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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4369, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868769

RESUMO

The catalytically active site for the removal of S from organosulfur compounds in catalytic hydrodesulfurization has been attributed to a generic site at an S-vacancy on the edge of MoS2 particles. However, steric constraints in adsorption and variations in S-coordination means that not all S-vacancy sites should be considered equally active. Here, we use a combination of atom-resolved scanning probe microscopy and density functional theory to reveal how the generation of S-vacancies within MoS2 nanoparticles and the subsequent adsorption of thiophene (C4H4S) depends strongly on the location on the edge of MoS2. Thiophene adsorbs directly at open corner vacancy sites, however, we find that its adsorption at S-vacancy sites away from the MoS2 particle corners leads to an activated and concerted displacement of neighboring edge S. This mechanism allows the reactant to self-generate a double CUS site that reduces steric effects in more constrained sites along the edge.

2.
J Chem Phys ; 152(6): 064703, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061207

RESUMO

The interaction of methanol with iron oxide surfaces is of interest due to its potential in hydrogen storage and from a fundamental perspective as a chemical probe of reactivity. We present here a study examining the adsorption and reaction of methanol on magnetite Fe3O4(001) at cryogenic temperatures using a combination of temperature programmed desorption, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. The methanol desorption profile from Fe3O4(001) is complex, exhibiting peaks at 140 K, 173 K, 230 K, and 268 K, corresponding to the desorption of intact methanol, as well as peaks at 341 K and 495 K due to the reaction of methoxy intermediates. The saturation of a monolayer of methanol corresponds to ∼5 molecules/unit cell (u.c.), which is slightly higher than the number of surface octahedral iron atoms of 4/u.c. We probe the kinetics and thermodynamics of the desorption of molecular methanol using inversion analysis. The deconvolution of the complex desorption profile into individual peaks allows for calculations of both the desorption energy and the prefactor of each feature. The initial 0.7 methanol/u.c. reacts to form methoxy and hydroxy intermediates at 180 K, which remain on the surface above room temperature after intact methanol has desorbed. The methoxy species react via one of two channels, a recombination reaction with surface hydroxyls to form additional methanol at ∼350 K and a disproportionation reaction to form methanol and formaldehyde at ∼500 K. Only 20% of the methoxy species undergo the disproportionation reaction, with most of them reacting via the 350 K pathway.

3.
Small ; 16(11): e1906892, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091185

RESUMO

Lateral heterostructures consisting of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) directly interfaced with molecular networks or nanowires can be used to construct new hybrid materials with interesting electronic and spintronic properties. However, chemical methods for selective and controllable bond formation between 2D materials and organic molecular networks need to be developed. As a demonstration of a self-assembled organic nanowire-TMDC system, a method to link and interconnect epitaxial single-layer MoS2 flakes with organic molecules is demonstrated. Whereas pristine epitaxial single-layer MoS2 has no affinity for molecular attachment, it is found that single-layer MoS2 will selectively bind the organic molecule 2,8-dibromodibenzothiophene (DBDBT) in a surface-assisted Ullmann coupling reaction when the MoS2 has been activated by pre-exposing it to hydrogen. Atom-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging is used to analyze the bonding of the nanowires, and thereby it is revealed that selective bonding takes place on a specific S atom at the corner site between the two types of zig-zag edges available in a hexagonal single layer MoS2 sheet. The method reported here successfully combining synthesis of epitaxial TMDCs and Ullmann coupling reactions on surfaces may open up new synthesis routes for 2D organic-TMDC hybrid materials.

