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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244480, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278535

RESUMO

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of garlic as a growth promoter in larvae of angelfish Pterophyllum scalare and its benefits during transport of juveniles of this species. The experiment was conducted in recirculation aquaculture system, consisting of 20 tanks of 40 L equipped with independent water input and output. We used 1,400 larvae distributed among five treatments, with four repetitions, which totaled 20 experimental units. The treatments were 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg of garlic extract per kilo of feed. The results showed that the inclusion of levels of garlic extract in the feed did not significantly effect the fish's development or their transport. Neither did the inclusion of levels of garlic extract affect the survival of the larvae during the trial period. New research with extracts of higher dosages should be performed to elucidate the effect of garlic extract as a growth promoter.


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades do alho como promotor de crescimento em larvas de acará bandeira Pterophyllum scalare e seus benefícios no transporte de juvenis da mesma espécie. O experimento foi conduzido em sistema de recirculação composto por 20 aquários de 40 L de volume útil, dotado de entrada e saída de água independentes e teve a duração de 40 dias. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, totalizando 20 unidades experimentais. Foram utilizadas 1.400 larvas de acará bandeira (Pterophyllum scalare) divididas entre os tratamentos. Os tratamentos consistiram em: 0, 50, 100, 200 e 400 mg de extrato de alho por quilo de ração. Os resultados mostraram que não houve efeito significativo dos níveis de inclusão do extrato do alho sobre os índices zootécnicos avaliados e posteriormente no transporte dos juvenis. Também não foi observado influência na sobrevivência das larvas durante o período experimental. Novas pesquisas com dosagens maiores de extratos devem ser realizados para melhor elucidação do efeito do extrato de alho como promotor de crescimento.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e232612, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153482

RESUMO

Abstract Three experiments were done with different particle sizes of corn feed on its zootechnical performance, passing rate and apparent digestibility of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). In the first, 200 juveniles were used and distributed in 20 tanks (220 L), 10 fish per unit (four replicates). The experimental system used to record passage time was composed of five incubators with 200 L. In the second, 75 juveniles were used per 55 days (three replications). In the third, 75 juveniles were used and distributed in five incubators of 200 L. All experiments were performed randomly. Different linear behavior treatments were observed for apparent digestibility of crude protein; and the smaller particle size (150 μm) had better results digestibility. smaller particle size of the corn had better results, affected the growth performance of tambaqui and the apparent digestibility of crude protein and ether extract. Thus, is recommended that a particle size of 150 μm of corn be used for tambaqui.


Resumo Três experimentos foram realizados com diferentes tamanhos de partícula de ração para o desempenho zootécnico, taxa de aprovação e digestibilidade aparente de tambaqui juvenil (Colossoma macropomum). No primeiro, foram utilizados 200 juvenis e distribuídos em 20 tanques (220 L), 10 peixes por unidade (quatro repetições). O sistema experimental utilizado para registrar o tempo de passagem foi composto por cinco incubadoras com 200 L. No segundo, 75 juvenis foram utilizados por 55 dias (três repetições). No terceiro, 75 juvenis foram utilizados e distribuídos em cinco incubadoras de 200 L. Todos os experimentos foram realizados aleatoriamente. Diferentes tratamentos de comportamento linear foram observados para digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta; e o menor tamanho de partícula (150 μm) apresentou melhor digestibilidade dos resultados. menor tamanho de partícula do milho apresentou melhores resultados, afetou o desempenho de crescimento de tambaquis e a digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta e extrato etéreo. Portanto, recomenda-se o uso de um tamanho de partícula de 150 μm de milho para o tambaqui.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 962-968, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153436

RESUMO

Abstract The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is a fish of primary importance in South American aquaculture, principally in the Amazon region and has a particularly unique diet in the wild. Oryza spp, or Wild rice as it is commonly known, is native to the floodplains of muddy rivers in the Amazon region. The aim of this study was to analyze the physical performance and the effects of dietary levels of Oryza spp. via the hematological parameters, total food intake, conversion efficiency, growth ratio and swimming performance of this fish. Diets containing 45% Oryza spp. induced the best performance in tambaqui. Diets containing 15% and 30% did not affect these indices, thus indicating that this amount of Oryza can be used as an alternative energy source for this important species within Brazilian aquaculture.


