Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 47
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
ChemSusChem ; 11(13): 2077-2082, 2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722204

RESUMO

Hydrogen is of fundamental importance for the construction of modern clean-energy supply systems. In this context, the catalytic dehydrogenation of formic acid (FA) is a convenient method to generate H2 gas from an easily available liquid. One of the issues associated with current catalytic dehydrogenation systems is insufficient stability. Here, we present a robust and recyclable system for FA dehydrogenation by combining a ruthenium 1,1,1-tris(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethane complex and aluminum trifluoromethanesulfonate (Al(OTf)3 ). This robust system allows steady H2 production under pressure and recycling for an additional 14 runs without any apparent loss of activity (turnover frequencies up to 1920 h-1 , turnover numbers up to 20 000). Notably, the catalyst can also be used for the dehydrogenation of formates and the reverse hydrogenation of bicarbonates and CO2 .

2.
Chem Rev ; 118(2): 372-433, 2018 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28985048

RESUMO

Hydrogen gas is a storable form of chemical energy that could complement intermittent renewable energy conversion. One of the main disadvantages of hydrogen gas arises from its low density, and therefore, efficient handling and storage methods are key factors that need to be addressed to realize a hydrogen-based economy. Storage systems based on liquids, in particular, formic acid and alcohols, are highly attractive hydrogen carriers as they can be made from CO2 or other renewable materials, they can be used in stationary power storage units such as hydrogen filling stations, and they can be used directly as transportation fuels. However, to bring about a paradigm change in our energy infrastructure, efficient catalytic processes that release the hydrogen from these molecules, as well as catalysts that regenerate these molecules from CO2 and hydrogen, are required. In this review, we describe the considerable progress that has been made in homogeneous catalysis for these critical reactions, namely, the hydrogenation of CO2 to formic acid and methanol and the reverse dehydrogenation reactions. The dehydrogenation of higher alcohols available from renewable feedstocks is also described. Key structural features of the catalysts are analyzed, as is the role of additives, which are required in many systems. Particular attention is paid to advances in sustainable catalytic processes, especially to additive-free processes and catalysts based on Earth-abundant metal ions. Mechanistic information is also presented, and it is hoped that this review not only provides an account of the state of the art in the field but also offers insights into how superior catalytic systems can be obtained in the future.

3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(92): 12422-12425, 2017 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29068010

RESUMO

A versatile palladium-catalyzed double carbonylation of aryl bromides has been developed. Using Pd(OAc)2/BuPAd2 as the catalyst system and DBU as the base, under relatively low CO pressure, various α-ketoamides were produced in good yields. In order to get insight into the reaction pathway, real time NMR studies were performed as well and a correlated reaction mechanism is been given.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(35): 10559-10563, 2017 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678430

RESUMO

Ionic liquids (ILs) are versatile solvents and catalysts for the synthesis of quinazoline-2,4-dione from 2-aminobenzonitrile and CO2 . However, the role of the IL in this reaction is poorly understood. Consequently, we investigated this reaction and showed that the IL cation does not play a significant role in the activation of the substrates, and instead plays a secondary role in controlling the physical properties of the IL. A linear relationship between the pKa of the IL anion (conjugate acid) and the reaction rate was identified with maximum catalyst efficiency observed at a pKa of >14.7 in DMSO. The base-catalyzed reaction is limited by the acidity of the quinazoline-2,4-dione product, which is deprotonated by more basic catalysts, leading to the formation of the quinazolide anion (conjugate acid pKa 14.7). Neutralization of the original catalyst and formation of the quinazolide anion catalyst leads to the observed reaction limit.

5.
Dalton Trans ; 46(5): 1670-1676, 2017 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28098294

RESUMO

The homogeneous catalytic dehydrogenation of formic acid in aqueous solution provides an efficient in situ method for hydrogen production, under mild conditions, and at an adjustable rate. We synthesized a series of catalysts with the chemical formula [(Cp*)M(N-N')Cl] (M = Ir, Rh; Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl; N-N = bidentate chelating nitrogen donor ligands), which have been proven to be active in selective formic acid decomposition in aqueous media. The scope of the study was to examine the relationship between stability and activity of catalysts for formic acid dehydrogenation versus electronic and steric properties of selected ligands, following a bottom-up approach by increasing the complexity of the N,N'-ligands progressively. The highest turnover frequency, TOF = 3300 h-1 was observed with a Cp*Ir(iii) complex bearing 1,2-diaminocyclohexane as the N,N'-donor ligand. From the variable temperature studies, the activation energy of formic acid dehydrogenation has been determined, Ea = 77.94 ± 3.2 kJ mol-1. It was observed that the different steric and electronic properties of the bidentate nitrogen donor ligands alter the catalytic activity and stability of the Ir and Rh compounds profoundly.