4.
ACS Nano ; 13(10): 11632-11641, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513376

RESUMO

By means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements, we studied in situ the oxidation and reduction of FeO bilayer islands on Au(111) by oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2), respectively. The FeO islands respond very dynamically toward O2, with the coordinatively unsaturated ferrous (CUF) sites at the island edges being essential for O2 dissociation and O atom incorporation. An STM movie obtained during oxidation reveals how further O2 molecules can dissociate after the consumption of all initially existing CUF sites through the formation of new CUF sites. In contrast, we found that H2 molecules only dissociate when vibrationally excited through the ion gauge and only at the basal plane of FeO islands, implying that the CUF sites are not relevant for H2 dissociation. Our STM results reveal how excess O atoms are incorporated and released in O2 and H2 and thus shed light onto the stability of inverse catalysts during a catalyzed reaction.

5.
J Chem Phys ; 150(4): 041731, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709272

RESUMO

Mixed metal oxides of earth-abundant 3d transition metals are an interesting class of materials that show interesting magnetic properties and a significant synergistic effect as catalysts for electrochemical oxygen evolution compared to simple unary oxides. However, the exact atomic-scale nature of such mixed oxide phases and the link to their interesting physico-chemical properties are poorly understood. Here, a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy reveals that Fe species embed in a facile way into CoO bilayers on Au(111) resulting in an Fe doped oxide. Density functional theory and the spectroscopic fingerprint from x-ray photoemission spectroscopy reveal that the Fe dopants in the cobalt oxide matrix assume a higher oxidation state than in the structurally corresponding unary bilayer oxide. Furthermore, the substituted Fe is structurally displaced further away from the Au than the metal in either of the corresponding pure unary oxides. Both O and to a smaller extent Co in the nearest coordination shell are also structurally and electronically perturbed. The interesting effects observed in the bilayer binary oxides may enable a better fundamental understanding of the nature of doping of metal oxides, in general, and promotion effects in catalytic applications.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(20): 206003, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500259

RESUMO

We studied the interaction of water with the anatase TiO_{2}(001) surface by means of scanning tunneling microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. Water adsorbs dissociatively on the ridges of a (1×4) reconstructed surface, resulting in a (3×4) periodic structure of hydroxyl pairs. We observed this process at 120 K, and the created hydroxyls desorb from the surface by recombination to water, which occurs below 300 K. Our calculations reveal the water dissociation mechanism and uncover a very pronounced dependence on the coverage. This strong coverage dependence is explained through water-induced reconstruction on anatase TiO_{2}(001)-(1×4). The high intrinsic reactivity of the anatase TiO_{2}(001) surface towards water observed here is fundamentally different from that seen on other surfaces of titania and may explain its high catalytic activity in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis.

7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(37): 11893-11897, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981264

RESUMO

The catalytic synergy between cobalt oxide and gold leads to strong promotion of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER)-one half-reaction of electrochemical water splitting. However, the mechanism behind the enhancement effect is still not understood, in part due to a missing structural model of the active interface. Using a novel interplay of cyclic voltammetry (CV) for electrochemistry integrated with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on an atomically defined cobalt oxide/Au(111) system, we reveal here that the supporting gold substrate uniquely favors a flexible cobalt-oxyhydroxide/Au interface in the electrochemically active potential window and thus suppresses the formation of less active bulk cobalt oxide morphologies. The findings substantiate why optimum catalytic synergy is obtained for oxide coverages on gold close to or below one monolayer, and provide the first morphological description of the active phase during electrocatalysis.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2211, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880841

RESUMO

Hydrodesulfurization catalysis ensures upgrading and purification of fossil fuels to comply with increasingly strict regulations on S emissions. The future shift toward more diverse and lower-quality crude oil supplies, high in S content, requires attention to improvements of the complex sulfided CoMo catalyst based on a fundamental understanding of its working principles. In this study, we use scanning tunneling microscopy to directly visualize and quantify how reducing conditions transforms both cluster shapes and edge terminations in MoS2 and promoted CoMoS-type hydrodesulfurization catalysts. The reduced catalyst clusters are shown to be terminated with a fractional coverage of sulfur, representative of the catalyst in its active state. By adsorption of a proton-accepting molecular marker, we can furthermore directly evidence the presence of catalytically relevant S-H groups on the Co-promoted edge. The experimentally observed cluster structure is predicted by theory to be identical to the structure present under catalytic working conditions.

9.
J Chem Phys ; 148(12): 124704, 2018 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604858

RESUMO

The adsorption of ammonia on anatase TiO2 is of fundamental importance for several catalytic applications of TiO2 and for probing acid-base interactions. Utilizing high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and density functional theory (DFT), we identify the adsorption mode and quantify the adsorption strength on the anatase TiO2(101) surface. It was found that ammonia adsorbs non-dissociatively as NH3 on regular five-fold coordinated titanium surface sites (5f-Ti) with an estimated exothermic adsorption energy of 1.2 eV for an isolated ammonia molecule. For higher adsorbate coverages, the adsorption energy progressively shifts to smaller values, due to repulsive intermolecular interactions. The repulsive adsorbate-adsorbate interactions are quantified using DFT and autocorrelation analysis of STM images, which both showed a repulsive energy of ∼50 meV for nearest neighbor sites and a lowering in binding energy for an ammonia molecule in a full monolayer of 0.28 eV, which is in agreement with TPD spectra.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(29): 3621-3624, 2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577149

RESUMO

We demonstrate a method to selectively switch the Ullmann coupling reaction of 2,8-dibromodibenzothiophene on a Au(111) support. The Ullmann coupling reaction is effective already at low temperature, but the complete inhibition of the same reaction can be achieved on Au(111) pre-exposed to H2S. The marked difference in reactivity of pretreated Au(111) is explained by the S-passivation of free Au atoms emerging from reconstruction sites. The inhibited state can be fully lifted by removing the S via hydrogen gas post-exposure.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Polímeros/síntese química , Enxofre/química , Tiofenos/química , Hidrogênio/química , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/química , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Polimerização , Polímeros/química
11.
J Phys Chem B ; 122(2): 561-571, 2018 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800235

RESUMO

Well-characterized metal oxides supported on single crystal surfaces serve as valuable model systems to study fundamental chemical properties and reaction mechanisms in heterogeneous catalysis or as new thin film metal oxide catalysts in their own right. Here, we present scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results for cobalt oxide nanoislands that reveal the detailed atomistic mechanisms leading to transitions between Co-O bilayer and O-Co-O trilayer, induced by oxidation in O2 and reductive vacuum annealing treatments, respectively. By comparing between two different noble metal substrates, Au(111) and Pt(111), we further address the influence of the substrate. Overall, nanoisland edges act to initiate both the oxidation and reduction processes on both substrates. However, important influences of the choice of substrate were found, as the progress of oxidation includes intermediate steps on Au(111) not observed on Pt(111), where the oxidation on the other hand takes place at a significantly higher rate. During reductive treatment of trilayer, the bilayer structure gradually reappears on Pt(111), but not on Au(111) where the reduction rather results in the appearance of a stacked cobalt oxide morphology. These observations point to strong differences in the catalytic behavior between Au and Pt supported cobalt oxides, despite the otherwise strong structural similarities.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(21): 14020-14029, 2017 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28516986

RESUMO

The sulfidation of a MoO3 precursor into MoS2 is an important step in the preparation of catalysts for the hydrodesulfurization process that is widely utilized in oil refineries. Molybdenum oxides are also the most commonly used precursors for MoS2 growth in, e.g., the synthesis of novel two-dimensional materials. In the present study, we investigate the transformation of MoOx into MoS2 on a model Au(111) surface through sulfidation in H2S gas atmosphere using in situ scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We find that progressive annealing steps of physical vapor deposited MoO3 powder allow us to control the stoichiometry and oxidation state of the precursor oxide. Subsequently, we investigate the sulfidation of the compounds ranging from pure low-oxygen Mo to fully oxidized MoO3 oxide sulfidation using two different methods. We find that the prerequisite for the efficient formation of MoS2 is that Mo stays in the highest Mo6+ state before sulfidation, whereas the presence of the reduced MoOx phase impedes the MoS2 growth. We also find that it is more efficient to form MoS2 by post-sulfidation of MoOx rather than its reactive deposition in H2S gas, which leads to rather stable amorphous oxysulfide phases.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(14): 9424-9431, 2017 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28327708