Resumo O tambaqui Colossoma macropomum é um peixe de importância na aquicultura brasileira, especialmente na região amazônica. O arroz silvestre é comum nas planícies inundadas dos rios de aguas barrentas da Amazônia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos combinados do treinamento físico e dos níveis dietéticos de Oryza spp. nos parâmetros hematológicos, consumo de alimentos, eficiência de conversão, taxa de crescimento e desempenho de natação deste peixe. Dietas contendo 45% de arroz apresentaram o melhor desempenho para tambaquis. As dietas contendo 15% e 30% não afetaram esses índices, indicando que alguma quantidade de arroz pode ser usada como fonte de energia alternativa para esta importante espécie dentro da aquicultura.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244480, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259780

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of garlic as a growth promoter in larvae of angelfish Pterophyllum scalare and its benefits during transport of juveniles of this species. The experiment was conducted in recirculation aquaculture system, consisting of 20 tanks of 40 L equipped with independent water input and output. We used 1,400 larvae distributed among five treatments, with four repetitions, which totaled 20 experimental units. The treatments were 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg of garlic extract per kilo of feed. The results showed that the inclusion of levels of garlic extract in the feed did not significantly effect the fish's development or their transport. Neither did the inclusion of levels of garlic extract affect the survival of the larvae during the trial period. New research with extracts of higher dosages should be performed to elucidate the effect of garlic extract as a growth promoter.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Alho , Animais , Aquicultura , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e232612, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787711

RESUMO

Three experiments were done with different particle sizes of corn feed on its zootechnical performance, passing rate and apparent digestibility of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). In the first, 200 juveniles were used and distributed in 20 tanks (220 L), 10 fish per unit (four replicates). The experimental system used to record passage time was composed of five incubators with 200 L. In the second, 75 juveniles were used per 55 days (three replications). In the third, 75 juveniles were used and distributed in five incubators of 200 L. All experiments were performed randomly. Different linear behavior treatments were observed for apparent digestibility of crude protein; and the smaller particle size (150 µm) had better results digestibility. smaller particle size of the corn had better results, affected the growth performance of tambaqui and the apparent digestibility of crude protein and ether extract. Thus, is recommended that a particle size of 150 µm of corn be used for tambaqui.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Zea mays , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Tamanho da Partícula
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 62-68, Feb. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153308

RESUMO

Abstract The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the hematological variables (erythrogram, thrombogram, leukogram and plasma metabolites) of three cichlid species: Cichla monoculus, Cichla temensis and Cichla vazzoleri. A total of 45 specimens were captured in Balbina lake, Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil, with the aid of a rod and reel or hand line, with natural or artificial bait: 15 C. monoculus, 15 C. temensis and 15 C. vazzoleri. Their blood was removed by means of caudal puncture of the dorsal aorta, and hematological data were determined in accordance with methodology previously described in the literature. The erythrogram showed similarities between the species, while the thrombogram showed differences between C. vazzoleri and the other species studied (C. monoculus and C. temensis). The total leukocyte counts for C. temensis and C. vazzoleri were higher than those of C. monoculus. The predominant leukocyte in C. temensis and C. vazzoleri was lymphocytes, whereas it was monocytes in C. monoculus. The plasma metabolites showed differences between the three cichlid species, regarding their glucose, cholesterol, urea and potassium levels. It is concluded that these three species present hematological differentiation, thus indicating that they have differentiated blood-cell immune responses and plasma metabolite physiology.