6.
Chemistry ; 22(44): 15605-15608, 2016 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27582027

RESUMO

Carbon dioxide may constitute a source of chemicals and fuels if efficient and renewable processes are developed that directly utilize it as feedstock. Two of its reduction products are formic acid and methanol, which have also been proposed as liquid organic chemical carriers in sustainable hydrogen storage. Here we report that both the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to formic acid and the disproportionation of formic acid into methanol can be realized at ambient temperature and in aqueous, acidic solution, with an iridium catalyst. The formic acid yield is maximized in water without additives, while acidification results in complete (98 %) and selective (96 %) formic acid disproportionation into methanol. These promising features in combination with the low reaction temperatures and the absence of organic solvents and additives are relevant for a sustainable hydrogen/methanol economy.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(16): 10764-73, 2016 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26890151

RESUMO

Solvents playing a crucial role in many chemical reactions and additives can be used to shift the reaction equilibrium. Herein we study the enthalpy of mixing for selected solvents (aqueous, organic) and basic additives (amines, aqueous KOH) when mixed with formic acid with the aim to optimize hydrogen storage/delivery in the CO2/HCOOH system. Formic acid, resulting from carbon dioxide hydrogenation, reaches highest yields when effectively "removed" from the reaction equilibrium. In terms of energy efficiency, any heat released during CO2 hydrogenation has to be reused in the reverse reaction, during the production of hydrogen. In any scenario, the usage of basic chemicals, non-innocent solvents, causes higher energy release in CO2 hydrogenation, which has to be reused in the hydrogen delivery process. Therefore, the enthalpy of mixing is a valuable parameter for designing hydrogen storage devices since it allows the estimation of energy balance for the CO2 hydrogenation/H2 liberation cycle. The highest formic acid concentrations in direct catalytic CO2 hydrogenation under acidic conditions were reached in DMSO. DMSO exhibits considerably stronger interactions with formic acid compared to water as was observed in calorimetric measurements. This difference can be ascribed, at least partly, to stronger hydrogen bonding of FA to DMSO than to water in the corresponding solutions, examined by a combination of IR spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies. Furthermore, the investigation of DMSO/FA- and water/FA systems by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy revealed that only 1 : 1 aggregates are formed in the DMSO solutions of FA in a broad concentration range, while the stoichiometry and the number of the FA-water aggregates essentially depend on the concentration of aqueous solutions.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(18): 6053-8, 2015 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25865079

RESUMO

Hydroamidation of olefins constitutes an ideal, atom-efficient method to prepare carboxylic amides from easily available olefins, CO, and amines. So far, aliphatic amines are not suitable for these transformations. Here, we present a ligand- and additive-free Rh(I) catalyst as solution to this problem. Various amides are obtained in good yields and excellent regioselectivities. Notably, chemoselective amidation of aliphatic amines takes place in the presence of aromatic amines and alcohols. Mechanistic studies reveal the presence of Rh-acyl species as crucial intermediates for the selectivity and rate-limiting step in the proposed Rh(I)-catalytic cycle.

10.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 69(12): 746-752, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26842324

RESUMO

This year Mankind will release about 39 Gt carbon dioxide into the earth's atmosphere, where it acts as a greenhouse gas. The chemical transformation of carbon dioxide into useful products becomes increasingly important, as the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere has reached 400 ppm. One approach to contribute to the decrease of this hazardous emission is to recycle CO(2), for example reducing it to formic acid. The hydrogenation of CO(2) can be achieved with a series of catalysts under basic and acidic conditions, in wide variety of solvents. To realize a hydrogen-based charge-discharge device ('hydrogen battery'), one also needs efficient catalysts for the reverse reaction, the dehydrogenation of formic acid. Despite of the fact that the overwhelming majority of these reactions are carried out using precious metals-based catalysts (mainly Ru), we review here developments for catalytic hydrogen evolution from formic acid with iron-based complexes.