RESUMO

To understand the structure-reactivity relationships for mixed-metal oxide catalysts, well-defined systems are required. Mixtures of vanadia and titania (TiO2) are of particular interest for application in heterogeneous catalysis, with TiO2 often acting as the support. By utilizing high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy, we studied the interaction of vanadium (V) with the anatase TiO2(101) surface in the sub-monolayer regime. At 80 K, metallic V nucleates into homogeneously distributed clusters onto the terraces with no preference for nucleation at the step edges. However, embedding of single V atoms into TiO2 occurs following annealing at room temperature. In conjunction with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data and density functional theory calculations, we propose that monomeric V atoms occupy positions of regular surface Ti sites, i.e., Ti atoms are substituted by V atoms.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(3): 2425-2433, 2017 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28058415

RESUMO

In the present study, we investigate the facile conversion of Co-O bilayer islands on a Au(111) surface into preferentially O-Co-O trilayers in an oxygen atmosphere and O-Co-O-Co-O multilayers at elevated temperature. We characterize and compare the island morphologies with scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and valence band spectroscopy, and show that the cobalt oxidation state changes from Co2+ in bilayers to purely Co3+ in trilayers and a mixture of Co2+ and Co3+ in the multilayer morphology. In contrast to bilayers and multilayers, the trilayer structure appears to grow pseudomorphic with the Au(111) substrate, and in addition we reveal the presence of a hydroxyl overlayer on this island type as evidenced by the appearance of a superstructure in STM correlated with the fingerprints of OH species in XPS and valence band spectroscopy. The obtained layered morphology consisting of hydroxylated trilayer islands is identical to an exfoliated sheet of the ß-CoOOH which is proposed to be the active phase of the cobalt oxide oxygen evolution reaction catalyst present in the electrochemical environment, and we note that this synthesized structure thus could serve as a valuable model catalyst.

15.
ACS Nano ; 10(6): 6315-22, 2016 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267820

RESUMO

The electronic structure of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors can be significantly altered by screening effects, either from free charge carriers in the material or by environmental screening from the surrounding medium. The physical properties of 2D semiconductors placed in a heterostructure with other 2D materials are therefore governed by a complex interplay of both intra- and interlayer interactions. Here, using time- and angle-resolved photoemission, we are able to isolate both the layer-resolved band structure and, more importantly, the transient band structure evolution of a model 2D heterostructure formed of a single layer of MoS2 on graphene. Our results reveal a pronounced renormalization of the quasiparticle gap of the MoS2 layer. Following optical excitation, the band gap is reduced by up to ∼400 meV on femtosecond time scales due to a persistence of strong electronic interactions despite the environmental screening by the n-doped graphene. This points to a large degree of tunability of both the electronic structure and the electron dynamics for 2D semiconductors embedded in a van der Waals-bonded heterostructure.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(25): 17071-80, 2016 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27297567

RESUMO

The energetics, structures and activity of a monomeric VO3H/TiO2(001) catalyst are investigated for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction by the use of density functional theory (DFT). Furthermore we study the influences of a dopant substitute in the TiO2 support and its effects on the known properties of the SCR system such as Brønsted acidity and reducibility of vanadium. We find for the reduction part of the SCR mechanism that it involves two Ti-O-V oxygen sites. One is a hydroxyl possessing Brønsted acidity which contributes to the formation of NH4(+), while the other accepts a proton which charge stabilizes the reduced active site. In the reduction the proton is donated to the latter due to a reaction between NH3 and NO that forms a H2NNO molecule which decomposes into N2(g) and H2O(g). A dopant substitution of 10 different dopants: Si, Ge, Se, Zr, Sn, Te, Hf, V, Mo and W at each of the sites, which participate in the reaction, modifies the energetics and therefore the SCR activity. We find that Brønsted acidity is a descriptor for the SCR activity at low temperatures. Based on this descriptor we find that Zr, Hf and Sn have a positive effect as they decrease the activation energy for the SCR reaction.