Resumo O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar e comparar as variáveis hematológicas (eritrograma, trombograma, leucograma e metabólitos plasmáticos) de três espécies de tucunarés Cichla monoculus, Cichla temensis e Cichla vazzoleri. Um total de 45 animais foi capturado no lago de Balbina, Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, com auxílio de vara e carretilha, linha de mão com isca natural e artificial, sendo 15 C. monoculos, 15 C. temensis e 15 C. vazzoleri. O sangue foi retirado por punção caudal da aorta dorsal e os dados hematológicos foram determinados de acordo com metodologia previamente descrita na literatura. No eritrograma foram observadas similaridades entre as espécies, o trombograma demonstrou diferenças entre o C. vazzoleri e as demais espécies estudadas (C. monoculus e C. temensis), a contagem total de leucócitos demonstrou que em C. temensis e C. vazzoleri os valores são superiores ao C. monoculus. Foi demonstrado que os linfócitos foram às células predominantes em C. temensis e C. vazzoleri, diferentemente do C. monoculos que apresentou como leucócito predominante os monócitos. Nos metabólitos plasmáticos, foi possível observar diferenças entre as três espécies de tucunarés nos níveis de glicose, colesterol, uréia e potássio. Conclui-se que as três espécies de tucunarés apresentam diferenciação hematológica, indicando que as mesmas possuem respostas diferenciadas, na resposta imunológica de suas células do sangue e na fisiologia dos metabólitos plasmáticos.

7.
Braz J Biol ; 81(4): 962-968, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053132

RESUMO

The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is a fish of primary importance in South American aquaculture, principally in the Amazon region and has a particularly unique diet in the wild. Oryza spp, or Wild rice as it is commonly known, is native to the floodplains of muddy rivers in the Amazon region. The aim of this study was to analyze the physical performance and the effects of dietary levels of Oryza spp. via the hematological parameters, total food intake, conversion efficiency, growth ratio and swimming performance of this fish. Diets containing 45% Oryza spp. induced the best performance in tambaqui. Diets containing 15% and 30% did not affect these indices, thus indicating that this amount of Oryza can be used as an alternative energy source for this important species within Brazilian aquaculture.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Oryza , Animais , Aquicultura , Brasil , Rios
8.
Braz J Biol ; 81(1): 62-68, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074172

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the hematological variables (erythrogram, thrombogram, leukogram and plasma metabolites) of three cichlid species: Cichla monoculus, Cichla temensis and Cichla vazzoleri. A total of 45 specimens were captured in Balbina lake, Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil, with the aid of a rod and reel or hand line, with natural or artificial bait: 15 C. monoculus, 15 C. temensis and 15 C. vazzoleri. Their blood was removed by means of caudal puncture of the dorsal aorta, and hematological data were determined in accordance with methodology previously described in the literature. The erythrogram showed similarities between the species, while the thrombogram showed differences between C. vazzoleri and the other species studied (C. monoculus and C. temensis). The total leukocyte counts for C. temensis and C. vazzoleri were higher than those of C. monoculus. The predominant leukocyte in C. temensis and C. vazzoleri was lymphocytes, whereas it was monocytes in C. monoculus. The plasma metabolites showed differences between the three cichlid species, regarding their glucose, cholesterol, urea and potassium levels. It is concluded that these three species present hematological differentiation, thus indicating that they have differentiated blood-cell immune responses and plasma metabolite physiology.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Lagos , Animais , Brasil
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 544-556, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132424

RESUMO

Abstract The Negro river basin is considered the largest area of extractive of ornamental fish in Brazil. This area has fundamental importance for the populations from the Amazon. The present study aimed to describe socioeconomic profile of ornamental fishermen known as "piabeiros" in the Municipality of Barcelos, as well as the ornamental fishery, fisheries area, target species, environments, fishing techniques, equipment, capture techniques and main difficulties faced by the current activity. This study was carried out in municipality of Barcelos, through semi - structured interviews, with artisanal ornamental fishermen (N= 89). The main families of ornamental fish caught and traded were: Characidae, Lebiasinidae, Gasteropelecidae, Cichilidae, Anostomidae, Loricaridae, Potamotrygonidae and Gymnotidae. The main catchment areas were igarapés, lakes, flooded fields, beaches, river banks and igapó forest. Rapiché was the most used equipment in the fisheries both by the fishermen of the urban areas (43.81%) and rural (41.89%). Most of the fishermen are associated with the colony of fishermen of Barcelos (Z33). The data showed that the dynamics of ornamental fishing have changed in a short time and directly affected fishermen, in addition to the low age renewal with the participation of younger fishermen, threatening the transmission of ecological knowledge to future generations. As a result, the increase of the problems related to the productive chain and absence of public power to the activity, since ornamental fishing has already been treated as one of the main economic activities more important for the local communities and for the State of Amazonas.


Resumo A bacia do rio Negro é considerada a maior área de extrativismo de peixes ornamentais do Brasil. Esta área possui importância fundamental para as populações da Amazônia. O presente estudo objetivou descrever o perfil socioeconômico de pescadores conhecidos como "piabeiros" no município de Barcelos, bem como a pesca ornamental, área de pesca, espécies-alvo, ambientes, técnicas de pesca, equipamentos, técnicas de captura e dificuldades enfrentadas nesta atividade. O estudo foi realizado por meio de entrevistas semi - estruturadas, com pescadores artesanais ornamentais (N= 89). Os dados mostram que as famílias de peixes ornamentais capturados e comercializados foram: Characidae, Lebiasinidae, Gasteropelecidae, Cichilidae, Anostomidae, Loricaridae, Potamotrygonidae e Gymnotidae. As áreas de captura descritas foram igarapés, lagos, alagados, praias, margens de rios e floresta de igapó. O Rapiché foi o equipamento mais utilizado nas pescarias tanto pelos pescadores das áreas urbanas (43,81%) como rurais (41,89%). A maioria dos pescadores está associada à colônia de pescadores de Barcelos (Z33). Os dados coletados mostraram que a dinâmica da pesca ornamental mudou em pouco tempo e afetou diretamente os pescadores. Além da baixa taxa de renovação, com a participação de pescadores mais jovens, ameaçando a transmissão de conhecimento ecológico para as gerações futuras. Como resultado, notamos o aumento dos problemas relacionados à cadeia produtiva e a ausência de poder público na atividade. A pesca ornamental já foi tratada como uma das principais atividades econômicas para as comunidades locais e para o Estado do Amazonas.

10.
Braz J Biol ; 80(3): 544-556, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596358

RESUMO

The Negro river basin is considered the largest area of extractive of ornamental fish in Brazil. This area has fundamental importance for the populations from the Amazon. The present study aimed to describe socioeconomic profile of ornamental fishermen known as "piabeiros" in the Municipality of Barcelos, as well as the ornamental fishery, fisheries area, target species, environments, fishing techniques, equipment, capture techniques and main difficulties faced by the current activity. This study was carried out in municipality of Barcelos, through semi - structured interviews, with artisanal ornamental fishermen (N= 89). The main families of ornamental fish caught and traded were: Characidae, Lebiasinidae, Gasteropelecidae, Cichilidae, Anostomidae, Loricaridae, Potamotrygonidae and Gymnotidae. The main catchment areas were igarapés, lakes, flooded fields, beaches, river banks and igapó forest. Rapiché was the most used equipment in the fisheries both by the fishermen of the urban areas (43.81%) and rural (41.89%). Most of the fishermen are associated with the colony of fishermen of Barcelos (Z33). The data showed that the dynamics of ornamental fishing have changed in a short time and directly affected fishermen, in addition to the low age renewal with the participation of younger fishermen, threatening the transmission of ecological knowledge to future generations. As a result, the increase of the problems related to the productive chain and absence of public power to the activity, since ornamental fishing has already been treated as one of the main economic activities more important for the local communities and for the State of Amazonas.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Animais , Brasil , Humanos , Rios , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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