11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 53(47): 12876-9, 2014 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25256038

RESUMO

N-methylation of amines is an important step in the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals and has been widely applied in the preparation of other key intermediates and chemicals. Therefore, the development of efficient methylation methods has attracted considerable attention. In this respect, carbon dioxide is an attractive C1 building block because it is an abundant, renewable, and nontoxic carbon source. Consequently, we developed a highly chemoselective, metal-free catalytic system that operates under ambient conditions for the N-methylation of amines.

12.
Chemistry ; 20(42): 13589-602, 2014 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25196789

RESUMO

The iron-catalyzed dehydrogenation of formic acid has been studied both experimentally and mechanistically. The most active catalysts were generated in situ from cationic Fe(II) /Fe(III) precursors and tris[2-(diphenylphosphino)ethyl]phosphine (1, PP3 ). In contrast to most known noble-metal catalysts used for this transformation, no additional base was necessary. The activity of the iron catalyst depended highly on the solvent used, the presence of halide ions, the water content, and the ligand-to-metal ratio. The optimal catalytic performance was achieved by using [FeH(PP3 )]BF4 /PP3 in propylene carbonate in the presence of traces of water. With the exception of fluoride, the presence of halide ions in solution inhibited the catalytic activity. IR, Raman, UV/Vis, and EXAFS/XANES analyses gave detailed insights into the mechanism of hydrogen generation from formic acid at low temperature, supported by DFT calculations. In situ transmission FTIR measurements revealed the formation of an active iron formate species by the band observed at 1543 cm(-1) , which could be correlated with the evolution of gas. This active species was deactivated in the presence of chloride ions due to the formation of a chloro species (UV/Vis, Raman, IR, and XAS). In addition, XAS measurements demonstrated the importance of the solvent for the coordination of the PP3 ligand.

13.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4017, 2014 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24886955

RESUMO

The chemical transformation of carbon dioxide into useful products becomes increasingly important as CO2 levels in the atmosphere continue to rise as a consequence of human activities. In this article we describe the direct hydrogenation of CO2 into formic acid using a homogeneous ruthenium catalyst, in aqueous solution and in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), without any additives. In water, at 40 °C, 0.2 M formic acid can be obtained under 200 bar, however, in DMSO the same catalyst affords 1.9 M formic acid. In both solvents the catalysts can be reused multiple times without a decrease in activity. Worldwide demand for formic acid continues to grow, especially in the context of a renewable energy hydrogen carrier, and its production from CO2 without base, via the direct catalytic carbon dioxide hydrogenation, is considerably more sustainable than the existing routes.

14.
ChemSusChem ; 7(6): 1647-54, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24700762

RESUMO

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a key platform chemical that may be obtained from various cellulosic (biomass) derivatives. Previously, it has been shown that ionic liquids (ILs) facilitate the catalytic conversion of glucose into HMF. Herein, we demonstrate that the careful design of the IL cation leads to new ionic solvents that enhance the transformation of glucose and more complex carbohydrates into HMF significantly. In Situ NMR spectroscopy and computational modeling pinpoint the key interactions between the IL, catalyst, and substrate that account for the enhanced reactivities observed.


Assuntos
Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Glucose/química , Imidazóis/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Catálise , Cloretos/química , Compostos de Cromo/química , Furaldeído/química
15.
Chemistry ; 20(15): 4273-83, 2014 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24590571

RESUMO

A series of thioether-functionalised imidazolium salts have been prepared and characterized. Subsequent reaction of the thioether-functionalised imidazolium salts with iodomethane affords imidazolium-sulfonium salts composed of doubly charged cations and two different anions. Imidazolium-sulfonium salts containing a single anion type are obtained either by a solvent extraction method or by anion exchange. The imidazolium-sulfonium salts undergo a methyl-transfer reaction on exposure to water, giving rise to a new, singly charged imidazolium salt with iodide introduced at the 2-position of the imidazolium ring. Crystal structures of some of the imidazolium-sulfonium salts were determined by X-ray crystallography providing the topology of the interactions between the dications and the anions. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and quantum-chemical calculations were used to rationalise the relative strength of these interactions.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(3): 341-3, 2014 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24244940

RESUMO

An efficient method for the synthesis of amides via Pd-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of C(sp(3))-H bonds with CO and amines is described. The route efficiently provides substituted phenyl amides from alkanes.