17.
Faraday Discuss ; 188: 323-43, 2016 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27076269

RESUMO

Materials based on MoS2 are widely used as catalysts and their structure usually consists of single-layered MoS2 nanoparticles whose edges are known to constitute the catalytically active sites. Methods based on density functional theory are used in this work to calculate the electronic structure of representative computational models of MoS2 nanoparticles supported on Au(111). By considering nanoparticles with different edge-terminations, compositions, and sizes, we describe how the electronic structure, Mo3d core-level shifts, and chemical properties (i.e. H adsorption and S vacancy formation) depend on the MoS2 nanoparticle size and structure. In addition, site-specific properties, largely inaccessible when using only slab models of MoS2 edges, are reported, which reveal that the edge sites are not uniform along the nanoparticle and largely depend on the proximity to the corners of the triangular NPs, especially when interacting with a metallic support. Furthermore, a structural motif where H atoms adsorb favourably in a bridging position between two Mo atoms is proposed as an active site for the hydrogen evolution reaction.

18.
Nat Commun ; 6: 8845, 2015 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26567989

RESUMO

Metal adhesion on metal oxides is strongly controlled by the oxide surface structure and composition, but lack of control over the surface conditions often limits the possibilities to exploit this in opto- and micro-electronics applications and heterogeneous catalysis where nanostructural control is of utmost importance. The Cu/ZnO system is among the most investigated of such systems in model studies, but the presence of subsurface ZnO defects and their important role for adhesion on ZnO have been unappreciated so far. Here we reveal that the surface-directed migration of subsurface defects affects the Cu adhesion on polar ZnO(0001) in the technologically interesting temperature range up to 550 K. This leads to enhanced adhesion and ultimately complete wetting of ZnO(0001) by a Cu overlayer. On the basis of our experimental and computational results we demonstrate a mechanism which implies that defect concentrations in the bulk are an important, and possibly controllable, parameter for the metal-on-oxide growth.

19.
Nano Lett ; 15(9): 5883-7, 2015 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26315566

RESUMO

The dynamics of excited electrons and holes in single layer (SL) MoS2 have so far been difficult to disentangle from the excitons that dominate the optical response of this material. Here, we use time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy for a SL of MoS2 on a metallic substrate to directly measure the excited free carriers. This allows us to ascertain a direct quasiparticle band gap of 1.95 eV and determine an ultrafast (50 fs) extraction of excited free carriers via the metal in contact with the SL MoS2. This process is of key importance for optoelectronic applications that rely on separated free carriers rather than excitons.

20.
Langmuir ; 31(35): 9700-6, 2015 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26308879

RESUMO

We present a method for synthesizing large area epitaxial single-layer MoS2 on the Au(111) surface in ultrahigh vacuum. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction, the evolution of the growth is followed from nanoscale single-layer MoS2 islands to a continuous MoS2 layer. An exceptionally good control over the MoS2 coverage is maintained using an approach based on cycles of Mo evaporation and sulfurization to first nucleate the MoS2 nanoislands and then gradually increase their size. During this growth process the native herringbone reconstruction of Au(111) is lifted as shown by low energy electron diffraction measurements. Within the MoS2 islands, we identify domains rotated by 60° that lead to atomically sharp line defects at domain boundaries. As the MoS2 coverage approaches the limit of a complete single layer, the formation of bilayer MoS2 islands is initiated. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements of both single and bilayer MoS2 samples show a dramatic change in their band structure around the center of the Brillouin zone. Brief exposure to air after removing the MoS2 layer from vacuum is not found to affect its quality.

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