of the chemical changes was investigated using model linear and cyclic peptides (with the sequence of SCDKTHTC) derived from the upper hinge region of the mAb. Cu(2+) mediated fragmentation was determined to be predominantly via a hydrolytic pathway in solution. The sites and products of hydrolytic cleavage are pH and strain dependent. In more acidic environments, rates of Cu(2+) induced hinge fragmentation are significantly slower than at higher pH. Although the degradation reaction rates between the linear and cyclic peptides are not significantly different, the products of degradation vary. mAb fragmentation can be reduced by modifying His, which is a potential metal binding site and a known ligand in other metalloproteins. These results suggest that a charge may contribute to stabilization of a specific molecular structure involved in hydrolysis, leading to the possible formation of a copper binding pocket that causes increased susceptibility of the hinge region to degradation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Hidrólise , Imunoglobulina G/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
9.
JOM (1989) ; 67(4): 796-803, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26052187

RESUMO

A new tertiary amine co-initiator (TUMA) containing three methacrylate-urethane groups was synthesized for application in dentin adhesives. The photopolymerization kinetics and leaching of unreacted components from methacrylate-based dental polymers formulated with this new co-initiator were determined. The newly synthesize co-initiator showed good chemical stability and decreased amine release from the initiator system. This study provides important information for the future development of biocompatible dentin adhesives/composites.

10.
Tissue Eng Part A ; 21(11-12): 1795-809, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25760435

RESUMO

The transcription factor atonal homolog 1 (ATOH1) has multiple homologues that are functionally conserved across species and is responsible for the generation of sensory hair cells. To evaluate potential functional differences between homologues, human and mouse ATOH1 (HATH1 and MATH-1, respectively) were nonvirally delivered to human Wharton's jelly cells (hWJCs) for the first time. Delivery of HATH1 to hWJCs demonstrated superior expression of inner ear hair cell markers and characteristics than delivery of MATH-1. Inhibition of HES1 and HES5 signaling further increased the atonal effect. Transfection of hWJCs with HATH1 DNA, HES1 siRNA, and HES5 siRNA displayed positive identification of key hair cell and support cell markers found in the cochlea, as well as a variety of cell shapes, sizes, and features not native to hair cells, suggesting the need for further examination of other cell types induced by HATH1 expression. In the first side-by-side evaluation of HATH1 and MATH-1 in human cells, substantial differences were observed, suggesting that the two atonal homologues may not be interchangeable in human cells, and artificial expression of HATH1 in hWJCs requires further study. In the future, this line of research may lead to engineered systems that would allow for evaluation of drug ototoxicity or potentially even direct therapeutic use.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/fisiologia , Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular/métodos , Células Ciliadas Auditivas Internas/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Linhagem da Célula , Feminino , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/biossíntese , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Miosina VIIa , Miosinas/biossíntese , Miosinas/genética , Compostos de Piridínio/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/biossíntese , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Transcrição HES-1 , Transfecção
11.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 9(1): 31-5, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24510398

RESUMO

The Extracellular 1 (EC1) domain of E-cadherin has been shown to be important for cadherin-cadherin homophilic interactions. Cadherins are responsible for calcium-mediated cell-cell adhesion located at the adherens junction of the biological barriers (i.e., intestinal mucosa and the blood-brain barrier (BBB)). Cadherin peptides can modulate cadherin interactions to improve drug delivery through the BBB. However, the mechanism of modulating the E-cadherin interactions by cadherin peptides has not been fully elucidated. To provide a basis for subsequent examination of the structure and peptide-binding properties of the EC1 domain of human E-cadherin using solution NMR spectroscopy, the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone resonance of the uniformly labeled-EC1 were assigned and the secondary structure was determined based on the chemical shift values. These resonance assignments are essential for assessing protein-ligand interactions and are reported here.


Assuntos
Caderinas/química , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
12.
J Pharm Sci ; 104(2): 416-23, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25212829

RESUMO

Metals are a key component of many diagnostic imaging and biotechnology applications, and the majority of cancer patients receive a platinum-based drug as part of their treatment. Significant effort has been devoted to developing tight binding synthetic chelators to enable effective targeted delivery of metal-based conjugates, with most successes involving lanthanides rather than transition metals for diagnostic imaging. Chemical conjugation modifies the protein's properties and generates a heterogeneous mixture of products. Chelator attachment is typically carried out by converting the amino group on lysines to an amide, which can impact the stability and solubility of the targeting protein and these properties vary among the set of individual conjugate species. Site-specific attachment is sought to reduce complexity and control stability. Here, the metal abstraction peptide technology was applied to create the claMP Tag, an inline platform for generating site-specific conjugates involving transition metals. The claMP Tag was genetically encoded into epidermal growth factor (EGF) and loaded with nickel(II) as a model system to demonstrate that the tag within the homogeneous inline conjugate presents sufficient solution stability to enable biotechnology applications. The structure and disulfide network of the protein and chemical stability of the claMP Tag and EGF components were characterized.


Assuntos
Família de Proteínas EGF/química , Níquel/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Peptídeos/química , Família de Proteínas EGF/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Moleculares , Níquel/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Organometálicos/isolamento & purificação , Estabilidade Proteica
13.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 103(2): 324-31, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24889674

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of zinc and calcium-dependent endopeptidases responsible for degrading extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Their activity is critical for both normal biological function and pathological processes (Dejonckheere et al., Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2011;22:73-81). In dental restorations, the release and subsequent acid activation of MMPs contributes to premature failure. In particular, MMP-8 accelerates degradation by cleaving the collagen matrix within the dentin substrate in incompletely infiltrated aged bonded dentin (Buzalaf et al., Adv Dent Res 2012;24:72-76), hastening the need for replacement of restorations. Therefore, development of a dental adhesive that better resists MMP-8 activity is of significant interest. We hypothesize that modification of the polymer surface with an inhibitor would disable MMP-8 activity. Here, we identify the metal abstraction peptide (MAP) as an inhibitor of MMP-8 and demonstrate that tethering MAP to methacrylate polymers effectively inhibits catalysis. Our findings indicate complete inhibition of MMP-8 is achievable using a grafting approach. This strategy has potential to improve longevity of dental adhesives and other polymers and enable rational design of a new generation of biocompatible materials.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Cimentos Dentários/química , Metaloproteinase 8 da Matriz/química , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/química , Peptídeos/química , Catálise , Humanos
14.
Int J Polym Mater ; 63(7): 361-367, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25400302

RESUMO

Metabolic activity of the oral microbiota leads to acidification of the microenvironment and promotes demineralization of tooth structure at the margin of composite restorations. The pathogenic impact of the biofilm at the margin of the composite restoration could be reduced by engineering novel dentin adhesives that neutralize the acidic micro-environment. Integrating basic moieties into methacrylate derivatives has the potential to buffer against acid-induced degradation, and we are investigating basic monomers for this purpose. These monomers must be compatible with existing formulations, which are hydrophobic and marginally miscible with water. As such, cosolvent systems may be required to enable analysis of monomer function and chemical properties. Here we present an approach for examining the neutralizing capacity of basic methacrylate monomers in a water/ethanol co-solvent system using NMR spectroscopy. NMR is an excellent tool for monitoring the impact of co-solvent effects on pKa and buffering capacity of basic monomers because chemical shift is extremely sensitive to small changes that most other methods cannot detect. Because lactic acid (LA) is produced by oral bacteria and is prevalent in this microenvironment, LA was used to analyze the effectiveness of basic monomers to neutralize acid. The 13C chemical shift of the carbonyl in lactic acid was monitored as a function of ethanol and monomer concentration and each was correlated with pH to determine the functional buffering range. This study shows that the buffering capacity of even very poorly water-soluble monomers can be analyzed using NMR.

15.
Bioconjug Chem ; 25(6): 1103-11, 2014 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24807049

RESUMO

Molecularly targeted research and diagnostic tools are essential to advancing understanding and detection of many diseases. Metals often impart the desired functionality to these tools, and conjugation of high-affinity chelators to proteins is carried out to enable targeted delivery of the metal. This approach has been much more effective with large lanthanide series metals than smaller transition metals. Because chemical conjugation requires additional processing and purification steps and yields a heterogeneous mixture of products, inline incorporation of a peptide tag capable of metal binding is a highly preferable alternative. Development of a transition metal binding tag would provide opportunity to greatly expand metal-based analyses. The metal abstraction peptide (MAP) sequence was genetically engineered into recombinant protein to generate the claMP Tag. The effects of this tag on recombinant epidermal growth factor (EGF) protein expression, disulfide bond formation, tertiary structural integrity, and transition metal incorporation using nickel were examined to confirm the viability of utilizing the MAP sequence to generate linker-less metal conjugates.


Assuntos
Família de Proteínas EGF/química , Níquel/química , Peptídeos/química , Sítios de Ligação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Família de Proteínas EGF/farmacologia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Níquel/farmacologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
16.
J Biol Chem ; 289(20): 14310-20, 2014 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24671419

RESUMO

Crystallographic studies of different membrane cytochrome P450 enzymes have provided examples of distinct structural conformations, suggesting protein flexibility. It has been speculated that conformational selection is an integral component of substrate recognition and access, but direct evidence of such substate interconversion has thus far remained elusive. In the current study, solution NMR revealed multiple and exchanging backbone conformations for certain structural features of the human steroidogenic cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1). This bifunctional enzyme is responsible for pregnenolone C17 hydroxylation, followed by a 17,20-lyase reaction to produce dehydroepiandrosterone, the key intermediate in human synthesis of androgen and estrogen sex steroids. The distribution of CYP17A1 conformational states was influenced by temperature, binding of these two substrates, and binding of the soluble domain of cytochrome b5 (b5). Notably, titration of b5 to CYP17A1·pregnenolone induced a set of conformational states closely resembling those of CYP17A1·17α-hydroxypregnenolone without b5, providing structural evidence consistent with the reported ability of b5 to selectively enhance 17,20-lyase activity. Solution NMR thus revealed a set of conformations likely to modulate human steroidogenesis by CYP17A1, demonstrating that this approach has the potential to make similar contributions to understanding the functions of other membrane P450 enzymes involved in drug metabolism and disease states.


Assuntos
Citocromos b5/farmacologia , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/química , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Androstenos , Androstenóis/metabolismo , Androstenóis/farmacologia , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/farmacologia , Citocromos b5/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Conformação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/antagonistas & inibidores , Especificidade por Substrato
17.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 102(7): 1473-84, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24596134

RESUMO

To enhance the water miscibility and increase the mechanical properties of dentin adhesives, a new glycerol-based monomer with vinyl and carboxylic acid, 4-((1,3-bis(methacryloyloxy)propan-2-yl)oxy)-2-methylene-4-oxobutanoic acid (BMPMOB), was synthesized and characterized. Dentin adhesive formulations containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (BisGMA), and BMPMOB were characterized with regard to real-time photopolymerization behavior, water sorption, dynamic mechanical analysis, and microscale three-dimensional internal morphologies and compared with HEMA/BisGMA controls. The experimental adhesive copolymers showed higher glass transition temperature and rubbery moduli, as well as improved water miscibility compared to the controls. The enhanced properties of the adhesive copolymers indicated that BMPMOB is a promising comonomer for dental restorative materials.


Assuntos
Butiratos/química , Butiratos/síntese química , Cimentos Dentários/química , Cimentos Dentários/síntese química , Metacrilatos/química
18.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 42(1): 9-22, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24130370

RESUMO

This report summarizes a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics at Experimental Biology held April 20-24 in Boston, MA. Presentations discussed the status of cytochrome P450 (P450) knowledge, emphasizing advances and challenges in relating structure with function and in applying this information to drug design. First, at least one structure of most major human drug-metabolizing P450 enzymes is known. However, the flexibility of these active sites can limit the predictive value of one structure for other ligands. A second limitation is our coarse-grain understanding of P450 interactions with membranes, other P450 enzymes, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and cytochrome b5. Recent work has examined differential P450 interactions with reductase in mixed P450 systems and P450:P450 complexes in reconstituted systems and cells, suggesting another level of functional control. In addition, protein nuclear magnetic resonance is a new approach to probe these protein/protein interactions, identifying interacting b5 and P450 surfaces, showing that b5 and reductase binding are mutually exclusive, and demonstrating ligand modulation of CYP17A1/b5 interactions. One desired outcome is the application of such information to control drug metabolism and/or design selective P450 inhibitors. A final presentation highlighted development of a CYP3A4 inhibitor that slows clearance of human immunodeficiency virus drugs otherwise rapidly metabolized by CYP3A4. Although understanding P450 structure/function relationships is an ongoing challenge, translational advances will benefit from continued integration of existing and new biophysical approaches.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Citocromos b5/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Humanos , NADPH-Ferri-Hemoproteína Redutase/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/fisiologia
19.
Appl Spectrosc ; 67(12): 1473-8, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24359662

RESUMO

Water is ubiquitous in the mouths of healthy individuals and is a major interfering factor in the development of a durable seal between the tooth and composite restoration. Water leads to the formation of a variety of defects in dentin adhesives; these defects undermine the tooth-composite bond. Our group recently analyzed phase partitioning of dentin adhesives using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration measurements provided by HPLC offered a more thorough representation of current adhesive performance and elucidated directions to be taken for further improvement. The sample preparation and instrument analysis using HPLC are, however, time-consuming and labor-intensive. The objective of this work was to develop a methodology for rapid, reliable, and accurate quantitative analysis of near-equilibrium phase partitioning in adhesives exposed to conditions simulating the wet oral environment. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistical methods, including partial least squares (PLS) regression and principal component regression (PCR), were used for multivariate calibration to quantify the compositions in separated phases. Excellent predictions were achieved when either the hydrophobic-rich phase or the hydrophilic-rich phase mixtures were analyzed. These results indicate that FT-IR spectroscopy has excellent potential as a rapid method of detection and quantification of dentin adhesives that experience phase separation under conditions that simulate the wet oral environment.


Assuntos
Dentina/química , Metacrilatos/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Retenção de Dentadura , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Metacrilatos/análise , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Bioconjug Chem ; 24(6): 1008-16, 2013 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23777335

RESUMO

Immunoconjugates, including antibody-drug conjugates and Fc-conjugates, represent a rapidly growing class of therapeutics undergoing clinical development. Despite their growing popularity, the high intrinsic heterogeneity of immunoconjugates often complicates the development process and limits their widespread application. In particular, immunoconjugate charge variants exhibit markedly different colloidal stabilities, solubilities, pharmacokinetics, and tissue distributions. Charge variants arise spontaneously due to degradation and, depending on the type of drug, linker, and conjugation site, through drug conjugation. Electrostatic changes in naked antibodies often result in poor performance characteristics, and therefore, charge alterations due to degradation are critical to control. Charge properties are expected to be equally important to producing well-behaved ADCs. Charge-based methods of analysis, such as isoelectric focusing and ion exchange chromatography, are capable of probing the underlying complexities within immunoconjugate drug products. Despite the utility of these methods, there are only a few published reports of charge-based assays applied to immunoconjugates. In the present study, we sought to identify the effects of chemical conjugation on the electrostatic properties of Fc-conjugates. In order to minimize the effects of post-translational modifications (e.g., deamidation), a single Fc charge variant was isolated prior to conjugation of a fluorescent probe, Alexa Fluor 350, to the side chains of lysine residues. The resulting Fc-conjugates were assessed by a variety of analytical techniques, including isoelectric focusing and ion exchange chromatography, to determine their charge properties.


Assuntos
Acetatos/química , Cromonas/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/química , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/biossíntese , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/isolamento & purificação , Eletricidade Estática
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