Assuntos
Amidas/química , Paládio/química , Alcanos/química , Amidas/síntese química , Compostos de Anilina/química , Carbono/química , Catálise , Hidrogênio , Cetonas/química , Oxirredução , Teoria Quântica
17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 49(78): 8735-51, 2013 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23964360

RESUMO

The efficient storage of hydrogen is one of three major hurdles towards a potential hydrogen economy. This report begins with conventional storage methods for hydrogen and broadly covers new technology, ranging from physical media involving solid adsorbents, to chemical materials including metal hydrides, ammonia borane and liquid precursors such as alcohols and formic acid.

18.
J Phys Chem B ; 117(30): 9094-105, 2013 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23822750

RESUMO

Hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids based on the 1-(2'-hydroxylethyl)-3-methylimidazolium cation ([C2OHmim](+)) and various anions ([A](-)) of differing H-bond acceptor strength, viz. hexafluorophosphate [PF6](-), tetrafluoroborate [BF4](-), bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide) [Tf2N](-), trifluoromethylsulfonate [OTf](-), and trifluoroacetate [TFA](-), was studied by a range of spectroscopic and computational techniques and, in the case of [C2OHmim][PF6], by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The first quantitative estimates of the energy (E(HB)) and the enthalpy (-ΔH(HB)) of H-bonds in bulk ILs were obtained from a theoretical analysis of the solid-state electron-density map of crystalline [C2OHmim][PF6] and an analysis of the IR spectra in crystal and liquid samples. E(HB) for OH···[PF6](-) H-bonds amounts to ~3.4-3.8 kcal·mol(-1), whereas weaker H-bonds (2.8-3.1 kcal·mol(-1)) are formed between aromatic C2H group of imidazolium ring and the [PF6](-) anion. The enthalpy of the OH···[A](-) H-bonds follows the order: [PF6] (2.4 kcal·mol(-1)) < [BF4] (3.3 kcal·mol(-1)) < [Tf2N] (3.4 kcal·mol(-1)) < [OTf] (4.7 kcal·mol(-1)l) < [TFA] (6.2 kcal·mol(-1)). The formation of aggregates of self-associated [C2OHmim](+) cations is present in liquid [C2OHmim][PF6], [C2OHmim][BF4], and [C2OHmim][Tf2N], with the energy of the OH···OH H-bonds amounting to ~6 kcal·mol(-1). Multiple secondary interactions in the bulk ILs influence their structure, vibrational spectra, and H-bond strength. In particular, these interactions can blue-shift the stretching frequencies of the CH groups of the imidazolium ring in spite of red-shifting CH···[A](-) H-bonds. They also weaken the H-bonding in the IL relative to the isolated ion pairs, with these anticooperative effects amounting to ca. 50% of the E(HB) value.

19.
Dalton Trans ; 42(13): 4353-6, 2013 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23412518

RESUMO

In water, spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) and calibration curves for chemical shifts have been determined for the (13)C and the (1)H(C) atoms in HCOOH, HCOONa, CO(2), Na(2)CO(3) and NaHCO(3) by NMR spectroscopy. These data facilitate kinetic and mechanistic studies for H(2) storage/delivery in the carbon dioxide-formic acid systems under H(2) and CO(2) pressures.

20.
Chemistry ; 19(4): 1227-34, 2013 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23293076

RESUMO

Heteronuclear Au-Pd nanoparticles were prepared and immobilized in the functionalized ionic liquid [C(2)OHmim][NTf(2)]. The structural and electronic properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by a range of techniques and the surface of the nanoparticles was found to be enriched in Pd. Moreover, the extent of Pd enrichment is easily controlled by varying the ratio of Au and Pd salts used in the synthesis. The heteronuclear nanoparticles were found to be effective catalysts in dehalogenation reactions with no activity observed for the pure Au nanoparticles and only limited activity for the pure Pd nanoparticles. The activity of the heteronuclear nanoparticles may be attributed to charge transfer from Pd to Au and consequently to more efficient reductive elimination.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA